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Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Systems publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Electric Power Engineering Education Resources 2005–2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society Committee Report. The Power Engineering Education Committee (PEEC) Task Force on Educational Resources

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (12405 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This report is based on a survey of power engineering education resources in the U.S. and Canada similar to 12 earlier such efforts. This survey is conducted to determine the electric power engineering education resources available in Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET)-accredited engineering programs in the U.S. and Canada for the 2005-2006 academic year. The report is limited to colleges and universities that replied to a questionnaire on a voluntary basis. For the 125 colleges and universities (115 U.S., 10 Canadian) that submitted data on their power programs, the report contains a list of faculty active during the 2005-2006 academic year with academic participation and professional experience, each school's research area and funding levels, Ph.D. and M.S. student enrollment by type of support and by domestic versus international, and each school's power course offerings with enrollments and other data. View full abstract»

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  • Forecasting the Mean and the Variance of Electricity Prices in Deregulated Markets

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 25 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fundamental bid-based stochastic model is presented to predict electricity hourly prices and average price in a given period. The model captures both the economic and physical aspects of the pricing process, considering two sources of uncertainty: availability of the units and demand. This work is based on three oligopoly models-Bertrand, Cournot, and supply function equilibrium (SFE) due to Rudkevich, Duckworth, and Rosen-and obtains closed form expressions for expected value and variance of electricity hourly prices and average price. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the number of firms, anticipated peak demand, and price elasticity of demand. The results show that as the number of firms in the market decreases, the expected values of prices increase by a significant amount. Variances for the Cournot model also increase, but the variances for the SFE model decrease, taking even smaller values than Bertrand's. Thus, if the Rudkevich model is an accurate representation of the electricity market, the results show that an introduction of competition may decrease the expected value of prices but the variances may actually increase. Finally, using a refinement of the model, it has been demonstrated that an accurate temperature forecast can reduce significantly the prediction error of the electricity prices. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Power Flow Subject to Security Constraints Solved With a Particle Swarm Optimizer

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 33 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (481 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel approach to solve an optimal power flow problem with embedded security constraints (OPF-SC), represented by a mixture of continuous and discrete control variables, where the major aim is to minimize the total operating cost, taking into account both operating security constraints and system capacity requirements. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with reconstruction operators (PSO-RO) has been used as the optimization tool. Such operators guarantee searching the optimal solution within the feasible space, reducing the computation time and improving the quality of the solution. Results on systems from the specialized literature are adopted to validate the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Approach to Grid Operation With Phase Shifting Transformers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 41 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analytical expressions are derived to gain insight in the operating principles of phase shifting transformers (PSTs) in a highly meshed grid. To this extent, the dc load flow algorithm is adapted to account for such devices. This leads to a linear expression for the relation between PST settings and the active power flow in the lines. Based on these equations, the total transfer capacity (TTC) can be described mathematically, which allows for optimization. Furthermore, the linear least squares method is used to distribute a cross-border transport evenly over the interconnectors. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to Multidimensional Financial Transmission Rights

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 47 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (261 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces the concept of multidimensional financial transmission right (MDFTR) which is a generalized group financial transmission right (FTR) concept. An MDFTR allows its owner to hold a total FTR amount over a path group along with multiple choices to distribute this grouped amount among the individual grouping paths. This added flexibility provides forward-market participants with a useful support to overcome the congestion price risk that originates from the uncertainty in their transaction paths. All the fundamental issues regarding the implementation of MDFTRs are addressed in detail in this paper. The practical utility of MDFTRs is judged by analyzing their costs. It is shown with illustration that an MDFTR may be more cost-effective than any given portfolio of individual FTRs that has the ability to give the same risk-hedging benefit. View full abstract»

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  • Cost-Benefit Reflective Distribution Charging Methodology

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 58 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the principle and implementation of a new MW+MVAr-Miles charging methodology, which was developed to reflect three key cost drivers in distribution network development: the distance used to support nodal real and reactive power injection/withdrawal; the degree of support offered by the network assets; and the operating condition of the supporting assets in terms of their power factors. The inclusion of the latter driver allows the developed charging methodology to reward network users who are contributing to better power factors and better network utilization, while penalizing customers who worsen power factors and network utilization. As a consequence, the charging model is able to provide forward-looking incentives for network customers to behave in a manner to better the network condition, which will in turn help to reduce the cost of future network development. In addition, the separation of real and reactive power pricing would give network users clear indications of the cost of their reactive power draw from the network, which in turn could help them to evaluate the economics in investing in reactive power compensation devices. The proposed charging methodology is demonstrated on a practical eight-busbar distribution system with a mixed demand and embedded generation (EG). This paper results from work undertaken in a project on distribution charging methodologies for Western Power Distribution. The views in this paper expressed are not those of Western Power Distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of the Transformer Tap-Ratio Control on the Electricity Market Equilibrium

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 65 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the primal-dual nonlinear interior point method has been used as a basis for the derivation of a novel supply function equilibrium (SFE) algorithm for modeling the strategic interactions in the electricity market, using the ac network model, which incorporates modeling of the transformer tap-ratio control. The algorithm is used to investigate the impact of transformer tap-ratio control on the electricity market equilibrium and the effect of the interactions between network constraints and transformer tap-ratio control. The interior point social welfare optimization problem is combined with the optimization problem for maximizing the profit of each strategic generating firm in the market. The final combined single-level SFE problem is solved iteratively based on solution techniques of the interior point method. Numerical examples illustrate the effect of network constraints and especially the impact of transformer tap-ratio control on market equilibrium. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing Identified Parameters of Measurement-Based Composite Load Model

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 76 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A load model is one of the most important elements in power system simulation and control. Recently, the constant impedance, constant current, and constant power load in combination with the induction motor load have been widely used as the composite load model, whose parameters are all identified from the field measurements in measurement-based load modeling practices so far. However, there is virtually no research conducted on whether all these parameters could really be identified. This paper investigates the possibility on reducing the number of composite load model parameters to be identified from field measurements. This paper first shows that direct application of the IEEE load motor parameters in the composite load model may be inadequate on describing the load dynamics over different operating status. Then the perturbation method is used to derive the trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent motor parameters, based on which the reduction on the identified parameters of the composite load model is presented. Two cases of measurement-based load modeling in North China and Northeast China are studied to illustrate the validity of the reduction method. It is shown that the reduction does not lose the model's capability on describing the load dynamics. The reduction on the number of identified parameters not only provides a possible way to solve the multi-valued load model problem based on the current practices on measurement-based load modeling, but it also facilitates building of the load model with more components included in it. Meanwhile, reducing the identified parameters reduces the identification time; thus, the proposed strategy significantly enhances the efficiency of the load modeling work. View full abstract»

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  • Latency Viewed as a Stochastic Process and its Impact on Wide Area Power System Control Signals

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 84 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method of calculating the communication delay (latency) for measurements and control signals in a power system is shown. The basis of the calculation is a dedicated communication channel for control signals. The time delay calculation is examined using a dynamic equivalent of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council transmission system. The impact on control system response is discussed. The application given is a wide area control system for interarea mode damping. Results demonstrate that control signal latency can degrade the performance of controls in a wide area control system. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Response of an Incinerator Plant by Considering Boiler Model With Dynamic Steam Variation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 92 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the effect of boiler steam system on transient response of turbine generators for an incinerator plant. By performing the test of cogeneration units, the mathematical models of turbine generator, governor, and boiler have been identified, which are used in the computer simulation to solve the steam pressure and system frequency of the cogeneration system for islanding operation after tie line tripping. Due to the variation of trash heat value, the power output of the cogeneration unit is stochastically varied with the steam generation for normal operation, which will cause the dynamic change of tie line power flows. For the severe fault contingency of external power systems, the cogeneration system will be isolated by tie line tripping, and the system frequency response is then determined by including the boiler effect to represent the dynamic steam generation. Because of more sluggish response of the boiler system caused by unstable trash heat value, the transient response of the incinerator governor system is inferior to that of conventional industrial cogeneration systems. To maintain the system stability for successful islanding operation of the incinerator plant, the amount of load shedding after tie line tripping has to be properly determined based on the transient stability analysis by considering the response of boiler system. View full abstract»

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  • Design a Fuzzy Controller to Minimize the Effect of HVDC Commutation Failure on Power System

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 100 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Commutation failure, which is a very frequent dynamic event in HVDC inverters, can deteriorate the availability of HVDC links and thus affect the performance of the power system. Most commutation failures are caused by voltage reduction due to ac system faults. In this paper, efforts are made to lower the effect of commutation failure on the power system, and the remedy is implemented in a fuzzy controller. In order to achieve control flexibility, the output of the fuzzy controller is made appropriate by setting a self-adjusting proportional factor. The validity and effectiveness of the fuzzy controller is verified by simulation which shows that the fuzzy controller can decrease commutation failure frequency induced by ac system faults. View full abstract»

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  • Overview and Comparative Analysis of Gas Turbine Models for System Stability Studies

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 108 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Gas turbines have become increasingly popular in the different power systems, due to their lower greenhouse emission as well as the higher efficiency, especially when connected in a combined cycle setup. With increasing installations of gas turbines scheduled in different countries, the dynamics of the gas turbines become increasingly more important. In order to study such dynamics, accurate models of gas turbines are needed. This paper presents a comparative analysis and an overview of various models of gas turbines published in different literature. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of Network Configuration in Large Distribution Systems Using Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 119 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (502 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optimization of network configuration involving the switch statuses is important for the operation in the distribution system. This paper presents a network configuration optimization approach based on the plant growth simulation algorithm (PGSA), which is specially suited to large-scale distribution systems. An elegant design method of the decision variables, which describes the radial feature of the distribution network and considerably reduces the dimension of the variables in the solved model, is developed. Moreover, a detailed description on switch states further improves the efficiency of calculation. The main advantage of the proposed approach in relation to previously published random algorithms is that it does not require any external parameters such as barrier factors, crossover rate, mutation rate, etc. These parameters are hard to be effectively determined in advance and affect the searching performance of the algorithm. The proposed approach is applied to a 33-bus sample system and a large-scale real system. The best solutions of the two systems, which were published in the technical literature, have been found in shorter time than the existing random algorithms. The numerical results demonstrate well the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • GENCO's Risk-Based Maintenance Outage Scheduling

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 127 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a stochastic model for the optimal risk-based generation maintenance outage scheduling based on hourly price-based unit commitment in a generation company (GENCO). Such maintenance outage schedules will be submitted by GENCOs to the ISO for approval before implementation. The objective of a GENCO is to consider financial risks when scheduling its midterm maintenance outages. The GENCO also coordinates its proposed outage scheduling with short-term unit commitment for maximizing payoffs. The proposed model is a stochastic mixed integer linear program in which random hourly prices of energy, ancillary services, and fuel are modeled as scenarios in the Monte Carlo method. Financial risks associated with price uncertainty are considered by applying expected downside risks which are incorporated explicitly as constraints. This paper shows that GENCOs could decrease financial risks by adjusting expected payoffs. Illustrative examples show the calculation of GENCO's midterm generation maintenance schedule, risk level, hourly unit commitment, and hourly dispatch for bidding into energy and ancillary services markets. View full abstract»

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  • A Procurement Market Model for Reactive Power Services Considering System Security

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 137 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a two-level framework for the operation of a competitive market for reactive power ancillary services. It is argued that the first-level, i.e., reactive power procurement, be on a seasonal basis while the second-level, i.e., reactive power dispatch, be close to real-time operation. To this effect, a reactive power procurement market model is proposed here taking into consideration system security aspects. This procurement procedure is based on a two-step optimization model. First, the marginal benefits of reactive power supply from each provider with respect to system security are obtained by solving an optimal power flow (OPF) that maximizes system loadability subject to transmission security constraints imposed by voltage limits, thermal limits, and stability limits. Second, the selected set of generators is then determined by solving an OPF-based auction to maximize a societal advantage function comprising generators' offers and their corresponding marginal benefits with respect to system security, considering all transmission system constraints. The proposed procedure yields the selected set of generators and zonal price components, which would form the basis for seasonal contracts between the system operator and the selected reactive power service providers. View full abstract»

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  • Impacts of Wind Power Minute-to-Minute Variations on Power System Operation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 150 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, minute-to-minute wind power variations are decomposed into slow, fast, and ramp components to assess the influence of each component on power system operation. Using detailed, long-term simulation models, this paper confirms that most power systems can absorb the impacts of wind power variations with little difficulty. Yet, since ramps in wind power and system demand could coincide, systems with limited ramping capabilities are at risk. It is shown that extending simulation models to include load dynamics and automatic generation control (AGC) time delays do not alter these conclusions. This paper also discusses wind penetration approaches and control area performance measures, linking the latter to the placement of the wind farms within the interconnection. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Optimization for Power Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 161 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (279 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In distribution systems, network reconfiguration and capacitor control, generally, are used to reduce real power losses and to improve voltage profiles. Since both capacitor control and network reconfiguration belong to the complicated combinatorial optimization problems, it is hard to combine them efficiently for better optimization results. In this paper, a joint optimization algorithm of combining network reconfiguration and capacitor control is proposed for loss reduction in distribution systems. To achieve high performance and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm, an improved adaptive genetic algorithm (IAGA) is developed to optimize capacitor switching, and a simplified branch exchange algorithm is developed to find the optimal network structure for each genetic instance at each iteration of capacitor optimization algorithm. The solution algorithm has been implemented into a software package and tested on a 119-bus distribution system with very promising results. View full abstract»

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  • An Unfixed Piecewise-Optimal Reactive Power-Flow Model and its Algorithm for AC-DC Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 170 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel AC-DC optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) model with the generator capability limits is proposed. The objective is to minimize the total cost of generator reactive and active power outputs paid by an independent transmission company. In the model, the generator operation area is divided into four parts with each one having a different reactive output cost function. The boundaries between the four parts change with operation states of generators and are unfixed. The model is an unfixed piecewise mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A heuristic approach is introduced into the interior point method to solve the unfixed piecewise problem. The numerical results of six test systems that range in size from 14 to 2572 buses demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • A Hybrid Current-Power Optimal Power Flow Technique

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 177 - 185
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (751 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An equivalent current injection (ECI)-based hybrid current-power optimal power flow (OPF) model is proposed in this paper, and the predictor-corrector interior point algorithm (PCIPA) is tailored to fit the OPF for solving nonlinear programming (NLP) problems. The proposed method can further decompose into two subproblems. The computational results of IEEE 9 to 300 buses have shown that the proposed algorithms can enhance the performance in terms of the number of iterations, memory storages, and CPU times. View full abstract»

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  • Radial Network Reconfiguration Using Genetic Algorithm Based on the Matroid Theory

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 186 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1042 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with distribution network (DN) reconfiguration for loss minimization. To solve this combinatorial problem, a genetic algorithm (GA) is considered. In order to enhance its ability to explore the solution space, efficient genetic operators are developed. After a survey of the existing DN topology description methods, a theoretical approach based on the graph and matroid theories (graphic matroid in particular) is considered. These concepts are used in order to propose new intelligent and effective GA operators for efficient mutation and crossover well dedicated to the DN reconfiguration problem. All resulting individuals after GA operators are claimed to be feasible (radial) configurations. Moreover, the presented approach is valid for planar or nonplanar DN graph topologies and avoids tedious mesh checks for the topology constraint validation. The proposed method is finally compared to some previous topology coding techniques used by other authors. The results show smaller or at least equal power losses with considerably less computation effort. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Area Power Generation Dispatch in Competitive Markets

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 196 - 203
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In competitive electric energy markets, the power generation dispatch optimization is one of the most important missions among generation companies-how to respond to the markets, dispatch their units, and maximize profits. This paper proposes an approach to incorporate power contracts, which include call and put options, forward contracts, and reliability must-run contracts, into multi-area unit commitment and economic dispatch solutions. The proposed solution algorithm is based on adaptive Lagrangian relaxation, unit decommitment, and lambda-iteration methods. The problem formulation consists of three stages: 1) the incorporation of the power contracts, 2) the multi-area unit commitment, and 3) the multi-area economic dispatch. The proposed algorithm has been successfully implemented, and its testing results on modified IEEE test cases are promising. View full abstract»

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  • Regional Approaches to Measurement and Verification of Load Management Programs

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 204 - 212
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional measurement and verification for non-interval metered, direct load control (DLC) programs bidding into wholesale electricity markets usually requires a PURPA-compliant load research study. This requirement contributes to high operating costs and has been a factor in recent reductions in the amount of emergency demand response available to regional transmission system operators. This paper describes a collaborative effort by PJM members to determine whether regional modeling using pooled historical data could satisfy DLC measurement and verification (M&V) requirements without sacrificing estimation accuracy. This paper also describes how PJM incorporated the regional "deemed savings estimates" into its Load Data Systems Manual. This paper concludes that regional approaches to M&V could yield large cost savings for DLC resource providers around the country. View full abstract»

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  • The Fuzzy Power Flow Revisited

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 213 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The idea behind the first proposal of the fuzzy power flow (FPF) was to analyze the impact of the uncertainties in load and generation at the power flow level, when no statistical information is available. Further development of the field addressed the optimal power flow problem and the use of fuzzy methodologies to help planners of the composite generation-transmission system. In a market environment, transmission system adequacy may be defined as the ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the transmission of electricity. The starting point of this paper is that FPF can be used as a tool to quantify this adequacy, without the need of making too many assumptions about load and generation uncertainties. However, some changes in the basic concept of the FPF are needed in order to accomplish this task - part of this paper is devoted to the description of the adequate formulation. We will also show that this formulation can be used both in the normal operation situation and in the reliability evaluation of the transmission system. An illustrative example completes this paper. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Covers the requirements, planning, analysis, reliability, operation, and economics of electric generating, transmission, and distribution systems for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption.

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Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Conejo
The Ohio State University