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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • A 0–55-GHz Coplanar Waveguide to Coplanar Strip Transition

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1017 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A broadband coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip (CPS) transmission line transition directly integrated with an RF microelectromechanical systems reconfigurable multiband antenna is presented in this paper. This transition design exhibits very good performance up to 55 GHz, and uses a minimum number of dissimilar transmission line sections and wire bonds, achieving a low-loss and low-cost balancing solution to feed planar antenna designs. The transition design methodology that was followed is described and measurement results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Large-Signal Shot-Noise Model for HBTs

    Page(s): 7 - 14
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    A new description of the shot noise in HBTs is proposed that accounts for the correlation of the sources. It can easily be included in large-signal models, thus significantly improving the RF noise description. Common nonlinear bipolar transistor models thus far neglect the correlation, which deteriorates the model accuracy towards higher frequencies. It is shown that the collector delay in InGaP/GaAs HBTs dominates the shot noise correlation. Hence, the collector time-delay description of the large-signal model is capable of providing suitable noise correlation time constants. The model is verified against measurements of InGaP/GaAs HBTs with three different epitaxial layer designs. View full abstract»

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  • Design Considerations on the Minimum Size of Broadband Antennas for UWB Applications

    Page(s): 15 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1089 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The practical realization of Chu's minimum-sized antenna is investigated using self-complementary antennas. Rigorous bandwidth formulas for broadband antennas are derived for broadband antennas based on Chu's fundamental mode equivalent circuit. By comparing input impedances and radiation patterns, the fabricated self-complementary antenna used for Japan's ultra-wideband higher band (7.25-10.25 GHz) is found approximated by the minimum-sized antenna. Using the rigorous bandwidth formulas above, the fabricated antenna is shown to be smaller than the minimum-sized antenna. This breakthrough is achieved by using a more complicated matching circuit for broadband antennas instead of the single-stage inductor used in bandwidth estimation with the Q factor. View full abstract»

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  • A Highly Compact Active Wideband Balun With Impedance Transformation in SiGe BiCMOS

    Page(s): 22 - 30
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    A new conveyor-based single-ended to differential balun is proposed. Thanks to the quasi-absence of passive components, this is an extremely size-efficient balun (0.036 ). The use of a new impedance-matching technique makes this balun the first transistor-based solution with controllable port impedances. Fabricated in a 0.35-mum SiGe BiCMOS technology with fT=45 GHz, the balun shows the following performance: wideband impedance matching at all three ports, good balance between the two outputs (better than 3 dB in amplitude and 13deg in phase) over frequency bands extending from 0 to 3 GHz, linear operation for powers up to input powers of -2 dBm, and stability against temperature and process variations. View full abstract»

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  • A Two-Point Modulation Technique for CMOS Power Amplifier in Polar Transmitter Architecture

    Page(s): 31 - 38
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    A two-point modulation technique is presented that improves the performance of nonlinear power amplifiers (PAs) in polar transmitters. In this scheme, the output amplitude modulation is performed by controlling the current of the PA. The current control technique enables the PA to provide wideband amplitude modulation, as well as high power control dynamic range. In addition, the supply voltage of the PA is adjusted based on the output power level. The voltage supply adjustment substantially improves the effective power efficiency of the PA. The voltage supply control is performed using a second-order sigma-delta dc-dc converter, which presents an efficiency of over 95% in its operational range. The PA operates at 900 MHz with maximum output power of 27.8 dBm and power efficiency of 34% at maximum output power. The proposed PA achieves 62-dB power control dynamic range with amplitude modulation bandwidth of over 17.1 MHz. The circuits are fabricated in a CMOS 0.18 mum process with a 3.3-V power supply. View full abstract»

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  • A 1-V 9.7-mW CMOS Frequency Synthesizer for IEEE 802.11a Transceivers

    Page(s): 39 - 48
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    A 1-V CMOS frequency synthesizer is proposed for wireless local area network 802.11a transceivers using a novel transformer-feedback voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) for low voltage and a stacked frequency divider for low power. Implemented in a 0.18-mum CMOS process and operated at 1-V supply, the VCO measures a phase noise of -140.5 dBc at an offset of 20 MHz with a center frequency of 4.26 GHz and a power consumption of 5.17 mW. Its tuning range is as wide as 920 MHz (23%). By integrating the VCO into a frequency synthesizer, a phase noise of -140.1 dBc/Hz at an offset of 20 MHz is measured at a center frequency of 4.26 GHz. Its output frequency can be changed from 4.112 to 4.352 GHz by switching the 3-bit modulus of the programmable divider. The synthesizer consumes only 9.7 mW and occupies a chip area of 1.28 mm2. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid Simulation of Linear PBG Microstrip Structures Using the Rayleigh Multipole Method

    Page(s): 49 - 55
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    An efficient technique is developed for the simulation of scattering parameters and band structure of linear microstrip structures possessing periodically modulated substrate permittivity. By assuming perfect magnetic conductor boundaries on the microstrip edges, analysis may be performed in two dimensions where the problem is readily modeled as a stack of diffraction gratings. This formulation permits the application of fast diffraction grating algorithms such as the Rayleigh multipole method. The advantageous speed of this approach over conventional simulation methods has been exploited to obtain device parameters that maximize the bandwidth of the stopband. The design was constructed to confirm the simulated performance. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Active Receiving Patch With Resistive Equalization

    Page(s): 56 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The active integrated antenna (AIA) concept has been applied to design a broadband receiver front-end. A design procedure for active broadband patch antennas based on resistive equalization is presented. The use of the AIA has allowed the design of efficient RF front-ends by increasing its effective gain, noise figure, and merit . In addition to improving the classical parameters, the resistive equalization technique allows enlarging the bandwidths of the active antenna parameters versus the corresponding ones in passive antennas. A receiving patch antenna (with one amplifying stage) with a measured noise figure lower than 0.6 dB in a bandwidth over 38% and an effective gain improvement of 13 dB over the corresponding passive antenna has been achieved. The -parameter has also been measured for both the active and passive antenna, resulting in a relative planar of 16 dB/K, with a ripple of 0.5 dB, over a 30% bandwidth for the active antenna versus a of 22 dB/K for a typical front-end with a passive antenna over 20% bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-Selective Predistortion Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers

    Page(s): 65 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a frequency-selective RF vector predistortion linearization system for RF multicarrier power amplifiers (PAs) affected by strong differential memory effects. Differential memory effects can be revealed in two-tone experiment by the divergence for increasing tone-spacing of the vector Volterra coefficients associated with the lower and upper intermodulations tones. Using large-signal vector measurement with a large-signal network analyzer, a class-AB LDMOS RF PA is demonstrated to exhibit a strong differential memory effect for modulation bandwidth above 0.3 MHz. New frequency-selective RF and baseband predistortion linearization algorithms are proposed to separately address the linearization requirements of the interband and inband intermodulation products of both the lower and upper sidebands. Theoretical verification of the algorithms are demonstrated with Matlab simulations using a Volterra/Wiener PA model with memory effects. The baseband linearization algorithm is next implemented in a field-programmable gate array and experimentally investigated for the linearization of the class-AB LDMOS PA for two carrier wideband code-division multiple-access signals. The ability of the algorithm to selectively linearize the two interband and four inband intermodulation products is demonstrated. Adjacent channel leakage ratio of up to 45 dBc for inband and interband are demonstrated experimentally at twice the typical fractional bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • A Highly Efficient and Linear Class-AB/F Power Amplifier for Multimode Operation

    Page(s): 77 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2718 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The class-AB/F power amplifier (PA), a multimode PA, which can operate at both class-AB and class-F modes, is analyzed and compared with the conventional class-F and class-AB PAs. The open-circuited third harmonic control circuit enhances the efficiency of the PA without deteriorating the linearity of class-AB mode of the PA. The voltage and current waveforms are simulated to evaluate the appropriate operation for the modes. To demonstrate the multimode PA, the PA is implemented using an InGaP/GaAs HBT process and it is tested with reverse-link IS-95A code division multiple access (CDMA) and PCS1900 global system for mobile communications signals in the personal communications service band. The class-AB operation for a CDMA signal delivers a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 38.9% and an adjacent channel power ratio of 49.5 and 56.5 dBc at the offset of 1.25 and 2.25 MHz, respectively, at the output power of 28 dBm. The maximum PAE of 64.7% under the class-F operation is measured at 32.5-dBm output power for a GSM signal. The class-AB/F PA is a good candidate for the multimode PA of next-generation wireless communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Experiments of Compact Folded Substrate-Integrated Waveguide

    Page(s): 88 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The novel folded substrate-integrated waveguide (FSIW) is 50% narrower than the substrate-integrated waveguide, but both have similar propagation characteristics. This paper derives the analytical formulas of propagation and cutoff characteristics of the FSIW, as well as the formulas to calculate the width and gap of the central metal septum. Very good agreements (<2% error) are observed among the results of the theoretical formulas, numerical simulations, and hardware experiments over wide frequency and parameter ranges. View full abstract»

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  • Stability and Accuracy of a Finite-Difference Time-Domain Scheme for Modeling Double-Negative Media With High-Order Rational Constitutive Parameters

    Page(s): 94 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces an extension of the original finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling double-negative media characterized by high-order frequency-dependent permittivity and permeability. The approach basically consists of adding electric and magnetic current densities to Maxwell's curl equations and considering Ohm's law as a constitutive relationship. Current densities are discretized by using a weighted average in time and Ohm's law by applying the Mobius transformation technique. The extended FDTD formulation is validated and its numerical features are carefully examined. More specifically, analytical stability conditions are derived for several types of double-negative media and the numerical dissipation issue is discussed. In addition, the numerical dispersion equation for general high-order double-negative media is given and the order of accuracy of the scheme is studied. Finally, the definition of numerical refractive index is addressed and it is shown that, when the discretization parameters of the problem are not properly chosen, a negative refractive index may become a positive one in the discrete world, thus changing the physics of the problem. View full abstract»

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  • Certified Computation of Optimal Multiband Filtering Functions

    Page(s): 105 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of computing multiband filtering characteristics with a guarantee on their global optimality with respect to a Zolotarev-like criterion. An iterative algorithm based on linear programming is presented. This algorithm ensures quadratic convergence to the optimal solution. We also provide an equiripple-like criterion that allows one to check in a very simple manner whether a computed filtering function is optimal or not. The latter is used to analyze two practical design examples based on asymmetric dual-band specifications. In particular, it is shown that the selectivity of the dual-band response does not necessarily increase with the filter's order. This study yields some striking results when compared to the usual single-band situation, and introduces the idea that for certain asymmetric specifications some of the filter order values are more suitable than others. Finally, the practical implementations of the filtering devices in inline dual-mode cavities and stacked single-mode cavities are detailed. View full abstract»

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  • Mixed Finite-Element Time-Domain Method for Transient Maxwell Equations in Doubly Dispersive Media

    Page(s): 113 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a mixed finite-element time-domain algorithm to solve transient Maxwell equations in inhomogeneous and doubly dispersive linear media where both the permittivity and permeability are functions of frequency. The mixed finite-element time-domain algorithm is based on the simultaneous use of both electric and magnetic field as state variables with a mix of edge (Whitney 1-form) and face (Whitney 2-form) elements for discretization of the coupled first-order Maxwell curl equations. The constitutive relations are decoupled from the curl equations and cast in terms of (auxiliary) ordinary differential equations involving time derivatives. Permittivity and permeability dispersion models considered here are quite general and recover Lorentz, Debye, and Drude models as special cases. The present finite-element time-domain algorithm also incorporates the perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary conditions in a natural way. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Full-Wave Analysis of Multilayer Interconnection Structures Using a Novel Domain Decomposition–Model-Order Reduction Method

    Page(s): 121 - 130
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    A novel domain decomposition-model-order reduction method is proposed for efficient full-wave finite-element analysis of multilayer interconnection structures. By considering the special properties of a multilayer structure, the field at each nonmetallic interface (via-holes or other apertures) can be approximated with a modal expansion to establish a boundary condition and decompose the entire computational domain into separate layers. The coupling between each dielectric layer is taken into account through a mode-matching process. To further speed up the computation in each layer, the solution space projection, which is a multipoint model-order reduction method, is integrated into the aforementioned domain decomposition method to form a complete solution algorithm. With the aid of reduced-order models, the domain decomposition process at each frequency is accelerated and a fast broadband analysis is achieved. This domain decomposition-model-order reduction method, called approximate modal interface-solution space projection, is implemented using the finite-element method and validated through several examples, which demonstrate the efficiency of the method in both the computation time and memory usage. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Implementation of the Spatial Images Technique for the Analysis of Shielded Multilayered Printed Circuits

    Page(s): 131 - 141
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    In this paper, a practical implementation of the spatial images technique for the analysis of shielded multilayered printed circuits inside convex cavities is proposed. A new method is introduced in order to automatically locate the images surrounding the structure in order to impose the appropriate boundary conditions for the potentials. The boundary conditions are imposed at discrete points along the cavity wall and, therefore, the technique proposed is an approximation to the exact cavity modeling. Furthermore, for the analysis of electrically long cavities, the use of several rings of images surrounding the entire cavity at different heights is employed. Using the special features of the formulation, a new method of moments implementation combined with the spatial images technique is proposed in order to efficiently analyze practical multilayered printed filters, considerably reducing the computational cost. Several examples with CPU time comparisons are provided, demonstrating the accuracy and efficiency of the new technique. A novel transversal filter in a trapezium-shaped cavity is designed, manufactured, and tested for the first time using the spatial images technique. View full abstract»

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  • Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cross-Coupled Filter With Negative Coupling Structure

    Page(s): 142 - 149
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    Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology provides an attractive solution to the integration of planar and nonplanar circuits by using a planar circuit fabrication process. However, it is usually difficult to implement the negative coupling structure required for the design of compact canonical folded elliptic or quasi-elliptic cross-coupled bandpass filter on the basis of a single-layer SIW. In this paper, a special planar negative coupling scheme including a magnetic coupling post-wall iris and a balanced microstrip line with a pair of metallic via-holes is studied in detail. Two -band fourth-degree cross-coupled bandpass filters without and with source-load coupling using the negative coupling structures are then proposed and designed. The two novel SIW filters having the same center frequency of 20.5 GHz and respective passband width of 700 and 800 MHz are implemented on a single-layer Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 substrate with thickness of 0.508 mm. Measured results of those filters, which exhibit a high selectivity, and a minimum in-band insertion loss of approximately 0.9 and 1.0 dB, respectively, agree well with simulated results. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filters Using Stub-Loaded Open-Loop Resonators

    Page(s): 150 - 155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, open-loop resonators loaded by shunt open stubs are proposed to design compact dual-band bandpass filters with improved out-of-band rejection characteristics. The second passband of the dual-band filter is obtained by tuning higher resonant modes of the open-loop resonator by the stub length and position. A tapped-line input/output feed structure is used for external coupling. Required external coupling is obtained by adjusting the tapping position and dimension of the stub-loaded resonator. A lossless transmission line model is used to determine the resonance properties of the resonator and the external quality factor. Theoretical predictions are verified by the experimental results of three dual-band filters. View full abstract»

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  • Quarter-Wavelength Side-Coupled Ring Resonator for Bandpass Filters

    Page(s): 156 - 162
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    This paper deals with a dual-mode ring resonator fed by quarter-wavelength side-coupled lines. The resonator synthesis was developed so as to fix the central frequency, bandwidth, and transmission zeros frequencies, as well as the insertion loss in the passband. Based on this resonator, several bandpass filters were designed, which include the cascaded rings and the combination of such ring resonator with coupled line sections. Simulations are proposed throughout the paper to illustrate the various possibilities offered by the concept. The filters' experimental results in microstrip technology are also presented to validate the idea. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design Procedure of Transmission-Line Transformers

    Page(s): 163 - 171
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    Transmission-line transformers are devices used to match RF and microwave devices, to make the conversion balanced-unbalanced, or both things simultaneously. Transmission-line transformers are mandatory at frequencies where traditional magnetic coupling transformers do not operate properly. In this paper, a procedure to design transmission-line transformers with different configurations is presented. The procedure is based on the theoretical analysis of the device and has been validated via experimental study. View full abstract»

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  • A Broadband Planar Magic-T Using Microstrip–Slotline Transitions

    Page(s): 172 - 177
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    The improved version of a broadband planar magic-T using microstrip-slotline transitions is presented. The design implements a small microstrip-slotline tee junction with minimum size slotline terminations to reduce radiation loss. A multisection impedance transformation network is used to increase the operating bandwidth and minimize the parasitic coupling around the microstrip-slotline tee junction. As a result, the improved magic-T has greater bandwidth and lower phase imbalance at the sum and difference ports than the earlier magic-T design. The experimental results show that the 10-GHz magic-T provides more than 70% of 1-dB operating bandwidth with the average in-band insertion loss of less than 0.6 dB. It also has phase and amplitude imbalance of less than plusmn1deg and plusmn0.25 dB, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Modeling of Hybrid Planar-Type Electromagnetic-Bandgap Structures and Feasibility Study on Power Distribution Network Applications

    Page(s): 178 - 186
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    A unified 1D analysis model of hybrid planar-type electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structures is developed. Based on the analysis results, three types of hybrid design methods to reduce the cutoff frequency of the EBG structures are discussed, and design equations for their noise suppression bandwidths are derived. In order to simulate switching noise characteristics of the hybrid planar-type EBG structures, 2D circuit level models are developed and experimentally verified. With the developed circuit-level models and CMOS active switching devices, feasibility studies on the power distribution network design using the hybrid EBG structures are conducted. The hybrid EBG structure with series lumped chip inductors shows efficient noise suppression characteristics in both the frequency and time domains; however, it has potential limitations because of its generation of higher switching noise voltages depending on power supply connection configurations. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Triple-Passband Microwave Filters Using Frequency Transformations

    Page(s): 187 - 193
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a synthesis method for triple-passband microwave filters. A frequency transformation is developed for finding the locations of poles and zeros of the triple-passband filter. The poles and zeros obtained as such are optimized to achieve a transfer function with a reduced number of transmission zeros in order to reduce the number of cross-couplings. Six- and 12-pole triple-passband filters are synthesized for validation of this proposed method. A 12-pole triple-passband filter is fabricated with a microstripline structure and shown to provide good agreement between synthesis and measurement results. Finally, the frequency transformation for asymmetric triple-passband filters is briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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