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Intelligent Systems, IEEE

Issue 6 • Date Nov.-Dec. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c2
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  • Reinventing Academic Publishing, Part 2

    Page(s): 2 - 3
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  • In the News

    Page(s): 4 - 7
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  • Semantic Web Services, Part 2

    Page(s): 8 - 15
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    In part 2 of this Trends & Controversies installment, we continue exploring the state of the art, current practices, and future directions for Semantic Web services. SWS aims to bring Semantic Web technology - for representing, sharing, and reasoning about knowledge - to bear in Web service contexts. The objective is to enable a fuller, more flexible automation of service provision and use and the construction of more powerful tools and methodologies for working with services. View full abstract»

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  • Selecting Scientific Papers for Publication via Citation Auctions

    Page(s): 16 - 20
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    The scientific community has been suffering from peer review for decades. This process (also called refereeing) subjects an author's scientific work or ideas to the scrutiny of one or more experts in the field. Publishers use it to select and screen manuscript submissions, and funding agencies use it to award research funds. The goal is to get authors to meet their discipline's standards and thus achieve scientific objectivity. Publications and awards that haven't undergone peer review are often regarded with suspicion by scholars and professionals in many fields. However, peer review, although universally used, has many drawbacks. We propose replacing peer review with an auction-based approach: the better the submitted paper, the more scientific currency the author likely bid to have it published. If the bid correctly reflects the paper's quality, the author is rewarded in this new scientific currency; otherwise, the author loses this currency. We argue that citations are an appropriate currency for all scientists. We believe that citation auctions encourage scientists to better control their submissions' quality. It also inspire them to prepare more exciting talks for accepted papers and to invite discussion of their results at congresses and conferences and among their colleagues. In the long run, citation auctions could have the power to greatly improve scientific research. View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: Argumentation Technology

    Page(s): 21 - 23
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    This introduction to the special issue on argumentation technology discusses argumentation's role in modern computing. It also identifies the challenges that the community must meet before it can achieve widespread deployment of argumentation technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Computing Arguments and Attacks in Assumption-Based Argumentation

    Page(s): 24 - 33
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    Most computational frameworks for argumentation are based on abstract argumentation, which determines an argument's acceptability on the basis of its ability to counterattack all arguments attacking it. However, this view of argumentation doesn't address how to find arguments, identify attacks, and exploit premises. Assumption-based argumentation addresses these three issues. It's a refinement of abstract argumentation but remains general purpose, nonetheless. Rather than considering arguments to be a primitive concept, assumption-based argumentation defines them as backward deductions (using sets of rules in an underlying logic) supported by sets of assumptions. This approach reduces the notion of an attack against an argument to that of deduction of a contrary of an assumption. View full abstract»

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  • Argumentation-Based Inference and Decision Making--A Medical Perspective

    Page(s): 34 - 41
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    The argumentation services platform with integrated components (Aspic) project aims to provide advanced argumentation-based computational capabilities. Argumentation is a potentially important paradigm for developing commercial and public services that are flexible and easily understood by human users. View full abstract»

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  • Portia: A User-Adapted Persuasion System in the Healthy-Eating Domain

    Page(s): 42 - 51
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    Our eating habits, an essential component of our well-being, are molded by cultural, psychological, and educational factors. These habits solidify over time and are difficult to modify. The information media are masters in employing tricky arguments to persuade people to consume products whose health benefits are doubtful. Attempting to persuade people to adopt more appropriate habits by employing only rational and scientific arguments is probably ineffective; this is one domain in which the mingling of rational and emotional strategies is justified. Of course, the persuader's arguments must be relevant and strong. This is a subjective judgment, dependent on the persuader's knowledge about the recipient and the conditions under which the message is expressed. Our prototype persuasion system is the argumentation module of a dialogue system we have developed. After the system acquires information about its users, it informs them about various eating habits' advantages and disadvantages, provides suggestions in this domain, and tries to persuade them to gradually modify problem behaviors. View full abstract»

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  • Argumentation-Based Ontology Engineering

    Page(s): 52 - 59
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    The Diligent argumentation framework helps capture design deliberations in ontology-engineering discussions. It makes consensus-building tasks more efficient and provides detailed guidance for nonexperts. The semantic Web envisions an infrastructure in which humans and machines seamlessly exchange information on the Web. During the discussions participants raise new issues or elaborate on existing ones. Once a discussion evolves, participants can group issues and act on them accordingly. View full abstract»

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  • Dialogical Argument as an Interface to Complex Debates

    Page(s): 60 - 65
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    The Magtalo prototype environment harnesses dialogue protocols to support flexible, intuitive interaction with data in complex, contentious domains and provides mechanisms for eliciting structured knowledge. Magtalo represents the first example of an implemented online system that uses a closely specified argument-based dialogue protocol combined with a rich language for representing monologic argument to provide a tool for intuitive user exploration of a disagreement space. This approach also enables the expansion of argument resources through knowledge elicitation, which is structured by the argument dialogue protocol. The continuing aim of our research is to use advances in argumentation theory to push the practice of argumentation technology in providing tools and interfaces that have wide appeal. View full abstract»

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  • Argumentation in the Semantic Web

    Page(s): 66 - 74
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    In this article, we define ArgSciFF, a prototype operational argumentation framework to support dialogic argument exchange between Semantic Web services. ArgSciFF is based on the Sciff abductive-logic programming (ALP) framework. (Sciff is an abbreviation for "IFF with constraints for agent societies," referring to the "if and only if' proof procedure developed by Tze Ho Fung and Robert Kowal-ski.) In ArgSciFF, an intelligent agent can interact with a Web service and reason from the interaction result. The reasoning semantics is an argumentation semantics that views the interaction as a dialogue. The dialogue lets two parties exchange arguments and attack, challenge, and justify them on the basis of their knowledge. This format has the potential to overcome a well-known barrier to human users' adoption of IT solutions because it permits interaction that includes justified answers that can be reasoned about and rebutted. View full abstract»

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  • An Argumentation Framework for Communities of Web Services

    Page(s): 75 - 83
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    As the number of Web services continues to increase, so does the opportunities to compose them to build more complex and complete business solutions. To facilitate and speed up Web-services discovery, Web services with similar (or equivalent) functionalities - such as flight booking and travel reservation - can be grouped into communities. Argumentation theory, implemented through a set of software agents that reason about Web services, can improve Web services performance through the notion of communities. View full abstract»

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  • Argumentation-Based Agent Interaction in an Ambient-Intelligence Context

    Page(s): 84 - 93
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    A multiagent system uses argumentation-based interaction in an ambient-intelligence context to provide services for people with different combinations of impairments. This paper focuses on ambient intelligence system of agents for knowledge-based and integrated services for mobility-impaired users integrated projectpsilas (ASK-ITIP) furthered the challenge by aiming to support users having different types and combinations of impairments. ASK-ITIP use of argumentation to model a distributed decision-making process for a coalition of assistant agents, each an expert on a different impairment. When a user suffers from a combination of impairments, these agents engage in an argumentation-based dialogue to agree on the user's needs. We found that applying argumentation was natural in this context because, generally speaking, we can abstractly define argumentation as the principled interaction of different, potentially conflicting arguments to obtain a consistent conclusion. Moreover, argumentation-based interaction is combined with a standardized interaction type based on the foundation for intelligent physical agents interaction protocol. View full abstract»

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  • What Makes You Think That? The Semantic Web's Proof Layer

    Page(s): 94 - 99
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    In this column, the author raised the conceptual question of the Semantic Web layer cake's proof layer. He believe that provenance knowledge will be increasingly important at this abstraction level - and possibly the key to establishing trust mechanisms and advanced retrieval methods in decentralized applications. Work on Semantic Web provenance issues has started in parallel in different communities in the last decade. However, it's still far from being complete. Understanding provenance knowledge as a first-class citizen of distributed semantic workflows, knowledge bases, and inferencing and retrieval mechanisms will require further convergence of different viewpoints, standardization for seamless interoperability, and possibly new linking and querying methods for user-oriented navigation in the "Web of provenance". View full abstract»

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  • Machine Learning Tools for Automatic Mapping of Martian Landforms

    Page(s): 100 - 106
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    Automated or semiautomated tools for Martian data analysis can substantially broaden the scope of scientific inquiry. Recognizing this opportunity, we've undertaken research to apply pattern-recognition and machine-learning tools to automatic analysis and characterization of the Mars surface. This research includes machine surveys of specific Iandforms, such as impact craters and valley networks, and automatic generation of geomorphic maps. A geomorphic map is a thematic map of topographical expressions or landforms. Machine learning can play a vital role in automating this mapping process. A learning system can employ clustering techniques to fully automate the discovery of meaningful landform classes. A clustering tool based on unsupervised learning offers maximum automation for geomorphic mapping. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Computer Society Membership

    Page(s): 107
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  • Flexecution, Part 2: Understanding and Supporting Flexible Execution

    Page(s): 108 - 112
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    For pt.1 see ibid G. Klein, vol.22, no.5, p.79-83 (2007). This article is about planning and execution with ill-defined and conflicting goals. These essays aim to describe the insights of researchers in AI and cognitive systems engineering to a wider audience and to broaden efforts in supporting flexible execution with ill-defined goals. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Intelligent Systems 2007 Annual Index, Volume 22

    Page(s): i1 - i8
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  • Build Your Career [advertisement]

    Page(s): c3
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  • Intelligent Systems Subscription Advertisement

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Intelligent Systems serves users, managers, developers, researchers, and purchasers who are interested in intelligent systems and artificial intelligence, with particular emphasis on applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Daniel Zeng
University of Arizona