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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Afterpulsing Effects in Free-Running InGaAsP Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate large-area (80 mum diameter) InP-based single-photon avalanche diodes for Geiger-mode operation at 1.06 mum with dark count rates of ~1000 Hz at high detection efficiencies of 30% at 237 K, as well as simulations of dark count rate and detection efficiency that provide good agreement with measured data. Experimental results obtained using free-running operation illustrate the strong impact of afterpulsing effects for short (~200 ns) hold-off times. We present an analysis of these free-running results that quantifies the contribution of afterpulsing to the total count rate. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of the Intrinsic Linewidth of Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Hidden Reason for the Narrow Linewidth and Line-Broadening by Thermal Photons

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 12 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (782 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a theory of the intrinsic linewidths of laser output of single-mode quantum-cascade (QC) lasers in mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) ranges. In the theoretical treatment, the concept of an effective coupling efficiency of spontaneous emission, given by a fractional rate of spontaneous emission coupled into a lasing mode to total nonlasing relaxation, is introduced to clarify a hidden reason for the narrowness of the linewidths. A narrow linewidth (12-kHz) reported with a frequency-stabilized 8.5- distributed-feedback QC laser is successfully interpreted in terms of an extremely small effective coupling efficiency of spontaneous emission, caused by ultrafast nonradiative scatterings. The present theory predicts the presence of a minimum ldquolinewidth floorrdquo in a high-injection-current region and the independence of linewidth on detuning between gain-peak and emission wavelengths. The theoretical treatment is expanded to derive the further modified Schawlow-Townes formula including the line-broadening by black body radiation in a THz QC laser. The linewidth of a THz QC laser is predicted to be considerably broadened by black body radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Low-Frequency Modulation on Polarization Switching of VCSELs Subject to Optical Feedback

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 30 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of low-frequency modulation on the polarization switching (PS) properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) under optical feedback has been investigated experimentally. The current modulation frequency has a large impact on the PS of VCSELs even in the low-frequency range between 1 and 100 kHz. Thermal effects play an important role in this phenomenon. View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance Bound-to-Continuum Quantum-Cascade Lasers for Broad-Gain Applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 36 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the bound-to-continuum active region design, we shall present a high performance continuous-wave (CW) quantum-cascade laser. In contrast to high performance lasers based on a two-phonon resonance transition and a narrow linewidth (< 165 cm-1), the device presented here exhibits a spontaneous emission full-width at half-maximum as large as 295 cm-1. Thus, such devices are very suitable for broadband tuning. At 30degC, it shows a maximum output power and slope efficiency of 188 mW and 500 mW/A, as well as a threshold current density of only 1.79 kA/cm2. Furthermore, at this temperature, the device demonstrates an internal differential quantum efficiency of 71% and a wall plug efficiency of 2.0%. The maximum CW operation temperature reached is 110degC. A thermal resistance of 4.3 K/W was attained by epi-down mounting on diamond submounts. The waveguide losses of 14 cm-1 are explained by intersubband absorption in addition to free-carrier absorption. View full abstract»

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  • Bistability and Switching Properties of Semiconductor Ring Lasers With External Optical Injection

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 41 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the switching, locking and stability properties of a bistable semiconductor ring laser subject to an external optical injection. Minimum optical power required for the injected signal at certain frequency to switch the lasing direction of a bistable semiconductor ring laser from its initially lasing direction to initially nonlasing direction is determined. Locking to the injected signal and stability of the switched laser are investigated to give an area of reliable switching operation. Correspondingly, numerical simulation has been carried out to find successful switching and stable locking region with variable injection power and frequency, and is compared with the analytical results. The region obtained from simulation coincides well with the intersection of switching, locking and stable locking regions. The relation between switching speed and parameters of injected source is also studied numerically. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Laser Thermally Tunable by a Filter Composed of Two Sagnac Interferometers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 49 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many applications, such as fiber Bragg grating characterization, wavelength division multiplexing, etc. require tunable laser sources with one emission line in a certain wavelength range. Generally, such sources are laser systems combined with tunable filters. In this work an all-fiber laser tunable by a filter composed of two Sagnac interferometers in series is described. The filter loops were constructed of high birefringence fibers (HiBiFi) and the filter was thermally tunable with a single transmission maximum in the Erbium gain spectrum. The results showed that for interferometers with 14 cm HiBiFi length a bandwidth reduction of the transmission peak, a single-line laser emission, a tuning sensitivity of approx. -0.8 nm/degC and a spectral full-width at half-maximum bandwidth of 0.03 nm in the range of 1538-1580 nm were obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Full-Vectorial Optical Waveguide Mode Solvers Using Multidomain Pseudospectral Frequency-Domain (PSFD) Formulations

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 56 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1086 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New full-vectorial optical waveguide eigenmode solvers using pseudospectral frequency-domain (PSFD) formulations for optical waveguides with arbitrary step-index profile are presented. Both Legendre and Chebyshev collocation methods are considered in the formulation. By applying Legendre-Lagrange or Chebyshev-Lagrange interpolating polynomials to the approximation of spatial derivatives at collocation points, the Helmholtz equations for the transverse-electric or transverse-magnetic components are converted into a matrix eigenvalue equation which is then solved for the eigenmodes by the shift inverse power method. Suitable multidomain division of the computational domain is arranged to deal with general curved interfaces of the refractive-index profile together with a curvilinear mapping technique for each subdomain so that field continuity conditions can be carefully imposed across the dielectric interfaces, which is essential in achieving high numerical accuracy. The solver is applied to the optical fiber for the assessment of its numerical performance, to the classical benchmark rib waveguide for comparing with existing high-accuracy results, and to the fused fiber structure for demonstrating its robustness in calculating the form birefingence. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Investigation of Metal Cladding for Nanowire and Cylindrical Micropost Lasers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 67 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the transverse modal properties of cylindrical subwavelength metal-clad nanowire and micropost lasers via rigorous theoretical waveguide analysis, including the effects of finite thickness metal cladding and gain in the core. The results of this analysis show that air-metal surface guided TM01 and some hybrid surface guided modes suffer less loss but are less confined to the core, while core-metal surface guided modes are better confined to the core but suffer greater loss. An increase in the thickness of the metal cladding reduces the loss of the core-metal surface guided modes. The modal gain and confinement of the metal-clad cavity are compared to an unclad cavity. View full abstract»

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  • High Quality Direct Photo-Patterned Microdisk Lasers With Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 75 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A direct photo-patterned microdisk-on-chip technique is used to fabricate 2-D microdisk lasers with various shapes. High-Q morphology-dependent resonances (including whispering gallery modes and four bouncing reflection modes) laser emissions from RhB-doped circular and square-shaped microdisks are observed. A thin polymer cladding on the microdisk is found to obviously smooth the disk sidewall. As a result, lowered lasing threshold, increased Q-value as high as 12000 and efficient suppression of h igh-order modes are realized. Lasing from square-shaped microcavities shows closed and open orbit resonances separately at different emission directions. View full abstract»

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  • Finite Beams in Reflective Volume Bragg Gratings: Theory and Experiments

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 81 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (787 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a theoretical model to describe finite beams incident on reflective volume Bragg gratings. We also give experimental results that verify our model. From these results, we identify certain properties of reflective volume Bragg gratings, such as beam waist, incidence angle and beam profile, that have direct impact on the design of laser cavities that include such gratings. We also show how these gratings can act as spatial mode filters. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Response Enhancement of Optical Injection-Locked Lasers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 90 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The modulation response of injection-locked lasers has been carefully analyzed, theoretically and experimentally, with a focus on the strong optical injection regime. We derive closed-form solutions to the relaxation oscillation (resonance) frequency and damping term, as well as the low-frequency damping term, and discuss design rules for maximizing resonance frequency and broadband performance. A phasor model is described in order to better explain the enhancement of the resonance frequency. Experimental curves match closely to theory. Record resonance frequency of 72 GHz and broadband results are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Dual Waveguide Coupled Microring Resonator Sensor Based on Intensity Detection

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 100 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper systematically analyzes the device sensitivity of a dual waveguide coupled microring resonator sensor based on intensity detection. The relation between the device sensitivity and transmission coefficient, coupling coefficient, and operating wavelength has been derived and simulated, showing that the sensitivity can be enhanced by proper adjustment of the coupling coefficient and the operating wavelength. The explicit expressions of optimal self coupling coefficient t and operating wavelength are derived, serving as the basis for design and optimization. Simulations performed based on the experimental data lead to much smaller detection limit in terms of the effective index change deltaneef. With a 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio measurement system, the optimized deltaneef reaches ~10-7 for both structures in this study, two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous results, f n conjunction with the analysis of the waveguide sensitivity, design guidelines are generalized and presented. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to “CW Gain Characteristics of Linear Optical Amplifiers” [Aug 07 714-721]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB)  

    In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 714-721, Aug 07), equation (3) was left out of the final printing. The equation and accompanying text are provided here. Also, in Fig. 4-6, the horizontal position should be in centimeters instead of microns. The corrected figured are presented here. View full abstract»

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  • Slow light and its applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 199 - 200
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (31 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University