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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 9 • Date December 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications - December

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Communications Society

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c2
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  • Advances in Peer-to-Peer Streaming Systems [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1609 - 1611
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Characterizing Peer-to-Peer Streaming Flows

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1612 - 1626
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fundamental advantage of peer-to-peer (P2P) multimedia streaming applications is to leverage peer upload capacities to minimize bandwidth costs on dedicated streaming servers. The available bandwidth among peers is of pivotal importance to P2P streaming applications, especially as the number of peers in the streaming session reaches a very large scale. In this paper, we utilize more than 230 GB of traces collected from a commercial P2P streaming system, UUSee, over a four-month period of time. With such traces, we seek to thoroughly understand and characterize the achievable bandwidth of streaming flows among peers in large-scale real-world P2P live streaming sessions, in order to derive useful insights towards the improvement of current-generation P2P streaming protocols, such as peer selection. Using continuous traces over a long period of time, we explore evolutionary properties of inter-peer bandwidth. Focusing on representative snapshots of the entire topology at specific times, we investigate distributions of inter-peer bandwidth in various peer ISP/area/type categories, and statistically test and model the deciding factors that cause the variance of such inter-peer bandwidth. Our original discoveries in this study include: (1) The ISPs that peers belong to are more correlated to inter-peer bandwidth than their geographic locations; (2) There exist excellent linear correlations between peer last-mile bandwidth availability and inter-peer bandwidth within the same ISP, and between a subset of ISPs as well; and (3) The evolution of inter-peer bandwidth between two ISPs exhibits daily variation patterns. Based on these insights, we design a throughput expectation index that facilitates high-bandwidth peer selection without performing any measurements. View full abstract»

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  • An Empirical Study of the Coolstreaming+ System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1627 - 1639
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in adopting the peer-to-peer (P2P) technology for Internet live video streaming. There are primarily two reasons behind this development: the elimination of infrastructure support and the self-scaling property of P2P systems. The success of our system Coolstreaming represented one of the earliest large-scale P2P video streaming experiments. Since then, there have been several large-scale commercial deployments. With desirable content, these systems have the potential to scale orders of magnitude beyond the existing academic P2P prototypes. However, to transform this potential into reality, we need to understand the key design trade-offs and principles, as well as the design limitations of these systems. There are two main design decisions in a P2P streaming system: (i) How to form an overlay, and (ii) How to deliver the content. Coolstreaming adopts a gossiping protocol for overlay construction, and a swarm-based protocol for content delivery. While these protocols provide excellent flexibility and effectiveness in dealing with system dynamics and random failure, their impact on the performance and the system scalability remain less known. This paper takes an inside look at a commercial system based on the Coolstreaming, called Coolstreaming+. We explore its design choices and the impact of these choices on streaming performance. Specifically, by using internal traces generated by recent live broadcast events, we study the workload, performance, and dynamics of the system. Based on these traces, we show that (1) the churn is the most critical factor that affects the overall performance of the system, and (2) there is a highly skew resource distribution in P2P streaming systems, which has significant impact on resource allocation. We further discuss the impact of these observations on the system properties, and present solutions to deal with various design challenges. In particular, we suggest solutions to deal wit- - h the excessive start-up time and high failure rates during flash crowd, which are two of the main challenges any streaming system needs to address. View full abstract»

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  • Inferring Network-Wide Quality in P2P Live Streaming Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1640 - 1654
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1087 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores how to remotely monitor network-wide quality in mesh-pull P2P live streaming systems. Peers in such systems advertise to each other buffer maps which summarize the chunks of the video stream that they currently have cached and make available for sharing. We demonstrate how buffer maps can be exploited to monitor network-wide quality. We show that the information provided in a peer's advertised buffer map correlates with that peer's viewing-continuity and startup latency. Given this correlation, we remotely harvest buffer maps from many peers and then process these buffer maps to estimate the video playback quality. We apply this methodology to a popular P2P live streaming system, namely, PPLive. To harvest buffer maps, we build a buffer-map crawler and also deploy passive sniffing nodes. We process the harvested buffer maps and present results for network-wide playback continuity, startup latency, playback lags among peers, and chunk propagation patterns. The results show that this methodology can provide reasonably accurate estimates of ongoing video playback quality throughout the network. View full abstract»

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  • R2: Random Push with Random Network Coding in Live Peer-to-Peer Streaming

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1655 - 1666
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In information theory, it has been shown that network coding can effectively improve the throughput of multicast communication sessions in directed acyclic graphs. More practically, random network coding is also instrumental towards improving the downloading performance in BitTorrent-like peer-to-peer content distribution sessions. Live peer-to-peer streaming, however, poses unique challenges to the use of network coding, due to its strict timing and bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we revisit the complete spectrum in the design space of live peer-to-peer streaming protocols, with a sole objective of taking full advantage of random network coding. We present R2, our new streaming algorithm designed from scratch to incorporate random network coding with a randomized push algorithm. R2 is designed to improve the performance of live streaming in terms of initial buffering delays, resilience to peer dynamics, as well as reduced bandwidth costs on dedicated streaming servers, all of which are beyond the basic requirement of stable streaming playback. On an experimental testbed consisting of dozens of dual-CPU cluster servers, we thoroughly evaluate R2 with an actual implementation, real network traffic, and emulated peer upload capacities, in comparisons with a typical live streaming protocol (both without and with network coding), representing the current state-of-the-art in real-world streaming applications. View full abstract»

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  • Graph Based Analysis of Mesh Overlay Streaming Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1667 - 1677
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies fundamental properties of stream-based content distribution services. We assume the presence of an overlay network (such as those built by P2P systems) with limited degree of connectivity, and we develop a mathematical model that captures the essential features of overlay-based streaming protocols and systems. The methodology is based on stochastic graph theory, and models the streaming system as a stochastic process, whose characteristics are related to the streaming protocol. The model captures the elementary properties of the streaming system such as the number of active connections, the different play-out delay of nodes, and the probability of not receiving the stream due to node failures/misbehavior. Besides the static properties, the model is able to capture the transient behavior of the distribution graphs, i.e., the evolution of the structure over time, for instance in the initial phase of the distribution process. Contributions of this paper include a detailed definition of the methodology, its comparison with other analytical approaches and with simulative results, and a discussion of the additional insights enabled by this methodology. Results show that mesh based architectures are able to provide bounds on the receiving delay and maintain rate fluctuations due to system dynamics very low. Additionally, given the tight relationship between the stochastic process and the properties of the distribution protocol, this methodology gives basic guidelines for the design of such protocols and systems. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding the Power of Pull-Based Streaming Protocol: Can We Do Better?

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1678 - 1694
    Cited by:  Papers (75)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the real deployed peer-to-peer streaming systems adopt pull-based streaming protocol. In this paper, we demonstrate that, besides simplicity and robustness, with proper parameter settings, when the server bandwidth is above several times of the raw streaming rate, which is reasonable for practical live streaming system, simple pull-based P2P streaming protocol is nearly optimal in terms of peer upload capacity utilization and system throughput even without intelligent scheduling and bandwidth measurement. We also indicate that whether this near optimality can be achieved depends on the parameters in pull-based protocol, server bandwidth and group size. Then we present our mathematical analysis to gain deeper insight in this characteristic of pull-based streaming protocol. On the other hand, the optimality of pull-based protocol comes from a cost -tradeoff between control overhead and delay, that is, the protocol has either large control overhead or large delay. To break the tradeoff, we propose a pull-push hybrid protocol. The basic idea is to consider pull-based protocol as a highly efficient bandwidth-aware multicast routing protocol and push down packets along the trees formed by pull-based protocol. Both simulation and real-world experiment show that this protocol is not only even more effective in throughput than pull-based protocol but also has far lower delay and much smaller overhead. And to achieve near optimality in peer capacity utilization without churn, the server bandwidth needed can be further relaxed. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is fully implemented in our deployed GridMedia system and has the record to support over 220,000 users simultaneously online. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of Resilient Overlay Multicast Approaches

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1695 - 1705
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Overlay-based multicast has been proposed as a key alternative for large-scale group communication. There is ample motivation for such an approach, as it delivers the scalability advantages of multicast while avoiding the deployment issues of a network-level solution. As multicast functionality is pushed to autonomous, unpredictable end systems, however, significant performance loss can result from their higher degree of transiency when compared to routers. Consequently, a number of techniques have recently been proposed to improve overlays' resilience by exploiting path diversity and minimizing node dependencies. Delivering high application performance at relatively low costs and under high degree of transiency has proven to be a difficult task. Each of the proposed resilient techniques comes with a different trade-off in terms of delivery ratio, end-to-end latency and additional network traffic. In this paper, we review some of these approaches and evaluate their effectiveness by contrasting the performance and associated cost of representative protocols through simulation and wide area experimentation. View full abstract»

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  • Push-to-Peer Video-on-Demand System: Design and Evaluation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1706 - 1716
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose Push-to-Peer, a peer-to-peer system to cooperatively stream video. The main departure from previous work is that content is proactively pushed to peers, and persistently stored before the actual peer-to-peer transfers. The initial content placement increases content availability and improves the use of peer uplink bandwidth. Our specific contributions are: (i) content placement and associated pull policies that allow the optimal use of uplink bandwidth; (ii) performance analysis of such policies in controlled environments such as DSL networks under ISP control; (iii) a distributed load balancing strategy for selection of serving peers. View full abstract»

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  • VMesh: Distributed Segment Storage for Peer-to-Peer Interactive Video Streaming

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1717 - 1731
    Cited by:  Papers (59)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Provisioning random access functions in peer-to-peer on-demand video streaming is challenging, due to not only the asynchronous user interactivity but also the unpredictability of group dynamics. In this paper, we propose VMesh, a distributed peer-to-peer video-on-demand (VoD) streaming scheme which efficiently supports random seeking functionality. In VMesh, videos are divided into segments and stored at peers' local storage in a distributed manner. An overlay mesh is built upon peers to support random forward/backward seek, pause and restart during playback. Our scheme takes advantage of the large aggregate storage capacity of peers to improve the segment supply so as to support efficient interactive commands in a scalable manner. Unlike previous work based on "cache-and-relay" mechanism, in our scheme, user interactivity such as random seeking performed by a peer does not break the connections between it and its children, and hence our scheme achieves better playback continuity. Through simulation, we show that our system achieves low startup and seeking latency under random user interactivity and peer join/leave which is a crucial requirement in an interactive VoD system. View full abstract»

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  • Enabling Confidentiality of Data Delivery in an Overlay Broadcasting System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1732 - 1744
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    In this paper, we present an extensive study of key dissemination schemes in an overlay multicast context, and the first to involve actual implementation, real traces, and performance in Internet environments. Given that rekey traffic has stronger resilience requirements and is burstier than data traffic, we consider whether data and keys must be distributed using the same overlay or using two separate dissemination structures. Our key findings are: (i) a coupled architecture is effective in achieving resilient key dissemination. Using TCP in each hop of the dissemination structure (an opportunity unique to overlays) is effective in achieving resiliency in end-to-end key delivery. The performance can be further enhanced if convergence properties of overlays are considered; and (ii) a coupled architecture optimized for data delivery has high overheads, while a coupled architecture optimized for key delivery may not honor access bandwidth constraints of nodes. Distributing data and keys using separate overlays achieves low overhead for key dissemination while honoring access bandwidth constraints of nodes. View full abstract»

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  • Peer to Peer Networks for Defense Against Internet Worms

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1745 - 1752
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Internet worms, which spread in computer networks without human mediation, pose a severe threat to computer systems today. The rate of propagation of worms has been measured to be extremely high and they can infect a large fraction of their potential hosts in a short time. We study two different methods of patch dissemination to combat the spread of worms. We first show that using a fixed number of patch servers performs inadequately against Internet worms. We then show that by exploiting the exponential data dissemination capability of P2P systems, the spread of worms can be halted effectively. We compare the two methods by using fluid models to compute two quantities of interest: the time taken to effectively combat the progress of the worm, and the maximum number of infected hosts. We validate our models using simulations. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Communications Society 2007 Board of Governors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c3
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  • Upcoming issues of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT