Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2007
Table of contentsPage(s): C1 - C4| | PDF (138 KB)
IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience publication informationPage(s): C2| | PDF (40 KB)
Special Section on Nanoparticles and QDs in NanobiomedicinePage(s): 261| | PDF (22 KB)
Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication PrinciplesPage(s): 262 - 269
Nuclear Localization of HIV-1 Tat Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles
Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles
"Nuclear Localization of HIV-1 Tat Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles"
C.C. Berry, J.M. de la Fuente, M. Mullin, S.W.L. Chu, and A.S.G. Curtis,
in the IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, Vol. 6, Issue 4, 2007
After careful and considered review of the content and authorship of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles. The paper contains an unreferenced figure from the paper cited below. Figure 3a and 3b from the original paper were reused as Figure 7c and 7d without attribution (including appropriate references to the original author(s) and/or paper title) and without permission.
"Tat Peptide as an Efficient Molecule To Translocate Gold Nanoparticles into the Cell Nucleus"
by Jesus M. de la Fuente and Catherine C. Berry,
in Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2005, 16 (5), ACS, pp 1176-1180
This appears as reference 22 in the paper presented here.
The panel has found for the authors' assertion that the figure was accidentally substituted during the publication process, and that the correct version of Figure 7 had been used in the refereeing process. The panel also found that whilst the reproduction represented a copyright infringement, it was of insufficient impact in the present work (particularly in light of the contained reference) to constitute a deliberate act of plagiarism.
The original version of Figure 7 is reproduced below.
The impermeable nature of the cell plasma membrane limits the therapeutic uses of many macromolecules and there is therefore a growing effort to circumvent this problem by designing strategies for targeted intracellular delivery. During the last decade several cell penetrating peptides, such as the HIV-1 tat peptide, have been shown to traverse the cell membrane, where integral protein transduction domains (PTDs) are responsible for their cellular up- ake, and to reach the nucleus while retaining biological activity. It has since been discovered that PTDs can enable the cellular delivery of conjugated biomolecules and even nanoparticles, but nuclear delivery has remained problematic. This present study focuses on the development of water soluble, biocompatible gold nanoparticles of differing size functionalized with the HIV-1 tat PTD with the aim of producing nuclear targeting agents. The particles were subsequently tested in vitro with a human fibroblast cell line, with results demonstrating successful nanoparticle transfer across the plasma membrane, with 5 nm particles achieving nuclear entry while larger 30 nm particles are retained in the cytoplasm, suggesting entry is blocked via nuclear pores dimensions. View full abstract»
Significant challenges exist in assembling and interconnecting the building blocks of a nanoscale device and being able to electronically address or measure responses at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of engineered proteins as scaffolds for bottom-up self-assembly for building nanoscale devices out of multiple components. Using genetically engineered cowpea mosaic virus, modified to express cysteine residues on the capsid exterior, gold nanoparticles were attached to the viral scaffold in a specific predetermined pattern to produce specific interparticle distances. The nanoparticles were then interconnected using thiol-terminated conjugated organic molecules, resulting in a three-dimensional network. Network properties were engineered by using molecular components with different I-V characteristics. Networks consisting of molecular wires alone were compared with networks containing voltage controlled molecular switches with two stable conductance states. Using such bistable molecules enabled the formation of switchable molecular networks that could be used in nanoscale memory circuits. View full abstract»
Magnetic nanoparticles have been used in therapeutic and diagnostic approaches in biomedicine for many years. For these applications, it is very important to investigate the nanoparticle-cell interactions. In this study we report a simple method for the preparation of gold-iron nanoparticles protected and functionalized with biologically relevant saccharides (maltose, lactose, and glucose). The nanoparticles were subsequently tested in vitro with a human fibroblast cell line to determine biocompatibility, and the cell-particle interactions, using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies. Different cellular responses were obtained for each type of glyconanoparticle, demonstrating that the cells can recognize the saccharides on the nanoparticles. View full abstract»
The hybridization of single-stranded oligonucleotide-derivatized gold nanoparticles (Au nanoprobes) with double stranded complementary DNA was directly observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This specific interaction is the basis for an Au nanoprobe-based homogeneous assay for specific DNA sequence detection, based on salt-induced particle aggregation that is prevented when a complementary target is present. For long DNA targets (linearized plasmid DNA) complicated hybridized target DNA-Au-nanoprobes structures were formed, that were interpreted as the basis for stability of the Au nanoprobes against salt-induced aggregation. For shorter DNA targets (PCR amplified fragments) hybridization with the Au nanoprobes occurred, in the majority of cases, in the expected location of the DNA target fragment containing the specific sequence. The formation of the observed DNA hybridized structures provides evidence at the molecular level for specific hybridization to the target sequence as the method of binding of the Au nanoprobes. View full abstract»
Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs): From Synthesis toPage(s): 289 - 297
In VivoStudies—A Summary of the Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro, and In VivoInvestigations of SPIONs With Particular Focus on Surface and Colloidal Properties
In this work, we present a short summary of the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their behavior in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we have used various characterization techniques to deduce the physical particle size as well as magnetic properties. It is shown that the particle properties were significantly improved by a thermochemical treatment and dialysis, obtaining weakly interacting particles with a clear blocking temperature. We also present the interaction of polyvinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol/vinyl amine copolymer-coated SPIONs with HELA cells. It is shown that the uptake increased significantly in the presence of a magnetic field and that surface functional groups had an impact on particle uptake and metabolic activity. Furthermore, the influences of the varied parameters (polymer type and therefore surface charge, cell medium, and serum) on the agglomeration rate and the cell uptake are presented and discussed. Finally, we briefly describe the intraarticular application of SPIONs in sheep, their uptake by synovial membrane, and their systemic distribution and elimination. View full abstract»
Research on nanocomposite materials aims at developing nanoscale composites with innovative optical, chemical, and magnetic properties, all combined in one single nanostructure. In this scenario, nanostructures which show simultaneously fluorescent and magnetic features are of particular interest for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In this review, we will focus our attention on magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite based on colloidal iron oxide nanocrystals combined with different classes of fluorophores which can be either organic dyes, such as fluorescents, cyanines, porphyrins, or colloidal quantum dots. We will give an overview of the preparation methods of the magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites that are now available and we will outline the most significant in vitro studies of such nanocomposites on living cells. Some examples of their applications in biology and medicine will also be discussed. View full abstract»
Glyconanoparticles which present carbohydrate and amino groups motifs at their surface were produced. These particles were highly stable and soluble in aqueous solutions. The presence of the carbohydrate groups also allowed the inclusion of more strongly binding groups, without affecting solubility. The binding of a model DNA, plasmid by these nanoparticles was studied by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Significant differences between the nanoparticles based on their affinities for the DNA were found, with implications for their potential use as nonviral gene delivery agents. View full abstract»
Gene therapy, as therapeutic treatment to genetic or acquired diseases, is attracting much interest in the research community, leading to noteworthy developments over the past two decades. Although this field is still dominated by viral vectors, nonviral vectors have recently received an ever increasing attention in order to overcome the safety problems of their viral counterpart. This review presents the biological aspects involved in the gene delivery process and explores the recent developments and achievements of nonviral gene carriers. View full abstract»
Nanotechnology is involved with the creation and/or manipulation of materials at the nanometer (nm) scale, and has arisen as a consequence of the novel properties that materials exhibit within the "nano" size range. The attraction of producing, and exploiting nanoparticles (NPs; one dimension less than 100 nm) is a consequence of the fact that the properties are often strikingly different from bulk forms composed from the same material. As a consequence, the field of nanotechnology has generated substantial interest resulting in incorporation of NPs into a wide variety of products including electronics, food, clothing, medicines, cosmetics and sporting equipment. While there is general recognition that nanotechnology has the potential to advance science, quality of life and to generate substantial financial gains, a number of reports suggest that potential toxicity should be considered in order to allow the safe and sustainable development of such products. For example, substances which are ordinarily innocuous can elicit toxicity due to the altered chemical and physical properties that become evident within nano dimensions leading to potentially detrimental consequences for the producer, consumer or environment. Research into respirable air pollution particles (PM10) has focused on the role of ultra fine particle (diameter less than 100 nm) in inducing oxidative stress leading to inflammation and resulting in exacerbation of preexisting respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found a positive correlation between the level of particulate air pollution and increased morbidity and mortality rates in both adults and children. Such studies have also identified a link between respiratory ill health and the number of ambient ultrafine particles. In vivo and in vitro toxicology studies confirm that for low solubility, low toxicity materials such as TiO2, carbon black and polystyrene beads, ultrafine particles ar- - e more toxic and inflammogenic than fine particles. In many of these studies the term "ultrafine particle" can be directly exchanged for nanoparticle, as these particles are manufactured industrially. In such studies the NPs generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a greater extent than larger particles leading to increased transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators via intracellular signaling pathways including calcium and oxidative stress. To date, only limited NP compositions and structures have been tested, including materials such as carbon, polystyrene beads and TiO2 as surrogate particles that aimed to represent particulate air pollution. All of these materials are generally low toxicity and low solubility. Much work is required to identify whether the conclusions made for such materials can be extrapolated to engineered nanoparticles varying not only in size but also, shape, composition, structure, surface area, surface coating, and aggregation state. Therefore, it is necessary to reveal if the diversity of NPs available will confer to a varied extent and mechanisms of toxicity. View full abstract»
Nanocrystal Quantum Dot-Conjugated Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibody as the Detector of Activated NeutrophilsPage(s): 341 - 345
Fluorescent nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have been applied to a wide range of biological studies by taking advantage of their fluorescence properties. Here we show that QDs conjugated with antibody against neutrophil peroxidase, myeloperoxidase (MPO). We designed a novel method to conjugate QDs to antibody without losing any antibody function including their antigen recognizing and Fc-receptor binding activities. When we applied anti-MPO antibody (Ab) with conventional organic probes in the case of immunostaining of living cells, the antibodies lost their fluorescence because of MPO enzymic activity to produce reactive oxygen species. Our QD-conjugated anti-MPO (alpha-MPO-QDs) can detect MPO on the surface of activated neutrophils. In addition, anti-MPO-QDs did not react to the inactivated neutrophils. In conclusion, we demonstrated that antibody visualized the expression of MPO on the neutrophil surface after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these techniques have the possibility that QDs can reveal the activation of neutrophils by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis as a powerful tool for diagnosis of the neutrophil activation in vitro. View full abstract»
This paper demonstrates that basic biological operations can be used to solve the set-partition problem. In order to achieve this, we propose three DNA-based algorithms, a signed parallel adder, a signed parallel subtractor and a signed parallel comparator, that formally verify our designed molecular solutions for solving the set-partition problem. View full abstract»
A high-level feedback control approach for rapid imaging in atomic force microscopy is presented. The algorithms are designed for samples which are string-like, such as biopolymers, and for boundaries. Rather than the simple raster-scan pattern, data from the microscope are used in real-time to steer the tip along the sample, drastically reducing the area to be imaged. An order-of-magnitude reduction in the time to acquire an image is possible. The technique is illustrated through simulations and through physical experiments. View full abstract»
EMBC'08Page(s): 362| | PDF (507 KB)
2007 Index IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience Vol. 6Page(s): 363 - 372| | PDF (98 KB)
IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience Information for authorsPage(s): C3| | PDF (23 KB)
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The IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience publishes basic and applied papers dealing both with engineering, physics, chemistry, modeling and computer science and with biology and medicine with respect to molecules, cells, tissues. The content of acceptable papers ranges from practical/clinical/environmental applications to formalized mathematical theory.
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