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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1567 - 1568
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (47 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2007 Reviewers List

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1569 - 1572
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Wireless Power Transmission to a Buried Sensor in Concrete

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1573 - 1577
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The feasibility of sending wireless power to a buried sensor antenna within concrete was studied. A receive patch rectenna with 75.8% conversion efficiency was designed for operation at 5.7 GHz. The received DC power at the rectenna was measured within dry and wet concrete samples with various cover thicknesses and air-gaps. For the rectenna buried within 30 mm of the concrete, the received DC power was 10.37 mW, which was about 70% of the received DC power in free-space. View full abstract»

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  • A CMOS Time-of-Flight Range Image Sensor With Gates-on-Field-Oxide Structure

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1578 - 1586
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3078 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new type of CMOS time-of-flight (TOF) range image sensor using single-layer gates on field oxide structure for photo conversion and charge transfer. This simple structure allows the realization of a dense TOF range imaging array with 1515 mum2 pixels in a standard CMOS process. Only an additional process step to create an n-type buried layer which is necessary for high-speed charge transfer is added to the fabrication process. The sensor operates based on time-delay dependent modulation of photocharge induced by back reflected infrared light pulses from an active illumination light source. To reduce the influence of background light, a small duty cycle light pulse is used and charge draining structures are included in the pixel. The TOF sensor chip fabricated measures a range resolution of 2.35 cm at 30 frames per second and an improvement to 0.74 cm at three frames per second with a pulsewidth of 100 ns. View full abstract»

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  • Sequence Specific Label-Free DNA Sensing Using Film-Bulk-Acoustic-Resonators

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1587 - 1588
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A label-free biosensor (for detection of DNA sequences) based on film-bulk-acoustic-resonator (FBAR) is presented in this letter. The FBAR's resonant frequency shifts to a lower value when a complementary single-strand DNA sequence is hybridized with a DNA probe sequence on an Au-coated FBAR surface. The sensor is capable of distinguishing a complementary DNA that is mismatched to a probe DNA by a single nucleotide. The label-free, highly sensitive and selective, and real-time detection of DNA sequence could easily be made into an array for combinatory DNA sequencing, and could possibly help geneticists to detect specific DNA sequences accurately and fast, without any expensive optical scanning or imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Proximity Coupled Interdigitated Sensors to Detect Insulation Damage in Power System Cables

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1589 - 1596
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proximity coupled interdigitated sensors are introduced to detect insulation damage in power system cables. A new empirical model for interdigitated sensors with conducting backplane is developed. The validity of this newly proposed model is verified by comparing the results obtained from the new model with simulation and experimental results. It is shown that while the existing models fail to correspond to the simulation and experimental results due to the presence of the conducting backplane, the new model can fairly approximate the effect of the backplane on the sensor performance. A meander and a quarter-circular sensor are designed for insulation damage detection. Measurement results on planar dielectric materials, as well as practical power line cables are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of these sensors. Such sensors placed on microrobots crawling along power cables could lead to the potential autonomous monitoring of an electric power system. View full abstract»

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  • Support Vector Machine Applications in Terahertz Pulsed Signals Feature Sets

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1597 - 1608
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the past decade, terahertz radiation (T-rays) have been extensively applied within the fields of industrial and biomedical imaging, owing to their noninvasive property. Support vector machine (SVM) learning algorithms are sufficiently powerful to detect patterns hidden inside noisy biomedical measurements. This paper introduces a frequency orientation component method to extract T-ray feature sets for the application of two- and multiclass classification using SVMs. Effective discriminations of ribonucleic acid (RNA) samples and various powdered substances are demonstrated. The development of this method has become important in T-ray chemical sensing and image processing, which results in enhanced detectability useful for many applications, such as quality control, security detection and clinic diagnosis. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility of a DNA-Based Combinatorial Array Recognition Surface (CARS) in a Polyacrylamide Gel Matrix

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1609 - 1616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report initial attempts at developing a self-assembled combinatorial DNA biosensor array which may be capable of binding and identifying virtually any soluble analyte that binds the array by pattern recognition, in effect making it a universal biosensor surface. Data are presented for differential binding patterns of various analytes to 1-D arrays of combinatorial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concatamer libraries which are spatially separated according to size and charge by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. These DNA concatamer libraries are essentially composed of single-stranded (ss) random DNA 60 mers, which form a ldquosmearrdquo pattern in gels following electrophoresis. When used to bind and detect various analytes or mixtures of analytes in the gel, we refer to the DNA smear as a ldquocombinatorial array recognition surfacerdquo (CARS). Differences in intrinsic fluorescence scanning patterns of CARS gel strips were compared before and after addition of various analytes to the arrays to detect binding patterns. Scans revealed a high level of reproducibility for individual CARS arrays in a given gel with or without bound analytes. Scan patterns between different CARS gel strips were initially less reproducible, but purification of the DNA library using spin columns prior to electrophoresis improved gel-to-gel reproducibility. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitive Transduction for Liquid Crystal-Based Sensors, Part I: Ordered System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1617 - 1624
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1701 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the theory for tracking the average molecular orientation of a liquid crystal (LC) material via capacitive sensing of anisotropic media is presented. The candidate LC sensor structure utilizes interdigital electrodes. Two capacitive measurements in orthogonal direction can track the director axis of nematic LC material in a homogenous ordered LC film. The sensitivity for the sensor at different alignments is studied. The candidate sensors have been fabricated and experimentally verified. Both experimental and calculated values for capacitances of selected interdigital fingers sensor structures are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Embryonic Stem Cells Biosensor and Its Application in Drug Analysis and Toxin Detection

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1625 - 1631
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To investigate the use of stem cells as biosensor elements, a novel cell-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was developed for monitoring cellular beating. Mouse embryonic stem cells were induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro. Extracellular field potentials of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes induced from stem cells were recorded by LAPS in the potential and frequency ranges of 25-45 muV and 0.5-3 Hz, respectively. Due to its capability of monitoring important physiological parameters such as potential and frequency in vitro, the sensor can be used in drug analysis and toxin detection in a long-term and noninvasive way. The pharmacological and toxicological researches make it possible to use stem cells-based biosensor for biomedical assays. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of SiO2 Microcantilever Using Isotropic Etching With ICP

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1632 - 1638
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a new design and microfabrication process for high sensing guard-armed silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) microcantilever sensor, which can be widely used in chemical, environmental and biomedical applications. One sensor platform consists of two SiO2 cantilever beams as the sensing and reference elements, two connecting wings, and three guard arms. The guard arms prevent damage to the cantilever beam from collision. To efficiently release the SiO2 cantilevers from the silicon substrate, an isotropic etch method using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was developed. The isotropic etching with ICP system provides an advantage in good profile control and high etching rate than wet isotropic etching or conventional RIE (reactive ion etching); however, it has not been gained many attentions. In this work, the effects of chamber pressure, plasma source power, substrate power, SF6 flow rate relating with Si etching rate, undercutting rate, and isotropic ratio were investigated and discussed. The optimum isotropic etching process achieved a 9.1 mum/min etch rate, 70% isotropic ratio, and 92% etching uniformity. The SiO2 cantilever sensor was fabricated and the cantilever beam was successfully released using a patterned photoresist layer as an etching mask. This plasma isotropic etching release processing can be also applied to release other SiO2 or metal suspended MEMS structures, such as bridges and membranes, with a fast etch rate and reasonable isotropic ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Zero-Rate Output and Quadrature Compensation in Vibratory MEMS Gyroscopes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1639 - 1652
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, issues related to the zero-rate output (ZRO) of a vibratory microgyroscope are studied. Different sources of the ZRO are discussed and how the effect of each source can be minimized and their stability improved is described. The effects of synchronous demodulation and electrostatic quadrature compensation performed with a dc voltage on the final ZRO are analyzed. Ways to implement the control loop for electrostatic quadrature compensation performed with a dc voltage are described, concentrating on a case where the compensation voltage is generated with a digital-to-analog converter and the controller is digital. In particular, extending the resolution with SigmaDelta techniques is studied. The experimental work shows the feasibility of the implemented quadrature compensation loop and analyzes the ZRO sources of one particular gyroscope implementation. How to perform the ZRO measurements in such a way that the various sources can be distinguished from each other is also described. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Demonstration of a Bulk Micromachined Fabry–PÉrot μg-Resolution Accelerometer

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1653 - 1662
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high resolution, passive, bulk-micromachined accelerometer based on the transmission-type intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been designed, fabricated and, for the first time, experimentally evaluated via direct inertial characterization. The device characterization includes frequency- and time-domain evaluation. The sensor characteristics of bandwidth, range, sensitivity, and resolution are obtained experimentally and the tradeoffs between these performance parameters are examined. Also, presented is the evaluation of the effects of the excitation of multiple vibration modes in such a sensor. The sensor performance is observed to have a resolution limits below a mug with a demonstrated 30 mug resolution over a sensing bandwidth greater than 2 kHz and better than 1 dynamic range. View full abstract»

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  • Multiplexing Scheme for Self-Interfering Long-Period Fiber Gratings Using a Low-Coherence Reflectometry

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1663 - 1667
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel multiplexing scheme based on a low-coherence reflectometry (LCR) is proposed for a sensing array (in parallel) of self-interfering long-period fiber gratings (SI-LPGs). Each SI-LPG sensor consists of an LPG and a section of fiber with a highly reflective end (mirror). The spectral information of each LPG is sensitive to some parameters of the surrounding measurand and can be reconstructed from the corresponding subreflectograms (obtained by the LCR) through a fast Fourier transformation. The sensing signals of multiple SI-LPG sensors can be multiplexed if the length of the fiber section in each sensor is set to a different value. Experiments of measuring the surrounding temperature at different sensors are demonstrated to show the good performance of our multiplexing system. View full abstract»

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  • Robustness and Noise Voltage Analysis in Two Photometer Circuits

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1668 - 1674
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a photometer circuit based on a robust two degrees-of-freedom controller is presented. Here, in order to improve the disturbance rejection performance of a conventional photometer circuit based on a basic current-to-voltage converter connection, a novel circuit based on both positive and negative feedback compensations was designed. The photometer circuit designed in this paper is robust against disturbances on the photodiode parameters, and the results showed that the robust photometer circuit is superior to the nonrobust one. The results were satisfactory and showed the importance of applying robust control techniques to the design of photometer circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Dissociative Gas Sensing at Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1675 - 1679
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (654 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The low- and high-temperature gas sensing behavior of hydrogenated diamond (HD) and metal oxide (MOx) materials is compared and contrasted. We present evidence that at room temperature and above both kinds of materials are coated with a thin surface electrolyte layer in which gas molecules can be adsorbed and in which adsorbed gases may undergo electrolytic dissociation. We show that both kinds of materials respond in a very similar way when exposed to acid and base vapors and that no gas response is observed otherwise. Heating beyond 200degC removes the surface electrolyte layer from both kinds of materials. Whereas at MOx surfaces, the established combustive gas sensing effect sets in, the surface conductivity and the gas sensitivity of HD samples is lost due to the disappearance of the surface transfer doping effect. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Receptor-Ligand Interactions With an GHz Impedance Biosensor System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1680 - 1684
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanogap impedance biosensors with an electrode separation of 75 nm have been used for the specific detection of biological interactions. Different model systems, such as thrombin-anti-thrombin antibody, and Rev-peptide-anti-Rev aptamer are presented to demonstrate the detectability of different molecular masses at varying concentrations. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the use of reference sensors has been explored. The interaction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) with an anti-PSA antibody is shown to demonstrate the detection at concentrations as low as 10 nM. View full abstract»

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  • Online Optical Fiber Sensor for Detecting Premature Browning in Ground Beef Using Pattern Recognition Techniques and Reflection Spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1685 - 1692
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (951 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the design of an optical fiber sensor that monitors ground beef online, as it cooks, in order to determine the quality of the meat; in particular, if premature browning has occurred. The experimental work involved cooking fresh meat and meat that has been stored in a freezer for, one week, one month and three months, and recording the reflected spectra and temperature during the cooking process in order to develop a classifier, based on pattern recognition techniques that can determine premature browning and the degree to which the meat has been cooked. A comparison of this sensor is made with traditional research methods of detecting premature browning, to demonstrate that it would be more commercially viable as an online solution. View full abstract»

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  • Parylene-Based Strain Sensors for Bone

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1693 - 1697
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel flexible implantable device to provide high-resolution mechanical strain data from a bone surface in real time. The design of the device has been verified with finite-element analysis, and a prototype has been successfully fabricated which consists of a thin-film metal gauge encapsulated between two layers of parylene-C. The prototype has been characterized simultaneously with a commercial strain gauge using tensile testing. The results indicated that the strain sensitivities of the prototype were approximately 2.5 times greater than those of commercial gauges. In addition, real-time strain data collection has been successfully demonstrated on bone surfaces with the novel devices using mechanical testing of chicken tibiae in three-point bending. View full abstract»

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  • Polymeric Sensors to Monitor Cockroach Locomotion

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1698 - 1702
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a method using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric sensor to monitor the leg movements of cockroaches. The PVDF sensor was coated with gold as electrodes. It was attached to the leg of a roach. The voltage signals generated through bending directly correlate to the movement of the legs. It was found that the output voltage was a function of the degree of sensor bending caused by the movement of leg sclerites. An ex situ motorized linear stage generated similar results. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Novel Substrate-Free Double-Layer-Cantilever FPA Applied for Uncooled Optical-Readable Infrared Imaging System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1703 - 1710
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (919 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design and performances of a novel focal-plane array (FPA) containing pixels of double bimaterial-layer cantilevers without silicon (Si) substrate for being applied in the uncooled optical-readable infrared (IR) imaging system. The top layer of the cantilever pixels is made of two materials with large mismatching thermal expansion coefficients: silicon nitride (SiNx) and gold (Au), which convert IR heat into mechanical deflection. The bottom layer is SiNx cantilever, which partially serves thermal isolation legs. The top and bottom pads form the resonant cavity, which can dramatically enhance the absorption of incident IR irradiation, and the substrate-free configuration enables reducing the loss of incident IR energy. Responding to the IR source with spectral range from 8 to 14 mum, the IR imaging system may receive an IR images through visible optical readout method. A thermal-mechanical model for such cantilever microstructure is proposed, and the thermal and thermal-mechanical coupling field characteristics of the cantilever microstructure are optimized through numerical analysis method and simulation by using the finite-element method. The thermal-mechanical deflection simulated is 7.2 mum/K, generally in good agreement with what the thermal-mechanical model and numerical analysis forecast. The analysis suggests that the detection resolution of current design is 0.03 K, whereas the noise analysis from FPA indicates the current resolution to be around 100 muK and the limit noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of the IR imaging system can reach to 7 mK. View full abstract»

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  • A Wireless Pharmaceutical Compliance Monitoring System Based on Magneto-Inductive Sensors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1711 - 1719
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a magnetic sensor-based wireless pharmaceutical compliance monitoring (PCM) system using an array of magneto-inductive sensors mounted around the patient's neck in the form of a tight necklace. This system detects the passage of a pill or capsule embedded with a small permanent magnet as a tracer through the esophagus upon ingestion. As a result, a signal representing a ldquodose ingestion eventrdquo is generated and wirelessly transmitted to a data delivery device (PDA), which is carried on the patient's body. A software application running on the PDA time/date stamps the event and stores it for later retrieval by a physician. This technology provides a safe, convenient, low-cost, and accurate detection mechanism that helps patients adhere with their prescribed medication regimens. It also helps researchers and pharmaceutical companies conduct more accurate clinical trials on new drugs. A proof-of-concept prototype system using off-the-shelf components and custom PCB has been developed and successfully tested. Preliminary results using an artificial neck showed 94.4% correct detections when the magnetic tracer passed through the detection zone and about 6% false positives for outside areas. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated Surface Micromachined Convex Microhotplate Structure for Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1720 - 1726
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the fabrication process for a novel convex microhotplate (MHP) structure using surface micromachining technology. The process is used to fabricate an integrated 4times4 tin oxide gas sensor array. Surface micro-machining is selected for its simplified process and CMOS compatibility. However, limited sacrificial layer thickness usually leads to higher power consumption. In this work, a convex MHP structure is developed to increase the thermal efficiency, which is critical for large dimension and low-power gas sensor array integration. Before the structure release process, 700degC-950degC annealing process was carried out on the 190 times190 mum2 MHP with 2.8 mum polysilicon sacrificial layer. It is shown that higher annealing temperature leads to lower tensional stress of the MHP membrane and larger curvature of the released structure, which enables higher thermal efficiency. Among the four annealing temperatures, the 950degC annealed MHP has the largest curvature of 2.438 cm-1 and the highest thermal efficiency of 13degC/mW. Experimental results showing the responses of the sensor array to different combustible gases are also illustrated in this paper. Comparison of power consumption with other designs reported in the literature illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed process. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Selective Cyanide Coated-Wire Electrode Based on a Recently Synthesized Co(II) Complex With the N,N -Bis(2-Quinolinecarboxamido)- 1,2-Benzene Applying Batch and Flow Injection Analysis Techniques

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1727 - 1734
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based coated wire electrode based on [Co(II)bqb] (bqb = N,N'-bis(2-quinolinecarboxamido)-1,2-benzene) as a novel sensing material for determination of trace amounts of cyanide ions is successfully developed. The effect of electrode substrate, membrane composition and pH of the working solution on the behavior of the sensor was investigated. The electrode was also used in flow injection potentiometry by a home-made flow cell. The electrode revealed Nernstian response towards cyanide anion over the concentration ranges 3.2times10-7 to 2.0times10-4 molldrL-1 and 5.0times10-6 to 1.0times10-3 molldrL-1 applying batch and flow injection analysis (FIA), respectively. The lower detection limits are 3.2times10-7 molldrL-1 and 5.0times10-6 molldrL-1 for batch and FIA, respectively. The electrode shows a short response time (<5 s) in the whole concentration range. The selectivity of the electrode in comparison with most of cyanide selective electrodes is high. The flow cell is simple to construct and free from memory effect problems over long periods of use. The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of cyanide in commercially available spring water under both batch and flow injection conditions. A comparative study revealed no significant difference between ASTM method and the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Electron Transfer Reactivity of Glucose Oxidase on Electrodes Modified With Zirconium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1735 - 1741
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (773 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The direct electron transfer between electrodes and glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in a matrix containing zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (ZrO2) is described. The protein-nanoparticle assembly is stabilized by charged and uncharged compounds and the direct electron transfer is enhanced. The effects of different compositions on the electrochemical parameters, formal potential, surface loading, and constant heterogeneous electron transfer rate are characterized with cyclic voltammetry. The fastest electron transfer rate with the smallest deviation of the is obtained when GOD is immobilized with ZrO2 nanoparticles, colloidal platinum and poly-Lysine (PLL). Incorporation of charged compounds for immobilization of GOD causes a larger positive shift of the formal potential. Electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements show that the GOD entrapped in ZrO2/Pt-PLL or ZrO2/Pt-PVA film retains its bioactivity efficiently and exhibits excellent electrocatalytic behavior towards glucose. No enzymatic activity of the immobilized GOD can be observed on ZrO2/DMSO and ZrO2/DDAB film. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.