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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 52
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2.65-MHz Self-Oscillating Complementary Electronic Ballast With Constant-Lamp-Current Control for a Metal Halide Lamp

    Page(s): 2097 - 2105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1899 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the 2.65-MHz self-oscillating complementary electronic ballast with a constant-lamp-current control for a metal halide lamp. In order to avoid the inherent acoustic-resonance problem of metal halide lamps, the ballast's switching-frequency level was selected to be 2.65 MHz, which satisfies higher magnitudes of maximum electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitation at frequencies of between 2.5 to 3.0 MHz, within the EMI/electromagnetic compatibility frequency range ldquochimney,rdquo for RF lighting systems. With the constant-lamp-current control scheme, the lamp current can be regulated to be less dependent on the input ac voltage. Finally, a 20-W prototype ballast is implemented to demonstrate the ability to avoid the acoustic-resonance and to provide constant levels of lamp current. View full abstract»

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  • A Semi-Theoretical Fluorescent Lamp Model for Time-Domain Transient and Steady-State Simulations

    Page(s): 2106 - 2115
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-pressure discharge lamps obey a set of physical laws that are different from those of high-pressure discharge lamps. In this paper, these differences are addressed. Based on a recently developed HID lamp model frame, a semi-theoretical fluorescent lamp model that can be determined by genetic algorithms and simple electrical measurements is presented. This model does not require any lamp data from lamp manufacturers. Its parameters can be determined from electrical voltage and current measurements of the lamps under AC operation at mains frequency. With the same set of parameters, the model can predict the lamp terminal characteristics accurately under low, medium and high frequency operations. Good simulation results were achieved when the lamp power was reduced to 60% of rated power and when the lamp was operated under step-up and step-down transient processes. Simulation results for different sizes of tubular and compact fluorescent lamps agree well with their experimental results. Particularly, the differences between simulation results and experimental results under rated power are less than 10%. Hence, the proposed model shows a good degree of accuracy: 1) for different types of fluorescent lamps; 2) at different operating frequencies; 3) under different dimming levels; and 4) during step-up and step-down transient processes. View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance Torque and Flux Control for Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motors

    Page(s): 2116 - 2123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a high-performance torque and flux control strategy for high-power induction motor drives. The control method uses the torque error to control the load angle, obtaining the appropriate flux vector trajectory from which the voltage vector is directly derived based on direct torque control principles. The voltage vector is then generated by an asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter without need of modulation and filter. Due to the high output quality of the inverter, the torque response presents nearly no ripple. In addition, switching losses are greatly reduced since 80% of the power is delivered by the high-power cell of the asymmetric inverter, which commutates at fundamental frequency. Simulation and experimental results for 81-level inverter are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Voltage DC–DC Converter With Vin/3—Voltage Stress on the Primary Switches

    Page(s): 2124 - 2137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-voltage dc-dc converter with low voltage stress on the power switches and high output current capacity is presented. This converter exhibits three distinct features. First, the voltage stress on the primary switches is only one-third of the input voltage, so that switches of low voltage rating and thus of low on-resistance can be used. This leads to reduced conduction loss. Second, all the switches are soft-switched, so that the switching loss can be reduced. Third, the rectifier is a current tripler, so that the output current capacity, and thus the power handling capacity of the converter are increased. A 5.1-kW, 1000-V/48-V dc-dc converter prototype has been built and tested. Experimental results are favorably compared with theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Switching Sequence Design for Five-Level NPC/H-Bridge Inverters With Improved Output Voltage Spectrum and Minimized Device Switching Frequency

    Page(s): 2138 - 2145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel switching sequence design for the space-vector modulation of high-power multilevel converters. The switching sequences are optimized for the improvement of harmonic spectrum and the minimization of device switching frequency. Compared to other commonly used switching sequences, the output spectrum of the proposed design shows higher inverter equivalent switching frequency. Meanwhile, the device switching frequency is reduced by using a flexible switching pattern. The proposed switching sequence has been simulated and experimentally tested on a 5-level neutral point clamped H-bridge based inverter. The results from both simulations and experiments consistently verify the above-mentioned features. View full abstract»

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  • Z-Source AC–AC Converters Solving Commutation Problem

    Page(s): 2146 - 2154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (953 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new family of Z-source ac-ac converters with buck-boost ability are proposed, including four switches single-phase structure and six switches three-phase structure. New commutation strategies for these converters are proposed and safe commutation can be achieved without snubber circuit. The commutation strategies are easily to realize by sampling only voltage signals, and two switches are always turned on, so switching loss can be reduced. Analysis based on state-space averaging reveals the relationship between Z-source inductor current and filter inductor current as well as voltage ratio. The design considerations of voltage-fed single-phase topology are given as an example. Simulation results on the voltage-fed topologies and experimental results on voltage-fed single-phase topology verified the unique features of Z-source ac-ac converters and the proposed commutation strategies. These converters have merits such as less conduction and switching loss, less devices, therefore high efficiency and reliability can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Digital-Control-Based Solution to the Effect of Nonidealities of the Inductors in Multiphase Converters

    Page(s): 2155 - 2163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiphase is an old technique that, nowadays, is widely used in several dc-dc applications such as voltage regulator module and automotive. The number of phases is usually kept relatively low (three or four) in most cases. However, the advantages of multiphase converters (mainly the reduction of input and output filters with its associated increase in maximum control bandwidth) grow with the number of phases in the ideal case. This growth is limited by nonidealities, mainly the tolerances of components (semiconductors and inductors). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of tolerances of the inductance on the current ripple. This nonideality causes the loss of two important advantages of multiphase converters, such as very high frequency and very low amplitude current ripple. The use of digital control can help to reduce drastically this problem. A simple algorithm, based on changing the triggering sequence of the phases, allows a big reduction of the impact of this nonideality. Experiments are included in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Multistage Interleaved Synchronous Buck Converter With Integrated Output Filter in 0.18 μm SiGe Process

    Page(s): 2164 - 2175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2951 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and analysis of a fully integrated multistage interleaved synchronous buck dc-dc converter with on-chip filter inductor and capacitor is presented. The dc-dc converter is designed and fabricated in 0.18 mum SiGe RF BiCMOS process technology and generates 1.5 V-2.0 V programmable output voltage supporting a maximum output current of 200 mA. High switching frequency of 45 MHz, multiphase interleaved operation, and fast hysteretic controller reduce the filter inductor and capacitor sizes by two orders of magnitude compared to state-of-the-art converters and enable a fully integrated converter. The fully integrated interleaved converter does not require off-chip decoupling and filtering and enables direct battery connection for integrated applications. This design is the first reported fully integrated multistage interleaved, zero voltage switching synchronous buck converter with monolithic output filters. The fully integrated buck regulator achieves 64% efficiency while providing an output current of 200 mA. View full abstract»

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  • Study of an Hybrid Current Controller Suitable for DC–DC or DC–AC Applications

    Page(s): 2176 - 2186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the modeling and study of a new hybrid current controller is presented. It ensures high dynamic response with a fixed-frequency operation mode, a zero static error, and high robustness properties in regard to system parameters variations. To model the proposed nonlinear current controller, different tools are developed. In a first step, a high-frequency average model is proposed. It allows studying the average dynamic properties (bandwidth, time response, and overflow). To investigate the behavior of the current ripple due to the switching effect, a second model, based on the construction of a 3D bifurcation diagram and the definition of a form function, is established. This model allows studying the nature of the cycle described by the state trajectory and proving that the system operates with a fixed switching frequency. Design rules of the control parameters of this controller are explained and its robustness properties are tested by numerical simulations and validated by experimental tests. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Current Control of Single-Phase PFC Converters

    Page(s): 2187 - 2194
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1037 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A set of new nonlinear current control methods are presented for single-phase power factor corrected ac-dc converters. These control methods combine input current feedforward with partial feedback based on the switch current to achieve sinusoidal input current and unity input power factor. They overcome the limitations of conventional linear (average) current control in terms of control bandwidth and sensitivity to noise, resulting in high-performance input current control which can meet the most stringent harmonic current limits required by variable-frequency airborne power systems. The control methods are also ideally suited for integrated mixed-signal implementation, requiring an analog current controller which is very simple, much less sensitive to noise than conventional linear feedback control, and independent of converter and control design parameters; and a digital controller which operates with a sampling frequency much lower than the switching frequency. Detailed development of the control methods is presented along with their stability analysis and circuit implementation. A prototype converter and its operation are also presented to validate the analysis and to demonstrate the performance of the control methods. View full abstract»

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  • Closing a Second Feedback Loop in a DC–DC Converter Based on a Piezoelectric Transformer

    Page(s): 2195 - 2201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, piezoelectric transformers (PT) are a good alternative to substitute magnetic materials in AC/DC and DC-DC converters. They have high isolation voltage and operate at higher frequencies than magnetics, with lower losses. However, their optimum operating frequency exhibits a strong dependence on different parameters, such as temperature, load, or even voltage level applied. This is usually an inconvenience, because this drift affects PT gain and efficiency, which can vary enormously within a few hundred of hertz. On the other hand, not only is it necessary to ensure the PT is driven at the proper frequency - in terms of gain and efficiency, including zero voltage switching in the power stage - output voltage must also be regulated. In this paper, two simple feedback loops are implemented in a PT-based DC-DC converter. One of them adjusts the switching frequency to obtain the best gain and efficiency. The other one performs the output voltage regulation. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation Study and Experimental Verification of a Universal Contactless Battery Charging Platform With Localized Charging Features

    Page(s): 2202 - 2210
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a finite-element (FE) simulation study of a planar contactless battery charging platform for portable consumer electronic equipment. Magnetic field plots of the charging platform are generated under no-load and loaded conditions so that the field distribution of the planar charging platform can be visualized. Three working modes of the platform have been investigated and compared, including full excitation and two forms of selective excitation. With new results arising from this FE simulation study and practical experiments, the theory of the magnetomotive force (mmf) generation of the multilayer planar printed-circuit-board winding array structure can be further understood. The results obtained in this paper provide a foundation of understanding for future design and optimization of planar contactless charging platforms. In addition, it has been confirmed that an electromagnetic shield structure that has been applied to coreless planar transformer applications, can work equally well for the planar charging platform. View full abstract»

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  • Limit-Cycle Oscillations Based Auto-Tuning System for Digitally Controlled DC–DC Power Supplies

    Page(s): 2211 - 2222
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new method and system for parameter extraction and automated controller adjustment, suitable for low power digitally controlled DC-DC switch-mode power supplies (SMPS). The system allows closed-loop calibration throughout regular converter operation. During a short-lasting test phase, SMPS parameters, such as output capacitance and load, are estimated by examining the amplitude and frequency of intentionally introduced limit cycle oscillations in duty ratio control variable as well as from its steady state value. Accordingly, a digital compensator is automatically constructed to provide fast dynamic response and good output voltage regulation. In addition, the load estimation data are used for improving efficiency of a converter having segmented transistors. It is performed through a selection of driving sequence resulting in minimized sum of switching and conduction losses. The effectiveness of the system is demonstrated on an experimental 400 kHz, 9 V-to-3.3 V, 10 W, digitally controlled synchronous buck converter. View full abstract»

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  • The Equivalent Electron Density Concept for Static and Dynamic Modeling of the IGBT Base in Soft- and Hard-Switching Applications

    Page(s): 2223 - 2233
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transient and static behavior of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) are analyzed through finite elements simulations and physically based equations. The standard model using a bipolar transistor driven by a MOSFET is abandoned for three partial voltage drops in series, each with its specific static and dynamic behavior. One voltage drop on the internal MOSFET, one on the base and one on the collector-base junction. It is found that the dynamic model can be drastically simplified by focusing on the equivalent electron density. This takes into account the most important phenomena related to the carrier mobilities, necessary for an accurate transient modeling. The specific behavior of the gate-collector capacitance in soft switching conditions is discussed. An equation set based on semiconductor physics is developed to determine the static operating points for each contribution. The importance of the minority carriers transit time in soft switching conditions is then shown. The similarity observed between the waveforms obtained through a finite element simulation and the waveforms obtained using the developed IGBT model within various external structures validates the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of Three-Level Space Vector PWM IP Core for FPGAs

    Page(s): 2234 - 2244
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2519 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel circuit realization of the three-level space-vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) strategy. A simplified algorithm for the three-level SVPWM is proposed. Due to the geometrical symmetry of six sectors, there exist the close relationships in on time calculations and on time arrangement for switches between them. So it can complete the computation of the three-level SVPWM in one sector. Consequently, compared with the conventional algorithm, the proposed algorithm is more suitable to hardware implementation by greatly reducing computation amount. Based on the simplified algorithm, a three-level SVPWM intellectual property (IP) core has been developed using hardware description language (HDL). The designed IP core can serve as a coprocessor to relieve the DSP or MCU from the intensive computation task of the three-level SVPWM. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the IP core in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). View full abstract»

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  • Space Vector Modulation Applied to Three-Phase Three-Switch Two-Level Unidirectional PWM Rectifier

    Page(s): 2245 - 2252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a methodology to apply space vector modulation to a three-phase three-switch two-level Y-connected unidirectional pulsewidth modulation (PWM) rectifier. Converter switching stages are analyzed to determine switch control signals for space vector modulation. A switching sequence is proposed in order to minimize the number of switch commutations and to reduce the switching losses. Duty cycle functions are determined and the desired switching sequences are performed by a simple PWM modulator with no need of to determine the present sector of vector. For this propose is just necessary to impose the desired current sectors from input voltage references. The vector control structure used with the proposed modulation technique is also described. In order to validate the proposed modulation technique, experimental results are presented for a 20 kW prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed FACTS—A New Concept for Realizing Grid Power Flow Control

    Page(s): 2253 - 2260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices are used to control power flow in the transmission grid to relieve congestion and limit loop flows. High cost and reliability concerns have limited the widespread deployment of FACTS solutions. This paper introduces the concept of distributed FACTS (D-FACTS) as an alternative approach to realizing cost-effective power flow control. By way of example, a distributed series impedance (DSI) and a distributed static series compensator (DSSC) are shown that can be clipped on to an existing power line and can, dynamically and statically, change the impedance of the line so as to control power flow. Details of implementation and system impact are presented in the paper, along with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A Model-Based Controller for A Three-Phase Four-Wire Shunt Active Filter With Compensation of the Neutral Line Current

    Page(s): 2261 - 2270
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1699 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model-based controller for a three-phase four-wire shunt active filter, which uses a three-leg split-capacitor topology to implement the voltage source inverter. The controller is aimed to compensate reactive power and harmonic distortion in the general case of distorted and unbalanced source voltages and load currents, including distorted loads connected between a phase and the neutral line. In addition, the controller is able to compensate for the homopolar component of the load current, that is, the current flowing to the source via the neutral line can be considerably reduced without modifying the actual topology. The complete model in (fixed frame) alphabetagamma-coordinates is presented. Special attention is given to the homopolar component (referred here as the gamma-component) of the line current, source voltage and control input, which are instrumental for the control design purpose. Experimental results in a 2 kVA prototype are provided to illustrate the benefits of the proposed solution. View full abstract»

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  • Conducted EMI Reduction in Power Converters by Means of Periodic Switching Frequency Modulation

    Page(s): 2271 - 2281
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spread spectrum clock generation techniques were originally developed to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) in communications and microprocessor systems working in the range of hundreds of megahertz. Nowadays, the switching frequency of power converters has been increasing up to values that make worthy the application of such switching frequency modulation techniques to reduce EMI emissions in power converters. Although random modulations have been applied before to power converters, periodic patterns can provide some advantages. First, theoretical principles of frequency modulation using three periodic patterns for the modulating function are presented. The influence of some important modulation parameters on the EMI reduction is analyzed and some considerations about the EMI filters design are also presented. The effectiveness of such methods in terms of EMI reduction is demonstrated theoretically and confirmed with experimental results obtained from tests carried out on two converters. The first one is a 2.5 W buck converter that can be switched up to 1 MHz and the second one is a 600 W boost converter switching at 40 kHz. In both cases, attenuations obtained in conducted EMI are evaluated. Finally, special attention has been paid to input current and output voltage ripple in order to evaluate possible undesired side-effects produced by this technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Linear Voltage Regulator Model for EMC Analysis

    Page(s): 2282 - 2292
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2149 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a simple model of a linear voltage regulator circuit, which is suitable to investigate the propagation of EMI through integrated circuit power distribution networks is proposed and it is validated by comparison of model predictions, computer simulations and experimental results. Moreover, application examples of the new model in EMC analysis are given with reference to both susceptibility and emission issues. View full abstract»

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  • A Low Cost Utility Interactive Inverter for Residential Fuel Cell Generation

    Page(s): 2293 - 2298
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1597 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the development of a single-phase utility-interactive inverter for residential power generation to meet the specifications laid down for the 2005 Future Energy Challenge Competition sponsored by U.S. DOE and IEEE. The proposed inverter system is capable of working in both stand-alone and grid-connected mode. A control scheme for implementing both modes of operation is presented, which has simple structure with smaller number of sensors. The proposed control algorithm including the whole system control is implemented on a low cost, fixed-point DSP TMS320F2812. The experimental results from a 1 kW prototype show that the proposed inverter system exhibits not only low THD grid current during the grid-connected mode and well regulated inverter voltage during the stand-alone mode, but also smooth and automatic transfer between the two modes of operation. View full abstract»

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  • A Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for an Energy Storage System With Galvanic Isolation

    Page(s): 2299 - 2306
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses a bidirectional dc-dc converter suitable for an energy storage system with an additional function of galvanic isolation. An energy storage device such as an electric double layer capacitor is directly connected to a dc side of the dc-dc converter without any chopper circuit. Nevertheless, the dc-dc converter can continue operating when the voltage across the energy storage device drops along with its discharge. Theoretical calculation and experimental measurement reveal that power loss and peak current impose limitations on a permissible dc-voltage range. This information may be useful in design of the dc-dc converter. Experimental results verify proper charging and discharging operation obtained from a 200-V, 2.6-kJ laboratory model of the energy storage system. Moreover, the dc-dc converter can charge the capacitor bank from zero to the rated voltage without any external precharging circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a 1-MHz LLC Resonant Converter Based on a DSP-Driven SOI Half-Bridge Power MOS Module

    Page(s): 2307 - 2320
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the design of a 1-MHz LLC resonant converter prototype is presented. Aiming to provide an integrated solution of the resonant converter, a half-bridge (HB) power metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) module employing silicon-on-insulator technology has been designed. Such a technology, which is suitable for high-voltage and high-frequency applications, allows enabling HB power MOSFET modules operating up to 3MHz with a rated voltage of 400V. The power device integrates the driving stages of the high-side and low-side switch along with a latch circuit used to implement over-voltage/over-current protection. The module has been designed to be driven by a digital signal processor device, which has been adopted to perform frequency modulation of the resonant converter. By this way, output voltage regulation against variations from light- to full-loaded conditions has been achieved. The issues related to the transformer design of the LLC resonant converter are discussed, too. Owing to the high switching frequency experienced by the converter, 3F4 ferrite cores have been selected for their low magnetic power losses between 0.5 and 3 MHz and core temperatures up to 120degC. The resonant converter has been designed to operate in an input voltage range of 300-400V with an output voltage of 12V and a maximum output power of 120W. Within these design specifications, a performance analysis of the LLC converter has been conducted, comparing the results obtained at the switching frequencies of 500kHz and 1MHz. A suitable model of the LLC resonant converter has been developed to aid the prototype design. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

Full Aims & Scope