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Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE

Early Access Articles

Early Access articles are new content made available in advance of the final electronic or print versions and result from IEEE's Preprint or Rapid Post processes. Preprint articles are peer-reviewed but not fully edited. Rapid Post articles are peer-reviewed and edited but not paginated. Both these types of Early Access articles are fully citable from the moment they appear in IEEE Xplore.

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Slow-Wave Broadside-Coupled Microstrip Lines and Its Application to the Rat-Race Coupler

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    This letter proposes a type of slow-wave broadside-coupled microstrip lines. The new structure only requires a single-layer substrate and has the independently controllable even- and odd-mode impedances and slow-wave factors by adjusting the corresponding structural parameters. This property greatly simplifies the circuit design. In addition, it provides a large coupling strength. A miniaturized wideband microstrip rat-race coupler with the high isolation and perfect balances is implemented using the proposed slow-wave coupled lines. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Integrated C-Band GaN High Power Amplifier MMIC for Phased Array Applications

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB)  

    A C-band high-power and high power added efficiency (PAE) high power amplifier (HPA) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) fabricated by using 0.25 $mu{rm m}$ gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technology has been developed for phased array antennas. The MMIC operates in pulse conditions of 100 $mu{rm s}$ pulse width and 10% of duty cycle over the frequency from 5.2 to 6.8 GHz. The MMIC exhibits an output power of 45.7 dBm to 46.4 dBm and a power added efficiency (PAE) of 51.5% to 56.5% under a drain voltage of 30 V. The MMIC size is as small as $12.54 {rm mm}^{2}$, generating an output power density up to $3.48 {rm W/mm}^{2}$ over the chip area and up to 4.55 W/mm over the active periphery. View full abstract»

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  • A Fully Integrated High Efficiency RF Power Amplifier for WLAN Application in 40 nm Standard CMOS Process

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB)  

    This paper proposes a CMOS linear power amplifier (PA) design scheme for IEEE 802.11g (WLAN) application. The proposed PA consists of a programmable gain amplifier and a high power stage which is composed of a main amplifier with class AB bias and an auxiliary amplifier with class C bias. Based on the un-even bias scheme, the power stage can improve linearity and reduce current consumption in the low power region. It is fabricated with a TSMC 40 nm standard RF CMOS process. The measurements show that the designed PA reaches a 1 dB gain compression output power of 24.6 dBm and a peak drain efficiency of 38% with a 3.3 V power supply at 2.4 GHz operating frequency range. When the PA was tested with an IEEE 802.11g OFDM signal of 20 MHz channel bandwidth, the obtained $-25 ~{rm dB}$ EVM compliant output power and drain efficiency are 18.5 dBm and 14%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-Elliptic Wideband Bandstop Filter Using Stepped-Impedance Coupled Line

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB)  

    A cross-coupled wideband bandstop filter (BSF) with a 5th-order quasi-elliptic response is proposed and investigated in this letter. The BSF is composed of stepped-impedance coupled line connected by an open-circuited shunt stub. An enhanced selectivity and stopband rejection can be achieved as a result of two new transmission zeros, generated from the stepped-impedance coupled line. Based on the derived rigorous correspondence between the BSF and its lumped prototype, design of the proposed BSF can be handled as the same to the lumped network. A BSF example is given with measured stopband attenuation of 34.4 dB over a fractional bandwidth of 113.4%. View full abstract»

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  • A 24 GHz Highly Linear Up-Conversion Mixer in CMOS 0.13 \mu{\rm m} Technology

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1134 KB)  

    This letter reports a 24 GHz linear up-conversion mixer for high-power IF signal. In the proposed mixer, the double-balanced Gilbert-cell topology is employed with a low-distortion transconductance stage which combines voltage feedback and adaptive biasing schemes. The proposed adaptive biasing circuit improves the linearity of the transconductance stage by providing an additional bias current when IF input signals exceed the current-limited linear input range. Implemented in a 0.13 \mu{\rm m} CMOS technology, the mixer showed a conversion gain of - 1.9 dB and output 1 dB compression point of 0.3 dBm for the IF, LO, and RF frequency ranges of 10.0–314.7 MHz, 18.9–29.0 GHz, and 23.4–29.2 GHz, respectively, while dissipating 22.8 and 16.5 mW for the mixer and the LO buffer, respectively, from a 1.5 V supply. View full abstract»

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  • Four-way Chained Quasi-Planar Power Divider Using Rectangular Coaxial Waveguide

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB)  

    A novel quasi-planar four-way chained power divider using rectangular coaxial waveguide is presented. The rectangular coaxial waveguide consist of a rectangular outer conductor and a planar inner conductor that is a stripline suspended at the middle of the outer conductor. Moreover, the characteristic impedance of the proposed quasi-planar rectangular coaxial waveguide is analyzed. Four cross coupling units locating along the inner conductor are utilized to realize four-way power-dividing outputs. A four-way quasi-planar chained rectangular coaxial-waveguide power divider operating at C band is developed with reasonable agreement between the simulated and measured results. View full abstract»

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  • A Wideband 20 mW UHF Rectifier in CMOS

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    This letter presents the first CMOSFET RF-to-DC Rectifier IC which delivers more than 10 mW dc power at GHz frequency. This IC utilizes the single-ended In-phase Gate-boosting Rectifier (IGR) architecture, and its In-Phase Voltage Multiplier (IPVM) is derived from a \lambda /2 transmission line to boost in-phase V_{GS} from the driving V_{DS} . This simultaneously reduces the effective threshold voltage, forward resistance, and reverse leakage current of the rectifying transistors. To improve an IGR's performance, both RF source-pull and dc load-pull are carried out to find the optimal performance. The UHF IGR is implemented using thick-gate-oxide I/O transistors with 0.28 \mu{\rm m} minimum gate length in TSMC 65 nm CMOS process. The implemented IC achieves a 20 mW output dc power with 31.8% peak efficiency at 900 MHz with 200 MHz 1 dB bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • K-Band Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Resonator Filter With Suppressed Higher-Order Mode

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB)  

    In this letter, we present a design method for K-band substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) resonator filters utilizing {\rm TM}_{02} mode. More importantly, a methodology for suppressing an unwanted higher-order mode ( {\rm TM}_{11} ) close to the passband is demonstrated. It is shown that suppressing the unwanted mode give rise to the improved stopband performance. In addition, the resonator used in this filter design has capability of adjusting the resonant frequency, and this allows for compensating the fabrication error. Verification of the presented design method has been carried out by fabricating and measuring the filter. View full abstract»

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  • A CMOS Low-Power Cross-Coupled Immittance-Converter Transimpedance Amplifier

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (886 KB)  

    This letter presents a low-power transimpedance amplifier (TIA) that employs an immittance converter, which provides both a negative input resistance to increase the input pole frequency and a negative inductance to improve the circuit stability. These allow for a significant bandwidth enhancement with low power consumption. Two TIAs, TIA1 with 6 GHz and TIA2 with 8.8 GHz 3 dB bandwidths, were fabricated in a standard 0.13- \mu {\rm m} CMOS technology and were designed to operate with a 250 fF photodiode capacitance at 10 Gb/s. The transimpedance gains of the single-stage TIAs, followed by near-unity-gain output-matching buffers, are \sim 54~{\rm dB}\Omega , the group-delay variations and average input-referred noise currents are \pm 3~{\rm ps} and 24~ {\rm pA}/\sqrt {\rm Hz} (TIA1) and \pm {70}~ {\rm ps} and 28~ {\rm pA}/\sqrt {\rm Hz} (TIA2) over their 3 dB bandwidths. The TIAs occupy an active area of 250 \mu {\rm m}\times , 160 \mu {\rm m} , and without the output-matching buffer each consumes 2 mW. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Reflection-Type Phaser Using Quarter-Wavelength Transmission Line Resonators

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB)  

    A compact reflection-type phaser composed of quarter-wavelength transmission line resonators interconnected by alternating K- and J-inverters is proposed. A design method is also presented. To validate this method, a fourth-order example is designed and fabricated. The proposed phaser is shown to exhibit the benefits of smaller size, easier fabrication and suppressed even-order harmonics compared with previously reported half-wavelength phasers. View full abstract»

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  • A 0.85 THz Low Noise Amplifier Using InP HEMT Transistors

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB)  

    In this letter, the first packaged THz solid-state amplifier operating at 0.85 THz is reported. The InP HEMT amplifier achieves a noise figure as low as 11.1 dB with an associated gain of 13.6 dB at 0.85 THz using high {\bf f}_{\bf MAX} InP HEMT transistors in a 10-stage coplanar waveguide integrated circuit. Output power up to 0.93 mW is measured. View full abstract»

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  • Bandpass Filter Loaded With Open Stubs Using Dual-mode Ring Resonator

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    A high selectivity bandpass filter loaded with open stubs using dual-mode ring resonator is presented in this letter. Sixth-order passband with six transmission zeros close to the passband is realized with two open stubs and open/shorted coupled lines. The transmission zeros near the passband can be adjusted conveniently by only changing the characteristic impedances of the coupled lines. For demonstration, a planar bandpass filter (3 dB bandwidth 20.6%) is designed and fabricated. Good filtering performance and high selectivity for the filter are realized and experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Dual-Band Angular Independent FSS With Closely Spaced Frequency Response

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    A novel angular independent dual-band FSS with closely spaced response is discussed in this letter. The proposed single layer FSS comprises of unit cell resembling crooked cross geometry convoluted and branched to provide dual resonant paths. The FSS functioning as a band stop filter at 2.54 and 3.54 GHz works as a shielding component for S band operation. The unit cell size of the proposed FSS is 0.088 \lambda \times 0.088 \lambda where \lambda corresponds to the wavelength of the first resonant frequency. Both the bands are closely spaced providing the frequency ratio of upper to the lower resonant frequency value of 1.39. Additionally, the proposed dual-band FSS is symmetrical in nature, thereby providing identical stop-band response for both TE and TM operation modes. It also exhibits highly stable angular stability. Prototype of the proposed FSS is fabricated and its simulated results are compared with the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Ku-Band RTD-Based Quadrature VCO for Low Power Applications

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (859 KB)  

    This letter presents the design and fabrication of a Ku-band resonant tunneling diode (RTD)-based quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) with low dc power consumption and good phase noise characteristics using an InP-based RTD/HBT MMIC technology. In order to achieve a low power operation, an InP-based RTD is used for microwave quadrature signal generation based on an excellent inherent negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristic of the RTD achieved at a low applied voltage. The fabricated QVCO core shows a low dc power consumption of 1.46 mW with excellent phase noise of -121.14~{\rm dBc/Hz} at a 1 MHz frequency offset. The obtained figure-of-merit (FOM) is -202.8~{\rm dBc/Hz} at an oscillation frequency of 14.6 GHz, which is one of the best values among Ku-band quadrature VCOs reported up to date. View full abstract»

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  • Semi-Infinite Reflection Coefficients of Bi-Anisotropic Metamaterial Slabs Including Boundary Effects

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB)  

    We analyzed semi-infinite reflection coefficients at an interface formed by a bi-anisotropic metamaterial (MM) slab and an air region by considering boundary effects. Corresponding expressions for reflection coefficients are derived using the ray-tracing technique. Derivations are validated by simulated S-parameters of a bi-anisotropic MM slab composed of circular split-ring-resonators. It is noted that while reflection coefficients at left and right interfaces of the analyzed bi-anisotropic MM slab are closely linked to one another aside from the resonance, they are different from one another especially around resonance. View full abstract»

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  • Cancellation Technique for CW Ground Penetrating Radar Applications

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)  

    An adjustable canceller based on microwave interferometry is proposed for ground penetrating radar applications. This canceller, built up with a power divider and an impedance tuner, is integrated in a monostatic continuous wave (CW) radar in order to improve its measurement sensitivity. A set of measurements is performed and compared with standard CW radar measurements to demonstrate the performance of this technique. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Compensation of I/Q Impairments and Power Amplifier Nonlinearity for Concurrent Dual-Band Transmitters Using Two-Box Model

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB)  

    A novel two-box model for joint compensation of nonlinear distortion introduced from both in-phase/quadrature modulator and power amplifier is proposed for concurrent dual-band wireless transmitters. Compensation of nonlinear distortion is accomplished in two phases, where phases are identified separately. It is shown that complexity of the digital predistortion is reduced. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated in terms of ACPR, EVM, and NMSE improvements using 1.4 MHz LTE and WCDMA signals. View full abstract»

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  • A 71 dB 150 \mu {\rm W} Variable-Gain Amplifier in 0.18 \mu{\rm m} CMOS Technology

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB)  

    This letter presents a simple approach for ultra-low-power and high-frequency variable gain amplifier (VGA) design, which requires no additional circuitry to generate the exponential-like function. Thus, the power consumption and chip area of the designed VGA can be drastically reduced without deterioration of other performance. The inverse exponential-like dB-linear characteristic is achieved by utilizing a pair of complementary transistors as the load. The p-MOS transistor is self-biased in the saturation region, while the n-MOS transistor is biased in the sub-threshold region. To prove the concept, a five-cell VGA is fabricated in a standard 0.18 \mu{\rm m} CMOS technology. The measurements show that the power consumption of the VGA is less than 150 \mu {\rm W} and achieves a total gain range of 71 dB, out of which 45 dB is dB-linear with less than 1 dB gain error, as well as bandwidth of more than 50 MHz. The output {\rm P} _{1~{\rm dB}} is better than 0 dBm and the minimum input-referred noise is 7.5  {\rm nV}/\sqrt {\rm Hz} . View full abstract»

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  • An Ultra-Wideband Low-Loss Millimeter-Wave Slow-Wave Wilkinson Power Divider on 0.18 \mu{\rm m} SiGe BiCMOS Process

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB)  

    An ultra-wideband low-loss millimeter-wave Wilkinson power divider has been developed on a 0.18 \mu{\rm m} SiGe BiCMOS process. The miniaturization and low loss of the power divider are achieved by utilizing capacitive loading and a slow-wave CPW structure configured with floating metal strips periodically placed orthogonal to the CPW. The developed power divider has extremely wideband performance from DC to 67 GHz with less than 1 dB insertion loss from DC to 61 GHz, amplitude and phase imbalances less than 0.5 dB and 2 ^{\circ} from DC to 67 GHz, respectively, and isolation greater than 15 dB across 37–67 GHz. At 60 GHz, the designed power divider has only 0.9 dB of insertion loss and better than 25 dB of isolation. The core chip size is 150 \mu{\rm m}\times 525 \mu{\rm m} . View full abstract»

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  • Kink Effect in {\rm S}_{22} for GaN and GaAs HEMTs

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    This letter provides a clear understanding of the kink effect in {\rm S}_{22} for active solid-state electronic devices. The origin of the kink effect is ascribed to the intrinsic section of the transistor, whereas the extrinsic elements determine its shape at the extrinsic ports. Therefore, to fairly compare the kink effect for GaN and GaAs HEMTs, the present analysis is not only focused on the whole devices but also on their intrinsic sections. The experimental evidence shows that, independently of the specific semiconductor technology, the size and the frequency band of the kink effect are mainly due to the values of the intrinsic transconductance and capacitances, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid Multi-Objective Simulation-Driven Design of Compact Microwave Circuits

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB)  

    A methodology for rapid multi-objective design of compact microwave circuits is proposed. Our approach exploits point-by-point Pareto set identification using surrogate-based optimization techniques, auxiliary equivalent circuit models, and space mapping as the major model correction method. The proposed technique is illustrated and validated through the design of a compact rat-race coupler. A set of ten designs being trade-offs between electrical performance of the structure and its size (layout area) is obtained at the cost corresponding to less than thirty high-fidelity EM simulations of the circuit. Experimental verification of three selected designs is provided. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Accuracy Metric for Predicting the Power De-Rating of RF Power Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB)  

    Cubic metric (CM) is being recognized as a better alternative to determine the power de-rating of radio frequency power amplifiers (PAs) than peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). However, in this letter our analysis shows that actually the CM is still inaccurate to predict the required PA power de-rating that satisfies the out-of-band radiation (OBR) requirement of a communication system. Further, by investigating the effect of the third-order nonlinearity of PA on the OBR, we propose a novel metric. Compared with PAPR and CM, the proposed metric has a strong correlation with the OBR, and thus it provides much higher accuracy in determining the required power de-rating of PAs, which is verified by extensive experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Ring Oscillator Based Injection Locked Frequency Divider Using Dual Injection Paths

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (711 KB)  

    Ring oscillator based injection locked frequency dividers (ILFD) generally feature higher power efficiency compared to conventional static frequency dividers. However it is difficult for ring oscillator based ILFDs to achieve large division ratio and wide input locking range at the same time. To increase the input locking range, a ring oscillator based ILFD utilizing dual injection technique is proposed in this letter. For this, both tail injection and direct injection are applied in phase such that the output currents of the two mixing processes corresponding to the two injection paths are added constructively at the output frequency \omega o and the overall injection efficiency is therefore increased. A differential buffer circuit with dual injection is proposed. Equivalent circuit modeling of the dual injection buffer and mathematical analysis of locking range enhancement are presented. The core ring oscillator consists of 4 stages of the dual injection buffers. It is fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology and consumes less than 2 mW with supply voltage of 1.2 V. Its locking range is from 1.2 to 20.7 GHz without any tuning at 0 dBm injection power level. The proposed ILFD is compact with the core only occupying 15 \mu m ,\times, 30 \mu m and does not need any extra controls, making it suitable for integrated wideband phase locked loop. View full abstract»

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  • A Sub-mW Fully Integrated Wide-Band Receiver for Wireless Sensor Network

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    This letter presents low power implementation of a fully integrated wide band receiver for wireless sensor network. The receiver targets extremely low power operation with wide band coverage. Fabricated in 28 nm CMOS process, the receiver employs a passive mixer-first RF front-end with zero-IF architecture which is driven by non-overlapping four-phase local oscillator (LO). To minimize power consumption in LO driving stage which consumes the largest portion of power in this structure, supply voltage and device size optimization techniques are introduced. Enhanced non-overlapping LO circuit is proposed to prevent degradation of the noise figure. The receiver also includes a low power base band amplifier and in-band noise reduced biquad filter. The total receiver chain achieves conversion gain of 55 dB, noise figure of 13.6 dB and IIP3 of - 7.5 dBm (@10 MHz spacing) with power consumption under 1 mW at the frequency band of 0.85 \sim 2.55 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • An Analytic Method for Capacitance Extraction of Asymmetric Vias

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (659 KB)  

    This paper considers the problem of via-plane capacitance extraction for power and signal integrity analysis of printed circuit boards and electronic packages. The recently proposed full-wave method is extended to handle asymmetric antipads by judiciously selecting the integration domain of the magnetic field in the parallel-plate cavity. Numerical results demonstrate its agreement with the capacitance obtained from the quasi-static method. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters (MWCL) publishes three page papers that focus on microwave theory, techniques and applications as they relate to components, devices, circuits, biological effects, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals.

Full Aims & Scope