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Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE

Early Access Articles

Early Access articles are new content made available in advance of the final electronic or print versions and result from IEEE's Preprint or Rapid Post processes. Preprint articles are peer-reviewed but not fully edited. Rapid Post articles are peer-reviewed and edited but not paginated. Both these types of Early Access articles are fully citable from the moment they appear in IEEE Xplore.

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • W-Band Orthomode Transducer for Dense Focal-Plane Clusters

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    A W-band orthomode transducer has been designed for polarimeter clusters in dense focal planes. Its compact geometry, with aligned output ports, allows for a closely-spaced triangular-lattice arrangement. At these high frequencies, the platelet manufacturing strategy has been applied and verified experimentally on seven prototypes, showing reflection coefficients lower than ${-}20$ dB, insertion loss of about 0.25 dB and cross-coupling and isolation levels of ${-}42$ dB and 45 dB, respectively, in a 30% bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • A 50–59 GHz CMOS Injection Locking Power Amplifier

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    The injection-locked power amplifier (ILPA) has demonstrated relatively high gain and high efficiency at millimeter-wave frequency. However, their application is still limited by its sensitivity to loading effect and narrow injection locking bandwidth. In this letter, a wide injection locking ILPA using buffered input and output has been proposed and implemented on 65 nm CMOS technology. The buffered input and output can improve the injection locking range and avoid load-to-tank pulling. The measured injection locking range is from 50 GHz to 59 GHz and the peak Power Added Efficiency (PAE) is 16.1% with a maximum output power of 11.39 dBm. Moreover, the die size is merely $260~mu{rm m}times 400~mu{rm m}$ excluding pads. View full abstract»

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  • A V-Band Push-Push VCO With Wide Tuning Range Using $0.18~mu{rm m}$ CMOS Process

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    A V-band push-push voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with wide tuning range implemented in the $0.18~mu{rm m}$ CMOS process technology is presented in this letter. The output signal with frequency twice that of the VCO core is extracted from the center tap of inductors rather than the one-quarter wavelength transmission line. The measured oscillating frequency of the VCO is from 67.18 to 74.84 GHz corresponding to a 10.79% tuning range. At the 74.84 GHz output frequency, the measured phase noises at 1 MHz and 10 MHz frequency offsets are $-74.83~{rm dBc/Hz}$ and $-102.53~{rm dBc/Hz}$, respectively. The core circuit draws a 13.5 mA current from a 1.8 V power supply. View full abstract»

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  • Full-Band Air-Filled Waveguide-to-Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Direct Transition

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    A 45% bandwidth in-line air-filled waveguide-to-substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) direct transition is designed to greatly improve the performance of existing configurations. The transition, based on a four-section height-stepped waveguide, includes a single-step widening transformer that enables full-band operation without using any dielectric probe. The absence of the probe reduces significantly the insertion loss and makes this transition simple, bandwidth controllable and easily scalable to the millimeter-wave frequency range. A back-to-back transition is designed to cover the 32–50 GHz band showing a return loss of 15 dB and a mean insertion loss of 0.68 dB in the whole bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Gate Bias Adaptation of Doherty Power Amplifier for High Efficiency and High Power

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    This letter presents an approach to maximize the output power and efficiency of a Doherty power amplifier (PA). The conventional carrier PA having $2R_{OPT}$ match, used in a symmetric Doherty PA, does not deliver the saturated high efficiency at the 6 dB back-off power but at the 5.5 dB back-off power due to the knee voltage effect. To solve the problem, the gate biases of the carrier and peaking PAs are adapted. The gate bias voltage of the carrier PA is optimized for a higher peak output power, delivering a 3 dB larger peak power at $R_{OPT}$ match. That of the peaking PA is also optimized to have the same peak power of the carrier PA. A Doherty PA with the concept is designed using a 45 W gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) for the carrier and peaking cells at 1.94 GHz. The measured average output power, drain/power-added efficiencies and gain are 44.35 dBm, 60.5/57.2%, and 12.75 dB for a 10 MHz long term evolution (LTE) signal with a 6.5 dB peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). View full abstract»

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  • Compact Dual-Band Gysel Power Divider Based on Composite Right- and Left-Handed Transmission Lines

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    A novel compact dual-band Gysel power divider with controllable frequency ratio using fully integrated composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines (TL) is presented in this letter. The $Pi$-shaped CRLH TLs are utilized to realize the dual-band response. Theoretical analysis indicates that the frequency ratio can be controlled by changing the element values and the number of the constructing cells of the CRLH TLs. In addition, the proposed structure is compact. For demonstration, a dual-band Gysel power divider operating at 2.4 and 3.5 GHz, respectively, is implemented. Measured results show that good impedance matching, isolation, and power transmission can be satisfied at the dual passband simultaneously. View full abstract»

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  • A WR4 Amplifier Module Chain With an 87 K Noise Temperature at 228 GHz

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    In this letter we report an ultra-low-noise amplifier module chain in the WR4 frequency range. The amplifier chips were fabricated in a 35 nm InP HEMT technology and packaged in waveguide housings utilizing quartz E-plane waveguide probes. When cryogenically cooled to 22 K and measured through a mylar vacuum window, the amplifier module chain achieves a receiver noise temperature of 87 K at 228 GHz and less than a 100 K noise temperature from 217 to 236 GHz. The LNA modules have 21–31 dB gain and the power dissipation is 12.4–15.8 mW. To the best of authors' knowledge, these are the lowest LNA noise temperatures at these frequencies reported to date. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Balanced Dual- and Tri-band Bandpass Filters Based on Stub Loaded Resonators

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    A stub loaded resonator (SLR) is presented in this letter, which can achieve dual-band or tri-band differential-mode (DM) bandpass response with a high common-mode (CM) suppression. By changing the length of the center-loaded stub, the resonant frequency of the CM can be varied without affecting that of the DM. This helps in simplifying the design and tuning processes of the balanced filters. In order to validate its practicalbility, two balanced bandpass filters (BPFs) with two and three DM passbands and good CM suppression are designed. Good agreement between simulated and measured results is observed. To our best knowledge, the proposed balanced tri-band BPF is the first ever reported. View full abstract»

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  • A Differential-Mode Wideband Bandpass Filter on Slotline Multi-Mode Resonator With Controllable Bandwidth

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    This letter presents a novel differential-mode (DM) wideband bandpass filter (BPF) on slotline multi-mode resonator (MMR) with controllable bandwidth. The BPF consists of a cross-shaped slotline MMR etched on the ground plane and two pairs of microstrip feeding line. On the one hand, with proper placement of the slotline MMR, the coupling between the slotline MMR and DM feeding lines can be flexibly controlled to achieve the desired DM passband. On the other hand, the cross-shaped slotline MMR is fully broken or disconnected in the middle portion under the CM excitation, thereby obtaining the CM suppression over the DM passband. Moreover, the bandwidth of the DM passband can be freely adjusted through the impedance ratio of the slotline MMR. To verify the design concept, a filter sample has been designed and fabricated. Within the DM passband, the insertion loss of the CM signals is higher than 20.0 dB, the 3 dB fractional bandwidth of the DM passband achieves around 107.7%. The measured results are obtained in good agreement with the predicted ones. View full abstract»

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  • High-SRF VHF/UHF Lumped Elements in LTCC

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    Novel techniques to increase the self-resonant frequency (SRF) of parallel plate capacitors and toroid inductors are presented. A new capacitor interconnection technique is proposed and shows 23% increase in SRF. Judiciously placed air cavities are proposed for toroid inductors and lead to a 22% increase in SRF. All inductors and capacitors are designed and fabricated in LTCC technology with very small form factor. Simulation and measurement results are in close agreement. View full abstract»

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  • 32 dB Gain 28 nm Bulk CMOS W-Band LNA

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    A high gain W-band low noise amplifier for radiometric applications in 28 nm bulk CMOS technology is presented. Pads, inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides have been custom designed. The parasitic effects of the transistor layout have been evaluated by means of electromagnetic simulations and calculations based on data reported in the design rule manual of the technology. The amplifier consists of six cascode stages with input, output and interstage conjugate matching for maximum power transfer. Measurement results show a peak gain of 32 dB and a noise figure of 5.3 dB at 91 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Indirect Contact Probing Method for Characterizing Vertical Interconnections in Electronic Packaging

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    This letter proposes a new indirect contact probing method to characterize vertical interconnections without contact damage. At the first step of the proposed technique, multiple one-port calibration measurements should be performed to characterize the contactor layer between the probe pads and the device-under-tests (DUTs). The characteristics of the actual vias as the DUTs are then extracted from indirect-contact measurements by de-embedding the contactor layer. In simulations and experiments at frequencies range from 2.5 to 18 GHz, we have verified via defects can be successfully identified from the indirect-contact measurements. View full abstract»

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  • A SiGe D-Band Low-Noise Amplifier Utilizing Gain-Boosting Technique

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    A D-band low-noise amplifier with gain boosting is implemented in a 0.13$mu{rm m}$ SiGe BiCMOS technology, occupying 0.4 mm$^{2}$ of IC area. The circuit consists of two stages of cascode amplifiers with inductive common-base termination, which improves the gain by increasing the output impedance. The measurements show more than 20 dB gain from 110 to 140 GHz, consuming 12 mW of total dc power from a single voltage supply of 2.0 V. The measured noise figure is within 5.5 to 6.5 dB in the same frequency range. To the authors' knowledge, these results demonstrate the best silicon low-noise amplifier performance up to date in this frequency range. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Band Coaxial Cavity Bandpass Filter With Helical Feeding Structure and Mixed Coupling

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    In this letter, stepped-impedance resonators are used in coaxial cavity filter to generate dual-band response. Two key merits of the proposed filter are the helical feeding structure and the introduction of mixed coupling for coupling control and generation of transmission zero. The helical feeding structure makes it possible to conveniently control the external quality factors of two bands. To illustrate the concept, a third-order dual-band coaxial cavity filter is designed, fabricated and measured. The measured results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturized Gysel Power Divider Based on Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Lines

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    A miniaturized Gysel power divider (PD) is developed by using composite right-/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines (TLs) consisting of microstrip lines and lumped elements. The theoretical closed-form design equations are presented to calculate the element values of the CRLH TLs. For verification purpose, a miniaturized Gysel PD based on CRLH TLs for GSM frequency of 900 MHz is designed, simulated, fabricated, and measured. The proposed Gysel CRLH TL PD is extremely compact, occupying only 18.2% of the conventional microstrip line-based Gysel PD. Less than 1 dB insertion loss has been achieved at the center frequency. Also, the simulated results agree well with the measured results. View full abstract»

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  • Microstrip Diplexer Constructed With New Types of Dual-Mode Ring Filters

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    -A microstrip diplexer consisting of two new types of ring filters is presented in this letter. The proposed ring filter is able to move one of transmission zeros closer to its passband corner by connecting the feeding capacitors at the different locations of the resonant ring. Thus, a diplexer implemented by connecting two kinds of ring filters with different feeding features can achieve the required isolation for the small channel separation. Then an open-stub is added at the common input port of the channel filters to achieve the required input matching at the two passbands of the diplexer. A diplexer prototype with two passbands at 1.75 GHz and 1.85 GHz with a channel separation 40 MHz was fabricated. The measured insertion losses in the pass bands are all less than 2.1 dB. The isolation between the two channels is greater than 20 dB and the input return losses of the three ports are about 20 dB. View full abstract»

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  • A Multi-Mode Multi-Band Reconfigurable Power Amplifier for 2G/3G/4G Handset Applications

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    Fully-integrated multi-mode multi-band (MMMB) reconfigurable power amplifier (PA) is implemented using single PA-cores for high- and low-frequency bands, respectively. This PA has five output paths and covers quad-band Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying/Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution and penta-band Universal Mobile Telecommunications System/Long Term Evolution mode operation with band combination in a small form-factor. To optimize the PA, the proposed structure reconfigures the PA-core cells as well as the interstage/output matching network. When compared with the single-mode single-band dedicated PAs, the fabricated PA showed comparable RF performance for all modes and bands, except for PAE degradations of 3.1% and 1.9% for high- and low-band, respectively, thus validating the usefulness of the proposed structure for MMMB PA applications. View full abstract»

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  • A 26.8 dB Gain 19.7 dBm CMOS Power Amplifier Using 4-way Hybrid Coupling Combiner

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    This letter presents a novel compact 4-way hybrid coupling combiner applied in an mm-wave CMOS power amplifier (PA) design with wideband, large output power and high gain. Basing on the principle of both series and parallel combination concurrently working in a concentric distributed active transformer, the size of a 4-way power combiner can be dramatically reduced. Using the proposed power combiner, a four-stage common source PA is implemented in 65 nm CMOS process. In each stage, inductive source degeneration is employed to enhance transistor stability without reducing maximum stable gain. The measurement results show that the PA can offer 26.8 dB linear gain with 3 dB bandwidth of 51–67 GHz. At 1.2 V/1.4 V external supply voltage, the PA is able to deliver 17.5 dBm/19.7 dBm $P_{sat}$ with 10.3%/13.4% power added efficiency (PAE). The chip size of the PA is only $0.32~{rm mm}^{2}$ . View full abstract»

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  • A 40 GHz 65 nm CMOS Phase-Locked Loop With Optimized Shunt-Peaked Buffer

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    A 40 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) with an optimized shunt-peaked buffer is realized in Global Foundries 65 nm CMOS technology. The shunt-peaked buffer placed in the loop eliminates the capacitive loading of the frequency divider and enhances the drive capability. Hence it is possible to use an inductorless frequency divider to reduce potential parasitics in the layout. Thanks to the simplified topology and enhanced output swing, the proposed PLL achieves a good balance among silicon area, output range and phase noise. Measurement shows that the PLL works properly from 39.5 to 41.7 GHz with a phase noise of ${-}102.7, -112, -119$ dBc/Hz at 1, 10, and 20 MHz offset from the carrier, respectively. It occupies a chip area of 0.4 mm$^{2}$ including all the testing pads and consumes 87 mW from 1.5 V and 0.8 V supply voltage including the buffers. View full abstract»

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  • State-of-the-Art Inkjet-Printed Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) Capacitors on Silicon Substrate

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    Vertically-integrated metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors on silicon are demonstrated for the first time utilizing an entirely additive RF-specific inkjet-printing process. The inkjet-printed MIM capacitors demonstrate a high capacitance per unit area of up to 33 ${rm pF/mm}^{2}$ by utilizing novel dielectric inks, while achieving quality factors (Q) up to 25 and self-resonant frequencies (SRFs) above 1 GHz. Measurements of dielectric permittivity, leakage current, voltage breakdown, and fabrication repeatability are presented confirming the high-performance operation of the printed MIM capacitors. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable Bandpass Filter Based on Partially Magnetized Ferrite LTCC With Embedded Windings for SoP Applications

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    Tunable filters that are based on ferrite materials often require large and bulky electromagnets. In this work, we present a tunable filter in the Ku-band, which is realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC substrate with embedded bias windings, thus negating the need of a large electromagnet. Also, because of the embedded windings, the bias fields are not lost at the air-substrate interface and therefore the field and current requirements are reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the previously reported filters. A simulation strategy that uses full permeability tensor with arbitrarily directed magnetic fields has been used to model the filter on a partially magnetized ferrite substrate. Special attention has also been paid to approximate the non-uniform magneto-static fields produced by the embedded windings. The complete design is implemented in 10 layers of ferrite LTCC, making it the first magnetically tunable filter with embedded windings and extremely small size [(5$, times ,$5$, times ,1.1$) $ {rm mm}^{3}$]. The filter demonstrates a measured tunability of 4% and an insertion loss of 2.3 dB. With the small form factor, embedded windings, and low bias requirements, the design is highly suitable for compact and tunable SoP applications. View full abstract»

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  • A Tri-Band Bandpass Filter With Wide Stopband Using Asymmetric Stub-Loaded Resonators

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    This letter presents a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) with a wide stopband using asymmetric stub-loaded resonators (ASLR). A tri-band filter sample was fabricated by using two ASLRs with coupled I/O ports. By properly tuning the electrical length ratios of the ASLRs ($alpha$ and $gamma$), three passbands can be designed at 1.4, 2.4, and 3.5 GHz. The harmonic responses are suppressed effectively by forming an uncoupled section at the end of the ASLRs, and the stopband region is formed from 3.7 to 7 GHz with a rejection level of 30 dB. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results. View full abstract»

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  • A Wideband Differential Low-Noise-Amplifier With IM3 Harmonics and Noise Canceling

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    This letter presents a wideband 2-stage differential LNA which utilizes the canceling techniques of IM3 harmonic distortion and noise. The 1st stage adopts a ${rm gm}$-boosted cross-coupled push-pull amplifier to achieve an input matching and reduce the NF. The 2nd stage simultaneously cancels the IM3 and thermal noise of the transistors in the 1st stage. The LNA has a gain of 16~18 dB in a wide bandwidth of 0.1~2.5 GHz, while consuming 13 mW from a 1.2 V power supply. The NF is 1.7~2.7 dB and IIP3/IIP2 are $-3sim 0$/18~21.5 dBm, respectively. The LNA is fabricated in 65 nm digital CMOS technology and the chip area is 0.008 ${rm mm}^{2}$ . View full abstract»

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  • Energy Sensitive Bandpass Filter to Protect Ku-Band LNAs from HPEM Threats

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    This letter introduces an energy sensitive bandpass filter (ESBPF) to protect Ku-band low noise amplifiers (LNAs) from high power electromagnetic (HPEM) threats. The ESBPF circuit has anti-parallel Schottky Barrier diodes mounted on a planar bandpass filter (BPF) circuit. The ESBPF operates as a BPF at a power level below the maximum permissible power level (MPPL) of the LNAs. However, the circuit works like a variable attenuator at the power level equal to or higher than the MPPL of the LNAs. To increase attenuation and selectivity functions, a 63$^{circ}$ line section between two planar filter circuits loaded transversely along WR-75 waveguide has been inserted to cascade. The development of the circuit model has been started with lumped elements under the condition of a 0 dBm MPPL of LNA. Then, the model has been simulated, optimized with HFSS, and fabricated. Measurement results show that the ESBPF has insertion loss less than 1.27 dB at the power level lower than $-$2 dBm for the frequency range from 11.8 to 12.3 GHz. At the power level higher than $-$2 dBm, the circuit provides different levels of attenuation depending on the input power within the identical frequency band; 31 dB insertion loss, which provides isolation characteristic, has been measured at the power level of 30 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Sparse Memory Taps for RF Power Amplifier Behavioral Models

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    When a larger than required dimension such as memory depth or order of nonlinearity, is specified during behavioral model extraction, redundant terms can be calculated when determining the weights of the model. Extraction of a behavioral model can therefore benefit from a priori knowledge of the system to be modeled. Conversely if there is a limitation in the hardware required to calculate model outputs a limit can be set for the maximum number of weights to be used. In this letter, an approach is proposed which allows the input delay vector to be reduced to a sparse vector including the delayed samples which are most important in the construction of the power amplifier model. Simulations of behavioral models for experimentally measured data of two different PAs demonstrates the sparse models extracted in this way are as accurate as a full model but have a more compact and as a result more computationally efficient structure. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters (MWCL) publishes three page papers that focus on microwave theory, techniques and applications as they relate to components, devices, circuits, biological effects, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals.

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