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Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 104
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - 1391
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Systems publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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  • Foreword Special Section on Transmission Investment, Pricing, and Construction

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1392 - 1393
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  • Economic Criteria for Planning Transmission Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1394 - 1405
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From an economic perspective, a common criterion for assessing the merits of a transmission investment is its impacts on social welfare. The underlying assumption in using this criterion is that side payments may be used to distribute the social gains among all market players. In reality, however, since the impacts of an electricity transmission project on different players may vary, such side payments are rather difficult to implement. This paper focuses on different economic criteria that should be considered when planning electricity transmission investments. We propose an electricity transmission investment assessment methodology that is capable of evaluating the economic impacts on the various effected stakeholders and account for strategic responses that could enhance or impede the investment's objectives. We formulate transmission planning as an optimization problem under alternative conflicting objectives and investigate the policy implications of divergent expansion plans resulting from the planner's level of anticipation of strategic responses. We find that optimal transmission expansion plans may be very sensitive to supply and demand parameters. We also show that the transmission investments have significant distributional impact, creating acute conflicts of interests among market participants. We use a 32-bus representation of the main Chilean grid to illustrate our results. View full abstract»

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  • Market-Based Coordination of Transmission and Generation Capacity Planning

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1406 - 1419
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an ISO model for coordinating transmission expansion planning with competitive generation capacity planning in electricity markets. The purpose of the model is a holistic simulation of generation and transmission capacity expansion in the market environment. The solution represents an iterative process for simulating the interactions among GENCOs, TRANSCOs, and the ISO, which might be terminated by the ISO based on a pre-specified stopping criterion. The proposed model adopts a joint energy and transmission auction market and a capacity mechanism. The joint auction market enables competition to occur among generation and transmission resources. The capacity mechanism offers incentives for market participant investments that reflect the locational values of additional capacity. Transmission capacity expansion decisions are made by merchant transmission lines that recover their capacity investments through transmission marginal pricing and capacity payments. Transmission network security is reflected in the proposed competitive resource planning model. The examples illustrate a coordinated planning of generation and transmission in restructured power systems. View full abstract»

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  • Multiyear Transmission Expansion Planning Using Ordinal Optimization

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1420 - 1428
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The increasing complexity of the transmission expansion planning problem in the restructured industry makes simulation the only viable means to evaluate and compare the performances of different plans. Ordinal optimization is an approach suitable for solving the simulation-based multiyear transmission expansion planning problem. It uses crude models and rough estimates to derive a small set of plans for which simulations are necessary and worthwhile to find good enough solutions. In the end, reasonable solutions are obtained with drastically reduced computational burden. View full abstract»

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  • Value-Based Transmission Expansion Planning of Hydrothermal Systems Under Uncertainty

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1429 - 1435
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission planning studies in hydrothermal systems deal with complex issues. Two include 1) the need for a robust grid that can accommodate a large number of economic dispatch patterns caused by differing hydrological conditions in the river basins and 2) the high cost of grid reinforcements due to the large distance from hydro plants to load centers and the required N-l security criterion. It is thus necessary to consider the tradeoff between supply reliability and reinforcement cost. The resulting planning problem is formulated as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization model. The objective function is to minimize the sum of investment costs and expected load-shedding costs. The constraints include linearized power flow equations, limits on circuit flows for all combinations of economic dispatch points (which capture hydrological variation), and circuit contingencies (which capture supply reliability). This paper describes a new solution scheme for this problem that is based on two techniques: 1) the extension of a binary disjunctive technique, which transforms the integer nonlinear problem into a linear one and 2) screening strategies, which allow a judicious choice of contingencies and candidate circuits. Planning studies for Brazil and Bolivia are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Vulnerability-Constrained Transmission Expansion Planning: A Stochastic Programming Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1436 - 1445
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a stochastic programming approach to optimally reinforce and expand the transmission network so that the impact of deliberate attacks is mitigated. The network planner selects the new lines to be built accounting for the vulnerability of the transmission network against a set of credible intentional outages. The vulnerability of the transmission network is measured in terms of the expected load shed. An instance of the previously reported terrorist threat problem is solved to generate the set of credible deliberate attacks. The proposed model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program for which efficient solvers are available. Results from a case study based on the IEEE Two Area Reliability Test System are provided and analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Planning and Operational Issues Arising From the Widespread Use of HTLS Conductors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1446 - 1455
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-temperature low-sag (HTLS) conductors, which can double the ampacity of conventional conductors, are becoming a mature option to uprate thermally limited transmission lines. This paper addresses several issues related to the widespread use of HTLS conductors in existing power systems. The first part of the paper analyzes the influence of higher line resistances on power transfer capability as well as the accuracy of conventional network models, based on constant conductor temperatures. The second part deals with the problem planners are facing when considering existing network reinforcement options versus the new alternative offered by HTLS conductors, intended to replace Alloy Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) equipment in situ. This leads to a security-constrained optimization problem involving binary decision variables. The 57-bus system is used throughout the paper to illustrate the main ideas. View full abstract»

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  • Using a System Model to Decompose the Effects of Influential Factors on Locational Marginal Prices

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1456 - 1465
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Locational marginal prices (LMPs) are influenced by various factors such as load uncertainty, thermal limit, capacity reserve, and market power. We build a system model to quantitatively analyze the effects of these individual factors and their interactions on the mean and standard deviation of the LMPs, assuming that the factors are either active or inactive. According to the sensitivity analysis results from convex quadratic programming, LMPs are piecewise linear functions of demand variation, which is a key property used in the computation. This paper attempts to answer the following types of questions: (1) To what extent does market power raise the LMPs above the marginal cost? (2) What effects will generation or transmission capacity expansion have on relieving high LMPs under high demand scenarios? An IEEE 30-bus test system is used as an example to demonstrate our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Marginal Loss Pricing for Hours With Transmission Congestion

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1466 - 1474
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nodal electricity prices are designed to send efficient economic signals to market participants for operating and investment decisions. The inherent nonlinearity of transmission losses and the use of marginal loss pricing can obscure the intended economic information in the loss component of nodal prices. As one step in clarifying the determination of the marginal loss price component, this paper discusses the calculation of nodal electricity prices in lossy networks and presents a variety of accepted methods for determining marginal loss. This paper then proposes a method for calculating the marginal loss component of nodal prices during hours with congestion that reflects each market participant's contribution to marginal losses more accurately than current implementations. The proposed method recognizes that increases in incremental energy flows cannot flow across constrained lines, and thus, system-wide marginal losses should not be attributed to generators or loads in the constrained subregions. The objectives of the discussion are to improve the understanding of how marginal losses are determined and also to improve the accuracy of the information conveyed in the marginal loss price component. The ultimate goal is to promote more efficient price signals to electricity market participants for both transmission loss and congestion. View full abstract»

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  • DCOPF-Based LMP Simulation: Algorithm, Comparison With ACOPF, and Sensitivity

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1475 - 1485
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The locational marginal pricing (LMP) methodology has become the dominant approach in power markets. Moreover, the dc optimal power flow (DCOPF) model has been applied in the power industry to calculate locational marginal prices (LMPs), especially in market simulation and planning owing to its robustness and speed. In this paper, first, an iterative DCOPF-based algorithm is presented with the fictitious nodal demand (FND) model to calculate LMP. The algorithm has three features: the iterative approach is employed to address the nonlinear marginal loss; FND is proposed to eliminate the large mismatch at the reference bus if FND is not applied; and an offset of system loss in the energy balance equation is proved to be necessary because the net injection multiplied by marginal delivery factors creates doubled system loss. Second, the algorithm is compared with ACOPF algorithm for accuracy of LMP results at various load levels using the PJM 5-bus system. It is clearly shown that the FND algorithm is a good estimate of the LMP calculated from the ACOPF algorithm and outperforms the lossless DCOPF algorithm. Third, the DCOPF-based algorithm is employed to analyze the sensitivity of LMP with respect to the system load. The infinite sensitivity or step change in LMP is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Market-Based Price Differentials in Zonal and LMP Market Designs

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1486 - 1494
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The California ISO is redesigning procedures for scheduling, dispatch, and congestion management, which are critical to reliable, nondiscriminatory transmission service. The redesign implements security constrained unit commitment and locational marginal pricing to reflect actual costs of delivering energy, using an accurate network model to price both congestion and losses. CAISO simulations of the market redesign are a unique opportunity to compare a) estimated LMPs if the redesign were in place during recent historical periods with b) actual conditions, as logged in operating records. The study uses market schedules and bids in an alternating current optimal power flow simulation. Resulting LMPs are similar within current congestion zones, but price differences occur during high loads, reflecting actual changes in system conditions. The frequency and magnitude of LMP differences are consistent with the current market, suggesting that the increased market transparency will produce stable, predictable prices. Case studies demonstrate that optimization using SCUC and SCED, coupled with the state estimator, allows more appropriate responses to system conditions, improved utilization of transmission capacity, reduction in congestion costs, and enhanced system reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Border Flow Rights and Contracts for Differences of Differences: Models for Electric Transmission Property Rights

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1495 - 1506
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a property rights model for electric transmission is proposed and its properties analyzed. The proposed rights, called "border flow rights," support financial hedging of transmission risk and merchant transmission expansion through associated financial rights, called "contracts for differences of differences." These financial rights allow for forward trading of both energy and transmission by a unified exchange, avoiding the bifurcation in current markets between decentralized long-term energy trading and centralized long-term transmission trading. Such long-term trading can help to support the financing of both generation and transmission assets. We consider incentive properties of such a right in the absence of lumpiness, economies of scale, and market power. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Three Methods Proposed for the Computation of Inter-TSO Payments in the Internal Electricity Market of the European Union

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1507 - 1522
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Parties to the Internal Electricity Market of the European Union (IEM) decided in 2001 to abolish the method of pancaking of transmission tariffs for cross-border transactions that was originally in place. Instead, they have agreed to implement a system whereby national transmission tariffs provide access to the entire IEM. This system is supplemented by a scheme of inter-TSO payments. However, conflict may arise if the compensation that a country must pay another one is not in accordance with the electrical usage that the former is making of the grid of the latter. For instance, Inter TSO Compensation methods (ITC methods) implicitly allocate the cost of any existing or new transmission line. Therefore, the adoption of an inefficient method may be an obstacle for building some needed regional grid investments. Consequently, one should give careful consideration to the selection of the ITC method. This paper analyzes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the implementation of the most relevant ITC methods that have been considered so far in the European debate. When assessing each method from a conceptual point of view, considerable attention is devoted to the critical examination of its main underlying assumptions. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Use of System Charges Under Future GB Power System Scenarios

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1523 - 1531
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (863 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    If transmission charges are to reflect costs, they should be affected by the location of demand and generation. This paper describes the investment cost-related pricing (ICRP) methodology used to calculate transmission charges in Great Britain (GB), which is based on the marginal investment cost of additional demand or generation, using a dc load flow transport model. We apply this existing method to calculate charges for the Supergen FutureNet scenarios for 2020. This study highlights the sensitivities in charges for use of the transmission system arising from plausible demand and generation developments. The changes in tariffs will present financial challenges for system users in some areas. The objective of the work presented is to illustrate the sensitivity of the charges produced by this methodology to changes in demand, generation, and network topology rather than compare alternative pricing approaches. The conclusion drawn is that the ICRP system pricing method may be suitable in future years but only with some important issues investigated and resolved. View full abstract»

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  • An Aumann-Shapley Approach to Allocate Transmission Service Cost Among Network Users in Electricity Markets

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1532 - 1546
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1053 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a new methodology for the allocation of transmission service cost among network users in energy markets. The proposed method is based on an optimization/game-theoretic framework (Aumann-Shapley) that retains the desirable properties of other existing methodologies such as the Average Participations Factors (APF) and Long Run Marginal Costs (LRMC). The approach is shown to be computationally feasible and presents desirable characteristics in terms of economic coherence and isonomy. Computational results are presented for the Brazilian power system and compared with those obtained by three other methodologies: LRMC, APF, and the current method adopted in Brazil. View full abstract»

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  • Determining Parameters of Turbine's Model Using Heat Balance Data of Steam Power Unit for Educational Purposes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1547 - 1553
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the procedure for deriving the parameters of an IEEE governor-turbine model (particularly turbine model) based on a practical study case consisting of a 200-MW tandem compound, single reheat steam unit and its available heat balance data is presented. The main focus of the work is on presenting a regular procedure and using only available heat balance data of the steam unit, to be suitable for training the principles and details of such an approach for educational purposes. Unavailable parameters are approximated with simple thermodynamic assumptions, resulting in good correspondence to typical values. The model response to step changes for special scenarios is simulated and presented as well. View full abstract»

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  • Toward Estimating Autonomous Neural Network-Based Electric Load Forecasters

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1554 - 1562
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Anticipation of load's future behavior is very important for decision making in power system operation and planning. During the last 40 years, many different load models have been proposed for short-term forecasting. After 1991, the literature on this subject has been dominated by neural network (NN) based proposals. This is mainly due to the NNs' capacity for capturing the nonlinear relationship between load and exogenous variables. However, one major risk in using neural models is the possibility of excessive training data approximation, i.e., overfitting, which usually increases the out-of-sample forecasting errors. The extent of nonlinearity provided by NN-based load forecasters, which depends on the input space representation, has been adjusted using heuristic procedures. Training early stopping based on cross validation, network pruning methods, and architecture selection based on trial and error are popular. The empirical nature of these procedures makes their application cumbersome and time consuming. This paper develops two nonparametric procedures for solving, in a coupled way, the problems of NN structure and input selection for short-term load forecasting. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission-Constrained Residual Demand Derivative in Electricity Markets

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1563 - 1573
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (229 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The residual demand derivative plays a central role in constructing the best response to competitors' strategies in widely used strategic models such as the Cournot model and the supply function model. In the absence of transportation or transmission constraints, the residual demand derivative is obtained straightforwardly by taking the derivative of the residual demand function with respect to price. However, in an electricity market, the market is embedded in a transmission network. When there is no transmission congestion, the residual demand derivative can be calculated as usual, but when there is transmission congestion, the residual demand derivative is more difficult to calculate. In this paper, we characterize the transmission-constrained residual demand derivative. We use the dc power flow model and characterize the residual demand derivative analytically. The residual demand derivative could also be obtained from the solution of a specific weighted least squares problem. Several properties of the residual demand derivative are implications of the weighted least squares theory. We also characterize the condition under which the residual demand derivative will be bounded or unbounded when there are perfectly elastic supplies/demands at some buses in the system. We verified our results in three examples: a two-bus system, a four-bus two-loop system, and a three-bus one-loop system with one perfectly elastic supply. The residual demand derivative characterization can be used to analyze the strategic behavior in both the Cournot model and the supply function model with transmission constraints, and it can be easily incorporated into sophisticated optimal strategy algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A Harmonically Coupled Admittance Matrix Model for AC/DC Converters

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1574 - 1582
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new method to model the harmonic generating characteristics of AC/DC converters. The model transforms the time domain nonlinear characteristic of the converter into a frequency domain linear admittance matrix. The matrix represents the coupling among the converter AC side harmonic voltages and currents accurately and it does not vary with the harmonic conditions of the system. The proposed model opens up a new way to conduct harmonic power flow studies. This paper presents the theoretical foundation and analytical derivation of the admittance model for both single-phase and three-phase bridge rectifiers. Potential applications of the model are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel Implementation of OBDD-Based Splitting Surface Search for Power System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1583 - 1593
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Parallel computational structure is helpful for many complicated problems, especially those which can be divided into multiple independent simpler sub-problems. The ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDD)-based splitting surface search algorithm owns this kind of dividability, derived from the associative law of Boolean expression and the dividability of matrix operation. We have implemented the algorithm with the parallel computation structure MPI to save up computing time. Customized verification is available on our interactive illustrative website http://obdd.cfins.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/ (login user name: mag, password: 199707). View full abstract»

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  • Point Estimate Schemes to Solve the Probabilistic Power Flow

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1594 - 1601
    Cited by:  Papers (84)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the behavior of Hong's point estimate methods to account for uncertainties on the probabilistic power flow problem. This uncertainty may arise from different sources as load demand or generation unit outages. Point estimate methods constitute a remarkable tool to handle stochastic power system problems because good results can be achieved by using the same routines as those corresponding to deterministic problems, while keeping low the computational burden. In previous works related to power systems, only the two-point estimate method has been considered. In this paper, four different Hong's point estimate schemes are presented and tested on the probabilistic power flow problem. Binomial and normal distributions are used to model input random variables. Results for two different case studies, based on the IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems, respectively, are presented and compared against those obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation. Particularly, this paper shows that the use of the scheme provides the best performance when a high number of random variables, both continuous and discrete, are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Quantification of Market Performance as a Function of System Security

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1602 - 1611
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The tight coupling between market and system operations in the restructured environment requires a thorough understanding of the interdependence between the market performance and the way the power systems are operated. In particular, we need to go beyond the qualitative characterization and to quantify the dependence of the market performance on the system security. Such studies are typically not performed in today's regional transmission organization, or RTO, structures. In this paper, we develop a general approach to quantify the monetary impacts of complying with a specified security criterion when the deployment of appropriate preventive and/or corrective security control actions is fully taken into account. This approach is deployed in the day-ahead electricity markets and is based on the emulation of the way the RTO currently operates the market and the grid, the latter in compliance with the security criterion. The proposed approach has a wide range of applications such as comparative market performance assessments of different security criteria and the cost/benefit analysis of network improvements to mitigate the market performance impacts of a set of specified contingencies. We illustrate the application of the proposed approach on the large-scale ISO-NE system to quantify the monetary impacts associated with changing from the current security criterion to two other criteria using the actual 2005 day-ahead data-the historical system model and the bids/offers submitted-with the actual market clearing methodology. These studies capture, in a meaningful way, the impacts of the changes with respect to the current security criterion. An important finding of this study is that the economic efficiency of electricity markets need not decrease when the system is operated under a stricter criterion. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Spinning Reserve for a Wind-Thermal Power System Using EIPSO

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1612 - 1621
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an evolutionary iteration particle swarm optimization (EIPSO) algorithm to solve the nonlinear optimal scheduling problem. A new index called iteration best is incorporated into particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the solution quality. The new PSO, named iteration PSO (IPSO), is embedded into evolutionary programming (EP) to further improve the computational efficiency. The EIPSO is then applied to solve the optimal spinning reserve for a wind-thermal power system (OSRWT). Results are used to evaluate the effects of wind generation on the spinning reserve selection of a power system. The OSRWT program considers the outage cost as well as the total operation cost of thermal units to evaluate the level of spinning reserve. The up spinning reserve (USR) and down spinning reserve (DSR) are also introduced into the OSRWT problem. The optimal scheduling of spinning reserve was reached while minimizing the sum of total operation cost and outage cost. Two practical power systems are used as numerical examples to test the new algorithm. The feasibility of the new algorithm is demonstrated by the numerical example, and EIPSO solution quality and computational efficiency are compared to those of other algorithms. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Covers the requirements, planning, analysis, reliability, operation, and economics of electric generating, transmission, and distribution systems for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Conejo
The Ohio State University