By Topic

Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2007

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1049
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (41 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part C: Applications and Reviews publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Information Systems Theory and Informational Macrodynamics: Review of the Main Results

    Page(s): 1050 - 1066
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The science of systems requires a specific and constructive mathematical model and language which would describe jointly such systemic categories as adaptation, self-organization, complexity, and bring the applied tools for building a system model for each specific object of a diverse nature. This formalism should be connected directly with a world of information and computer applications of a systemic model, developed for a particular object. The aim of the considered information systems theory (IST) is to build a bridge between the mathematical systemic formalism and information technologies. The objective is to develop a constructive systemic model of revealing information regularities and specific information code for each object. To fulfill the goal and the considered systems' definition, the IST joins two main concepts. First is the unified information description of the different nature's interacted flows, with a common information language and systems modeling methodology, applied to distinct interdisciplinary objects. Second is the general system's information formalism for building the model, which allows expressing mathematically the system's regularities and main systemic mechanisms. This formalism is represented by informational macrodynamics (IMDs), which reveals the system model's main layers: microlevel stochastics, macrolevel dynamics, hierarchical dynamic network (IN) of information structures, its minimal logic, and optimal code of communication language, generated by the IN hierarchy, dynamics, and geometry. The system's complex dynamics originate information geometry and evolution with the functional information mechanisms of ordering, cooperation, mutation, stability, diversity, adaptation, self-organization, and the double helix's genetic code. The developed IMD's theoretical computer-based methodology and software has been applied to such areas as technology, communications, computer science, intelligent processes, biology, economy, m- anagement, and other nonphysical and physical subjects. The review is written for a broad reader's audience familiar with basic physics, calculus, and computers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Survey of Wireless Indoor Positioning Techniques and Systems

    Page(s): 1067 - 1080
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless indoor positioning systems have become very popular in recent years. These systems have been successfully used in many applications such as asset tracking and inventory management. This paper provides an overview of the existing wireless indoor positioning solutions and attempts to classify different techniques and systems. Three typical location estimation schemes of triangulation, scene analysis, and proximity are analyzed. We also discuss location fingerprinting in detail since it is used in most current system or solutions. We then examine a set of properties by which location systems are evaluated, and apply this evaluation method to survey a number of existing systems. Comprehensive performance comparisons including accuracy, precision, complexity, scalability, robustness, and cost are presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Content-Based 3-D Model Retrieval: A Survey

    Page(s): 1081 - 1098
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the number of available 3D models grows, there is an increasing need to index and retrieve them according to their contents. This paper provides a survey of the up-to-date methods for content-based 3D model retrieval. First, the new challenges encountered in 3D model retrieval are discussed. Then, the system framework and some key techniques of content-based 3D model retrieval are identified and explained, including canonical coordinate normalization and preprocessing, feature extraction, similarity match, query representation and user interface, and performance evaluation. In particular, similarity measures using semantic clues and machine learning methods, as well as retrieval approaches using nonshape features, are given adequate recognition as improvements and complements for traditional shape-matching techniques. Typical 3D model retrieval systems and search engines are also listed and compared. Finally, future research directions are indicated, and an extensive bibliography is provided. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Iterative Learning Control: Brief Survey and Categorization

    Page(s): 1099 - 1121
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (490 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the iterative learning control (ILC) literature published between 1998 and 2004 is categorized and discussed, extending the earlier reviews presented by two of the authors. The papers includes a general introduction to ILC and a technical description of the methodology. The selected results are reviewed, and the ILC literature is categorized into subcategories within the broader division of application-focused and theory-focused results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Segmentation and Modeling of Full Human Body Shape From 3-D Scan Data: A Survey

    Page(s): 1122 - 1136
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recent advances in full human body (HB) imaging technology illustrated by the 3D human body scanner (HBS), a device delivering full HB shape data, opened up large perspectives for the deployment of this technology in various fields such as the clothing industry, anthropology, and entertainment. However, these advances also brought challenges on how to process and interpret the data delivered by the HBS in order to bridge the gap between this technology and potential applications. This paper presents a literature survey of research work on HBS data segmentation and modeling aiming at overcoming these challenges, and discusses and evaluates different approaches with respect to several requirements. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling, Identification, Design, and Implementation of Nonlinear Automotive Idle Speed Control Systems—An Overview

    Page(s): 1137 - 1151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automotive idle speed control (ISC) is one of the most challenging aspects in engine control fields. Essentially it is a highly nonlinear, time-varying, complicated, and uncertain dynamic control problem. As the typical automotive transient operation, the quality of the ISC has a significant impact on fuel economy, emission levels (HC, CO, and NOx), combustion stability, transient response, and noise, vibration, and harshness characteristics. This paper presents a thorough review of various dynamic control technologies which have been successfully applied to ISC systems. In particular, practical implementations on a variety of different engine types are provided, which cover broad areas of control, including classical control, modern control, and intelligent control. Over 90 selected papers published during the last two decades are reviewed and then summarized from a control point of view. These control approaches can be generalized to the control of other automotive, electrical, mechanical, and aeronautical systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Security Challenge and Defense in VoIP Infrastructures

    Page(s): 1152 - 1162
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) has become a popular alternative to traditional public-switched telephone network (PSTN) networks that provides advantages of low cost and flexible advanced ldquodigitalrdquo features. The flexibility of the VoIP system and the convergence of voice and data networks brings with it additional security risks. These are in addition to the common security concerns faced by the underlying IP data network facilities that a VoIP system relies on. The result being that the VoIP network further complicates the security assurance mission faced by enterprises employing this technology. It is time to document various security issues that a VoIP infrastructure may face and analyze the challenges and solutions that may guide future research and development efforts. In this paper, we examine and investigate the concerns and requirements of VoIP security. After a thorough review of security issues and defense mechanisms, we focus on attacks and countermeasures unique to VoIP systems that are essential for current and future VoIP implantations. Then, we analyze two popular industry best practices for securing VoIP networks and conclude this paper with further discussion on future research directions. This paper aims to direct future research efforts and to offer helpful guidelines for practitioners. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Integrated Diagnostic Development Process for Automotive Engine Control Systems

    Page(s): 1163 - 1173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Theory and applications of model-based fault diagnosis have progressed significantly in the last four decades. In addition, there has been increased use of model-based design and testing in the automotive industry to reduce design errors, perform rapid prototyping, and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS). This paper presents a new model-based diagnostic development process for automotive engine control systems. This process seamlessly employs a graph-based dependency model and mathematical models for online/offline diagnosis. The hybrid method improves the diagnostic system's accuracy and consistency, utilizes existing validated knowledge on empirical models, enables remote diagnosis, and responds to the challenges of increased system complexity. The development platform consists of an engine electronic control unit (ECU) rapid prototyping system and HILS equipment - the air intake subsystem (AIS). The diagnostic strategy is tested and validated using the HILS platform. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Business-to-Consumer Mobile Agent-Based Internet Commerce System (MAGICS)

    Page(s): 1174 - 1189
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1007 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present MAGICS, a mobile agent-based system for supporting business-to-consumer electronic commerce (e-commerce) or mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications. To use the system, consumers first provide their buying requirements to a proxy/agent server through a Web browser or a wireless application protocol (WAP) terminal. Having obtained the requirements, mobile agents are generated to carry out tasks for the consumers including getting offers from merchants, evaluating offers, and even completing purchases. In the case of mobile commerce, consumers can generate a mobile agent to conduct a search and evaluation in the digital marketspace before making a purchase in the physical marketplace. To make it possible to choose an offer that best satisfies the consumer's requirement(s), we present a mathematical model for evaluating multiple decision factors. To test the basic functions of the mobile agent-based Internet commerce system (MAGICS), we have built a prototype system. To minimize the average cost of a product (including the cost of sending agents), we have also developed an analytical model that can determine how many agents should be sent to compare prices. Four different price distributions and some real price information are analyzed based on the model. The analysis provides valuable insights into the design of mobile agent-based shopping applications for m-commerce, in particular, and for e-commerce, in general. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimal Advertising Campaign Generation for Multiple Brands Using MOGA

    Page(s): 1190 - 1201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB)  

    The paper proposes a new modified multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) for the problem of optimal television (TV) advertising campaign generation for multiple brands. This NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with numerous constraints is one of the key issues for an advertising agency when producing the optimal TV mediaplan. The classical approach to the solution of this problem is the greedy heuristic, which relies on the strength of the preceding commercial breaks when selecting the next break to add to the campaign. While the greedy heuristic is capable of generating only a group of solutions that are closely related in the objective space, the proposed modified MOGA produces a Pareto-optimal set of chromosomes that: 1) outperform the greedy heuristic; and 2) let the mediaplanner choose from a variety of uniformly distributed tradeoff solutions. To achieve these results, the special problem-specific solution encoding, genetic operators, and original local optimization routine were developed for the algorithm. These techniques allow the algorithm to manipulate with only feasible individuals, thus, significantly improving its performance that is complicated by the problem constraints. The efficiency of the developed optimization method is verified using the real data sets from the Canadian advertising industry. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Type-2 Fuzzy Switching Control System for Biped Robots

    Page(s): 1202 - 1213
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a type-2 fuzzy switching control system is proposed for a biped robot, which includes switched nonlinear system modeling, type-2 fuzzy control system design, and a type-2 fuzzy modeling algorithm. A new switched system model is proposed to represent the continuous-time dynamic and discrete-event dynamic of a walking biped as a whole, which is helpful to analyze the closed-loop stability of the biped locomotion. A type-2 fuzzy switching control system is proposed for the switched system model to guarantee the gait stability and to achieve a robust control performance with a simplified control scheme. Finally, we propose a new fuzzy c-mean variance algorithm for the type-2 fuzzy system modeling to capture the variance of each clustering means, which can translate random uncertainties of original data into rule uncertainties. Simulation results are reported to show the performance of the proposed control system model and algorithms. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Haptic Interaction Stability With Respect to Grasp Force

    Page(s): 1214 - 1222
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the contact instability of admittance control of a haptic interface. A high level of rigidity of the grasp of a subject operating the haptic interface will result in unstable behavior of the haptic interaction. Experiments with a system dedicated to measuring grasp force were performed to explore the conditions when grasp force has reached the critical grasp force that destabilizes the haptic interface. The critical grasp force was quantified for various values of virtual environment parameters. The experimental results are compared to simulation results obtained with a model of haptic interaction. To improve stability, two methods were applied: one with virtual coupling, the other with a compensator filter. A model was used to define the structure of the compensator filter and to determine the parameters of the virtual coupling and the compensator filter. Experimental and simulation results confirmed an improvement of stability. Both methods allow higher grasp forces of the human operator, and experiments show that the compensator filter allows higher grasp forces than the virtual coupling. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Progressive Random Sampling With Stratification

    Page(s): 1223 - 1230
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A number of applications, including claims made under federal social welfare programs, requires retrospective sampling over multiple time periods. A common characteristic of such samples is that population members could appear in multiple time periods. When this occurs, and when the marginal cost of obtaining multiperiod information is minimum for a member appearing in the sample of the period being actively sampled, the progressive random sampling (PRS) method developed by the authors earlier can be applied. This paper enhances the progressive random sampling method by combining it with stratification schemes; the resultant stratified progressive random sampling (SPRS) technique is shown to provide significant improvement over traditional sampling techniques whenever stratification is appropriate. An empirical example based on a data transformation of a real-world application is provided to illustrate the practical application of the technique. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human Performance Issues and User Interface Design for Teleoperated Robots

    Page(s): 1231 - 1245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the future, it will become more common for humans to team up with robotic systems to perform tasks that humans cannot realistically accomplish alone. Even for autonomous and semiautonomous systems, teleoperation will be an important default mode. However, teleoperation can be a challenging task because the operator is remotely located. As a result, the operator's situation awareness of the remote environment can be compromised and the mission effectiveness can suffer. This paper presents a detailed examination of more than 150 papers covering human performance issues and suggested mitigation solutions. The paper summarizes the performance decrements caused by video images bandwidth, time lags, frame rates, lack of proprioception, frame of reference, two-dimensional views, attention switches, and motion effects. Suggested solutions and their limitations include stereoscopic displays, synthetic overlay, multimodal interfaces, and various predicative and decision support systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the Detection of Clones in Sensor Networks Using Random Key Predistribution

    Page(s): 1246 - 1258
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Random key predistribution security schemes are well suited for use in sensor networks due to their low overhead. However, the security of a network using predistributed keys can be compromised by cloning attacks. In this attack, an adversary breaks into a sensor node, reprograms it, and inserts several copies of the node back into the sensor network. Cloning gives the adversary an easy way to build an army of malicious nodes that can cripple the sensor network. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that a sensor network can use to detect the presence of clones. Keys that are present on the cloned nodes are detected by looking at how often they are used to authenticate nodes in the network. Simulations verify that the proposed method accurately detects the presence of clones in the system and supports their removal. We quantify the extent of false positives and false negatives in the clone detection process. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a 3-D Serial Eel-Like Robot

    Page(s): 1259 - 1268
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the dynamic modeling of a 3-D-serial underwater ee1-like robot using recursive algorithms based on the Newton-Euler equations. Both direct and inverse models are treated in the paper. The inverse dynamic model algorithm gives the head acceleration and the joint torques as a function of the joint positions, velocities, and accelerations. The direct dynamic model gives the head and joint accelerations as a function of the joint positions, velocities, and input torques. The proposed algorithms can be considered as a generalization of the recursive Newton-Euler dynamic algorithms of serial manipulators with fixed base. The algorithms are easy to implement and to simulate whatever the number of degrees of freedom of the robot. An example with 12 spherical joints is presented. The fluid forces have been taken into account using a simple model based on Morison's model. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Wavelet-Based Detection and Its Application to Tracking in an IR Sequence

    Page(s): 1269 - 1286
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an effective technique using a wavelet-based temporal decomposition algorithm to detect single-pixel targets with motion from frame to frame. We next integrate the proposed detection algorithm with an interacting multiple-model method and multiple filter bank approach to provide an effective solution for tracking multiple single-pixel nonmaneuvering and maneuvering targets. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we establish the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach. Based on exhaustive empirical study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach in tracking multiple single-pixel targets in a sequence of infrared images with clutter and occlusion due to moving clouds in airborne applications. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Inventory Systems Using Batch Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets

    Page(s): 1287 - 1302
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)  

    This paper presents our work on modeling and performance analysis of inventory systems using batch deterministic and stochastic Petri nets (BDSPNs). It addresses issues frequently raised by industrial companies, but did not receive enough attention by the Petri nets (PNs) community in spite of its important role in the study of discrete event systems. The BDSPN is a new class of PNs capable of describing the synchronization of discrete and batch token flows in discrete batch processes. Such processes appear in inventory systems or more general supply chains where materials are purchased in finite discrete quantities (batches of different sizes), and many operations such as inventory replenishment and customer order fulfillment are usually performed in a batch way because of the batch nature of customer orders and/or in order to take advantages of the economies of scale. In this paper, the BDSPN model is formally introduced, and its conflict resolutions of transitions and batch firing indexes are addressed. The model is then applied to the modeling and performance evaluation of various inventory systems. Analytic performance evaluation techniques are developed for the model with illustrative applications to the inventory systems. Our study shows that the model is powerful for both modeling and performance evaluation of the systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Restoration of Services in Interdependent Infrastructure Systems: A Network Flows Approach

    Page(s): 1303 - 1317
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1174 KB)  

    Modern society depends on the operations of civil infrastructure systems, such as transportation, energy, telecommunications, and water. These systems have become so interconnected, one relying on another, that disruption of one may lead to disruptions in all. The approach taken in this research is to model these systems by explicitly identifying these interconnections or interdependencies. Definitions of five types of infrastructure inter-dependencies are presented and incorporated into a network flows mathematical representation, i.e., an interdependent layer network model. Using the lower Manhattan region of New York, for illustrative purposes, the implementation of the model is shown. First, the data requirements are presented with realistic data on the interdependent infrastructure systems of power, telecommunications, and subways. Next, a scenario is given that causes major disruption in the services provided by these infrastructures and demonstrates the use of the model in guiding restoration of services. The paper concludes with a discussion of accomplishments and opportunities for future work. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Discriminant Analysis Based Prognostics of Avionic Systems

    Page(s): 1318 - 1326
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel discriminant analysis based predictive model for preventing false alarms leading to unnecessary replacement of an avionic system component is presented. The model is validated by prediction of false alarms (also known as false positives, type I, or alpha errors) in the left generator shaft of a Sikorsky helicopter UH-60, using the Goodrich health and usage management system (HUMS). The paper presents one of the first approaches based on applying discriminant analysis for prognostics of avionic systems, specifically in the context of identifying false positives within the next 1 or 2 h. In practice, predictions for the next 2 h are sufficient as typical helicopter flight schedules and durations are such that up to 2 h advance notice is most useful. This is an important contribution because drive train components of helicopters are normally very robust with very rare failures; therefore, the cost of unnecessary preventive maintenance based on false alarms is very high. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Ontology for Virtual Organization Breeding Environments

    Page(s): 1327 - 1341
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Companies and individuals connect into networks to share their resources with the purpose of achieving a common goal. The field of collaborative network organizations covers various types of organizational structures. Knowledge, which is stored in such networks, can be separated into two different levels. First, there is a common knowledge about the organizational structure itself that can be used and reused in any of such networks. The second level represents the domain-specific knowledge, which such networks cover and use to function. In this paper, we address both levels, first, by proposing an ontology representing the common vocabulary and identifying the actors and relationships in a specific type of network, namely virtual organization breeding environment (VBE), and second, by proposing a methodology for extracting network-specific knowledge related to competencies. The instantiation of the proposed VBE ontology and the developed approach to semiautomated construction of competencies have been applied to real problem scenarios of Virtuelle Fabrik, a Swiss-German cluster of companies in mechanical engineering. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Incorporation of a Software Robot anda Mobile Robot Using a Middle Layer

    Page(s): 1342 - 1348
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the key components of an ubiquitous robot (Ubibot) is the software robot (Sobot), which can communicate with embedded robot (Embot) and mobile robot (Mobot). Sobot is a virtual robot, which has the ability to move to any place or to connect to any device through a network without any spatial limitation. Embot has the capability to sense the surroundings and to interpret the context of the environment and can communicate with Mobot and Sobot. Mobot provides an integrated mobile services. To incorporate Sobot, Embot, and Mobot reliably as an Ubibot, a middle layer is needed to arbitrate different protocols among them. This paper focuses on incorporating Sobot and Mobot to overcome physical limitations of Sobot for physical behaviors in real situations. To implement the incorporation of them, the basic concept and structure of the middle layer are proposed. The effectiveness of the middle layer for Sobot and Mobot is demonstrated through real experiments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Learning Performance Assessment Approach Using Web-Based Learning Portfolios for E-learning Systems

    Page(s): 1349 - 1359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Learning performance assessment using learning portfolios or Web log data is essential in the Web-based learning field, owing to the rapid growth of e-learning systems globally and lack of assisted authoring tools for Web-based learning performance assessment. The traditional summative evaluation by performing examinations or feedback forms can be employed to evaluate the learning performance for both traditional classroom learning and Web-based learning environments. However, summative evaluation only considers final learning outcomes without considering learning processes of learners. This means that the interactively controlled learning based on the immediate feedback of learning performance cannot be performed in a Web-based learning system. Based on the reasons mentioned earlier, this study presents a data-mining-based learning performance assessment scheme by combining four computational intelligence theories, i.e., gray relational analysis (GRA), K-means clustering scheme, fuzzy association rule mining, and fuzzy inference, in order to identify the learning performance assessment rules using the gathered Web-based learning portfolios of an individual learner. Experimental results indicated that the evaluation results of the proposed scheme are very close to those of summative assessment results. In other words, this scheme can help teachers assess the learning performance of the individual learner precisely utilizing only the learning portfolios in a Web-based learning environment. Therefore, teachers can devote themselves to teaching and designing courseware since they save a lot of time in evaluating learning performance. More significantly, teachers could understand the factors influencing learning performance in a Web-based learning environment according to the obtained interpretable learning performance assessment rules. Besides, teachers can also tune teaching strategies for learners with various learning performances. This result also provides useful i- nformation to Web-based learning systems to perform personalized learning mechanisms for individual learners. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Overview, tutorial and application papers concerning all areas of interest to the SMC Society: systems engineering, human factors and human machine systems, and cybernetics and computational intelligence. 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Vladimir Marik
(until 31 December 2012)