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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2007

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Electron Device Model Parameter Identification Through Large-Signal-Predictive Small-Signal-Based Error Functions

    Page(s): 1997 - 2005
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Empirical electron device models based on lumped equivalent circuits are usually identified through nonlinear optimization procedures, which are based on the best fitting between the extrinsic model behavior and measurements carried out under multibias static and small-signal excitations. In this paper, a new error function is proposed for equivalent circuit model parameter optimization. Although still being defined through standard static and small-signal measurement data, the new error function can be configured so as to obtain models tailored to specific large-signal applications. Experimental results, which confirm the validity of the proposed identification approach, are provided for a GaAs microwave pseudomorphic HEMT model aimed at the design of highly linear power amplifiers. View full abstract»

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  • A Fully Integrated UHF CMOS Power Amplifier for Spacecraft Applications

    Page(s): 2006 - 2014
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1019 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A power amplifier (PA) is designed for a surface-to-orbit proximity link microtransceiver on Mars exploration rovers, aerobots, and small networked landers and works in conjunction with a 0.2-dB loss transmit/receive switch to allow nearly the full 1 W to reach the antenna. The fully integrated UHF CMOS PA with more than 30-dBm output is reported for the first time. A differential pMOS structure with floating-bias cascode transistors and 1:3-turn ratio output transformer are chosen to overcome low breakdown voltage (V bk) of CMOS and chip area consumption issues at UHF frequencies. The high-Q on-chip transformer on a sapphire substrate enables the differential PA to drive a single-ended antenna effectively at 400 MHz. The PA in a standard package delivers 30-dBm output with 27% power-added efficiency. No performance degradation was observed in continuous-wave operation and the design has been tested to 136% of its nominal 3.3-V supply without failure. View full abstract»

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  • A 1.5-V 2–9.6-GHz Inductorless Low-Noise Amplifier in 0.13-μm CMOS

    Page(s): 2015 - 2023
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an inductorless low-noise amplifier (LNA) design for an ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver front-end. A current-reuse gain-enhanced noise canceling architecture is proposed, and the properties and limitations of the gain-enhancement stage are discussed. Capacitive peaking is employed to improve the gain flatness and -3-dB bandwidth, at the cost of absolute gain value. The LNA circuit is fabricated in a 0.13-mum triple-well CMOS technology. Measurement result shows that a small-signal gain of 11 dB and a -3-dB bandwidth of 2-9.6 GHz are obtained. Over the -3-dB bandwidth, the input return loss is less than -8.3 dB, and the noise figure is 3.6-4.8 dB. The LNA consumes 19 mW from a low supply voltage of 1.5 V. It is shown that the LNA designed without on-chip inductors achieves comparable performances with inductor-based designs. The silicon area is reduced significantly in the inductorless design, the LNA core occupies only 0.05 mm2, which is among the smallest reported designs. View full abstract»

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  • Complete Stability Analysis of Multifunction MMIC Circuits

    Page(s): 2024 - 2033
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a systematic methodology for complete stability analysis of nonlinear microwave multifunction circuits. The proposed strategy has two different stages: the stability analysis of a nominal steady-state solution and the use of continuation techniques to efficiently determine the unstable operation ranges. The stability analysis is demanding due to the multiple loops contained in the large multifunction circuit. The first step is to check the possible fulfillment of the oscillation startup conditions at different circuit nodes followed by pole-zero identification. Given the complexity of the circuit topology, a systematic technique is necessary for the selection of the observation nodes. This has been applied at both the lumped-element schematic and the layout levels. These stability analyses have been carried out at small-signal (linear) and large-signal (nonlinear) since the multifunction circuit includes a nonlinear mixer. In the case of instability, the origin of the oscillation and its characteristics are analyzed versus the critical circuit parameters through the application of continuation techniques to the steady-state oscillatory solution. Moreover, sensitivity yield analysis and variations of environmental conditions combined with the stability techniques have also been taken into account and integrated into the design cycle. The proposed systematic approach has been successfully applied to determine and correct an oscillation of a multifunction monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit converter. It has also been proven in other multifunction circuits in the same way. View full abstract»

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  • Tournament-Shaped Magnetically Coupled Power-Combiner Architecture for RF CMOS Power Amplifier

    Page(s): 2034 - 2042
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    A tournament-shaped magnetically coupled power-combiner architecture for a fully integrated RF CMOS power amplifier is proposed. Various 1 : 1 transmission line transformers are used to design the power combiner. To demonstrate the new architecture, a 1.81-GHz CMOS power amplifier using the tournament-shaped power combiner was implemented with a 0.18-mum RF CMOS process. All of the matching components, including the input and output transformer, were fully integrated. The amplifier achieved a drain efficiency of 38% at the maximum output power of 31.7 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Power Supply Rejection for RF Amplifiers: Theory and Measurements

    Page(s): 2043 - 2052
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Supply noise is a significant problem in RF systems where it can mix with RF signals, degrading signal/noise ratios and potentially causing violation of spectral masks. This paper presents an analysis of the supply rejection properties of RF amplifiers. We extend a conventional Volterra-series formulation to treat multiport systems and use it to describe the mixing products between power supply noise and the RF carrier. It is shown that a multiport Volterra formulation can be used to treat weak nonlinearities in the system and that the nonsymmetric cross terms accurately predict low-order mixing phenomenon. We demonstrate the validity of our hand analysis through the design and fabrication of a power amplifier in 180-nm CMOS, operating between 900 MHz-2.4 GHz with a maximum output power of 15 dBm. Spectral regrowth of single-tone and EDGE modulation waveforms is shown to match within 1-3 dB across frequency and input signal power. Importantly, this analysis provides insight into the circuit-level mechanisms for susceptibility to power supply noise and can help designers improve the power supply rejection ratio robustness of system-on-chip wireless blocks and transmitter architectures. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated Wideband Power Amplifier for Cognitive Radio

    Page(s): 2053 - 2058
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the development of the wideband power amplifier (PA) for application to intelligent cognitive radios. The load-tracking based on the frequency-varied load-pull technique is proposed for the PA design. The load impedance tracking is realized by filter network synthesis. A 3-7.5-GHz broadband PA is demonstrated in 0.15-mum InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT technology. Operated at 3.5 V, the P1 dB and power-added efficiency of the PA are better than 21.4 dBm and 20%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Parametric Frequency Dividers With Conversion Gain

    Page(s): 2059 - 2064
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel active parametric frequency divider configuration using coupled microstrip transmission lines and two balanced pseudomorphic HEMTs (pHEMTs) is presented. The analysis of the divide-by-2 circuit presented applies the principles of subharmonic generation using a nonlinear reactance to an active semiconductor device such as a pHEMT. A 2-1-GHz active analog frequency divider is designed and fabricated, with measurements showing a 20% bandwidth, 13.5-dB conversion gain, and harmonic rejection levels of more than 22 dBc. A maximum conversion gain of 18 dB is also achieved. These higher conversion efficiencies and the ability to cascade dividers allow for higher order division ratios to be achieved with the same topology. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Millimeter-Wave FET-Based Image Reject Mixers

    Page(s): 2065 - 2074
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, wave analysis is applied to a field-effect transistor (FET)-based image reject mixer (IRM) in order to enhance the classical IRM theory and investigate the fundamental limitations in terms of conversion loss (L C) and image rejection ratio (IRR). Furthermore, it is also described how different FET technologies can be benchmarked versus each other regarding their suitability for use in resistive mixers. This benchmarking allows the designer to predict the performance, i.e., L C, of resistive mixers based on dc measurements, which facilitate the use of the presented method early in the design process. Three different versions of a 60-GHz IRM is also presented. Two of the IRMs demonstrate a measured state-of-the-art IRR of 30 dB in the 60-GHz band. The IRM employs an integrated ultra-wideband IF hybrid and has been designed, fabricated, and characterized in both pseudomorphic HEMT (pHEMT) and metamorphic HEMT (mHEMT) monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit processes. The different versions were designed to investigate the influence of the selected technology (pHEMT/mHEMT), but also to investigate the effect of the layout on the measured performance of the IRM. View full abstract»

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  • 35–65-GHz CMOS Broadband Modulator and Demodulator With Sub-Harmonic Pumping for MMW Wireless Gigabit Applications

    Page(s): 2075 - 2085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sub-harmonic modulator and demodulator are presented in this paper using 0.13-mum standard CMOS technology for millimeter-wave (MMW) wireless gigabit direct-conversion systems. To overcome the main problem of local oscillator (LO) leakage in direct-conversion systems, the sub-harmonically pumped scheme is selected in this mixer design. An embedded four-way quadrature divider is utilized in the sub-harmonic Gilbert-cell design to generate quadrature-phases LO signals at MMW frequency. For broadband applications, a broadband matching design formula is provided in this paper to extend the operational frequency range from 35 to 65 GHz. To improve the flatness of conversion loss at high frequency, high-impedance compensation lines are incorporated between the transconductance stage and LO switching quad of the Gilbert-cell mixer to compensate the parasitic capacitance. The sub-harmonic modulator and demodulator exhibit 6 plusmn1.5 dB and 7.5 plusmn1.5 dB measured conversion loss, respectively, from 35 to 65 GHz. For MMW wireless gigabit applications, the gigabit modulation signal test is successfully performed through the direct-conversion system in this paper. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the MMW CMOS sub-harmonic modulator and demodulator that feature broadband and gigabit applications. View full abstract»

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  • A 275–425-GHz Tunerless Waveguide Receiver Based on AlN-Barrier SIS Technology

    Page(s): 2086 - 2096
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2103 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on a 275-425-GHz tunerless waveguide receiver with a 3.5-8-GHz IF. As the mixing element, we employ a high-current-density Nb-AlN-Nb superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction. Thanks to the combined use of AlN-barrier SIS technology and a broad bandwidth waveguide to thin-film microstrip transition, we are able to achieve an unprecedented 43% instantaneous bandwidth, limited by the receiver's corrugated feedhorn. The measured double-sideband (DSB) receiver noise temperature, uncorrected for optics loss, ranges from 55 K at 275 GHz, 48 K at 345 GHz, to 72 K at 425 GHz. In this frequency range, the mixer has a DSB conversion loss of 2.3 plusmn1 dB. The intrinsic mixer noise is found to vary between 17-19 K, of which 9 K is attributed to shot noise associated with leakage current below the gap. To improve reliability, the IF circuit and bias injection are entirely planar by design. The instrument was successfully installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), Mauna Kea, HI, in October 2006. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature Characteristics of Broadband Helicon Isolators for Meter and Decameter Waves

    Page(s): 2097 - 2102
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    Main characteristics of broadband helicon isolators for the metric and decametric wave ranges are discussed. With the use of equivalent circuits of the isolator, temperature dependencies of the backward attenuation and forward loss are analyzed. The agreement between the experiment and theory supports the validity of the circuit model. View full abstract»

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  • Projection Framework for Hybrid Methods Derived From Finite-Difference Operators in Time and Frequency Domain

    Page(s): 2103 - 2114
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    A systematic approach to the construction of hybrid time- and frequency-domain algorithms derived from finite-difference operators is presented. The idea originates from projection formalism in a finite-dimensional vector space. We show that various algorithms can be obtained by an appropriate transformation of finite-difference operators. In the developed formalism, a transformation can be applied to the entire or a part of the computational domain, which can be easily employed to construct hybrid algorithms that combine, for instance, multiresolution techniques with eigenfunction expansion or finite differences. The stability of the developed time-domain hybrid schemes is shown. Numerical examples are given, illustrating different issues related to presented algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Circular Cavity With Cylindrical Objects

    Page(s): 2115 - 2123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the analysis of electromagnetic wave scattering by cylindrical objects located arbitrarily in a circular cavity. The exact full-wave theory based on the mode-matching method is applied to analyze the structures. The resonance frequencies of the investigated resonators are accurately determined. The validity and accuracy of the approach are verified by comparing the results with those obtained from alternative numerical methods and the authors' experiment. View full abstract»

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  • A Calibration Approach for the Segmentation and Analysis of Microwave Circuits

    Page(s): 2124 - 2134
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    This paper introduces a general method for the analysis of the individual blocks forming a complex circuit by measurements or simulations carried out on the whole. This is useful in those situations where the analysis of the single blocks is difficult. Paradoxically, the analysis of more complex structures, which contain individual elements, as subcircuits is, in some circumstances, easier to perform or may even be the only way to acquire information about the individual elements. Under certain conditions, the elements can be combined to obtain different circuits according to classic segmentation technique. Owing to its formulation, the method is applicable to both simulation and measurement problems. View full abstract»

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  • Moments-Based Computation of Intermodulation Distortion of RF Circuits

    Page(s): 2135 - 2146
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    Linearity is one of the main design requirements for RF circuits, and one of the main figures of merit used to measure linearity is the third-order intercept point (IP3). However, obtaining the IP3 using traditional harmonic balance simulation requires multitone inputs, which significantly increases the computational costs. On the other hand, analytical approaches based on obtaining closed-form expressions for Volterra functional series are too complex to be fully automated for arbitrary circuit topologies. In this paper, a method for the numerical evaluation of the Volterra kernels required for obtaining the IP3 is proposed. The proposed approach is applied directly to the harmonic balance equations and is thus independent of circuit topology and type of nonlinearity. Furthermore, it is shown that the computation cost of this approach is significantly less than a harmonic balance simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Nonlinear Response of Multitones With Uncorrelated Phase

    Page(s): 2147 - 2156
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1099 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditional simulation approaches for predicting the frequency-domain response of nonlinear devices to multiple tone excitation enforce correlation of the phases of the individual tones. This is the case with time-domain simulators and transform-based schemes such as Harmonic balance as the waveform must be single valued, thus enforcing correlation. Previous efforts in frequency-domain simulators using the arithmetic operator method (AOM) also produced results in good agreement with measurements for correlated-phase input signals. Here, the AOM is applied to directly determine the spectral response of nonlinear systems to excitation by multiple uncorrelated tones in a single simulation. Verification is provided using measurements of a nonlinear amplifier excited by 15 independent tones and comparison to the average of the ensemble of results from multiple correlated-phase simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Resonator Filters With Arbitrary Topology Using Hybrid Method

    Page(s): 2157 - 2167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new synthesis method for resonator filters of arbitrary topology using an evolutionary hybrid method. This method consists of a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for a local optimizer and genetic algorithm for a global optimizer, respectively. Unlike the conventional hybrid method in which the local optimization is performed after finding appropriate initial values from global optimization, the local optimizer in the proposed method is used as a genetic-algorithm operator to prevent trapping in local minima of the cost function. This method can provide fast convergence and good accuracy to find the final solution from initial population generated by a random number and the known value for the filters with stringent requirements. In addition, multiple coupling matrices to meet the given requirement can be obtained from the initial population based on a random number. Resonator filters with asymmetric eight-pole configurations for single and dual passbands are synthesized using the current method for validation. Excellent agreement between the response computed from characteristic polynomials and the response computed from couplings is obtained from the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Cost Dielectric-Resonator Filters With Improved Spurious Performance

    Page(s): 2168 - 2175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dielectric-resonator filter configuration implemented as a single piece of a high-K ceramic substrate is presented in this paper. The proposed filter configuration considerably reduces the cost of the assembly and the integration associated with conventional dielectric-resonator filters. A two- and four-pole filter of this type operating in the TEH01 fundamental mode have been developed, manufactured, and tested. Theoretical designs of the filters are confirmed and supported by measurement results. The wideband spurious performances of the filters are investigated and the improvement of the spurious response is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally for both two- and four-pole filters. Furthermore, a novel triplet structure based on the proposed concept is presented, which provides a new approach to implement nonadjacent couplings for the realizations of asymmetric filtering characteristics. The proposed dielectric-resonator filter configurations can be potentially used to implement dual-mode dielectric-resonator filters. The concept is very attractive for use in low-cost high-Q mass production of wireless filter applications. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband Microstrip Ring Resonator Bandpass Filters Under Multiple Resonances

    Page(s): 2176 - 2182
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (950 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new class of wideband microstrip bandpass filters is proposed under multiple resonances of an asymmetric ring resonator. Two capacitive coupling elements are placed at two perpendicular positions of a squared ring, whereas a pair of open-circuited stubs is formed in the symmetrical plane of these two excited ports similar to a dual-mode ring filter in shape. By stretching the paired stubs close to one-eighth of a wavelength, the first two even-order resonances move down to be quasi-equally located at two sides of the first odd-order resonance, thus forming a triple-resonance ring resonator. As interdigital coupled lines are installed at two ports instead of lumped capacitors, two extra resonances can be moved into passband, thereby making up a quintuple-resonance ring resonator. To provide an insight into their operating mechanism, these ring resonators are characterized in terms of transmission line theory. Afterwards, various wideband microstrip ring resonator bandpass filters with one or two asymmetric ring resonators are optimally designed and fabricated. Simulated results are confirmed via experiment, showing good wideband filtering performance with widened/deepened upper stopband and sharpened rejection skirts outside the wide passband. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Dual-Mode Dual-Band Filters Using Coplanar-Waveguide-Fed Ring Resonators

    Page(s): 2183 - 2190
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel approach for designing dual-mode dual-band bandpass filters with independently controlled center frequencies and bandwidths. Two microstrip perturbed ring resonators are employed to obtain dual-mode dual-band responses. Novel feeding structures are introduced to simultaneously feed the ring resonators and conveniently control the coupling strength between resonators and feeding lines, resulting in a wide tunable range of external quality factors. Two kinds of filter configurations with compact size are proposed. Both of them provide sufficient degrees of freedom to satisfy various requirements of external qualify factors and coupling coefficients at both passbands. Therefore, the center frequencies and fractional bandwidths of both passbands can be independently tuned to desired specifications within a wide range. To verify the proposed method, four filters are implemented. The measured results exhibit dual-mode dual-band bandpass responses with high selectivity. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Stepped-Impedance Combline Bandpass Filters With Symmetric Insertion-Loss Response and Wide Stopband Range

    Page(s): 2191 - 2199
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    An enhanced stepped-impedance combline bandpass filter employs an array of stepped-impedance resonators with tapped-transformer coupling at input and output is presented in this study. This filter has enhanced performance, including symmetric insertion-loss response around the passband and wider stopband range. The structure is compact and suitable for multilayer realization because it is free of lumped capacitors and has fewer via-hole grounds. The circuit is investigated with the characteristic mode theory of coupled lines to prove the existence of multiple transmission zeros around the passband. Numerous diagrams are given for circuit design purposes. The second- and fourth-order bandpass filters at 2.45 GHz were designed, measured, and compared with the conventional combline structure to demonstrate their performance enhancement. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Switching Noise Suppression in Printed Circuit Boards Using a Compact 3-D Cascaded Electromagnetic-Bandgap Structure

    Page(s): 2200 - 2207
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    In this paper, a deep bandgap behavior analysis of the vertical cascaded electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structure is made. It is shown that the vertical cascaded EBG structure can be decomposed into two EBG structures cascaded horizontally, one with the bigger patches and the other with the smaller patches. The design guidelines of the vertical cascaded EBG structure are drawn. Furthermore, the vertical cascade concept is extended to 3-D cascade for wideband simultaneous switching noise (SSN) suppression. The number of rows of patches for noise coupling reduction is investigated. Building SSN isolation walls along a printed circuit board for wideband electromagnetic-interference reduction and along sensitive devices for SSN isolation using a 3-D cascaded EBG structure is proposed. Simulations and measurements are performed to verify the SSN suppression. High performance is observed. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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