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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date September 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - staff

    Page(s): c2
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c2
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  • Information for Contributors with Multimedia Addition

    Page(s): 1711 - 1715
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  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 1704
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  • 2008 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium [Call for Papers]

    Page(s): 1717
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  • Inducing and Imaging Thermal Strain Using a Single Ultrasound Linear Array

    Page(s): 1718 - 1719
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    For the first time, the feasibility of inducing and imaging thermal strain using an ultrasound imaging array is demonstrated. A commercial ultrasound scanner was used to heat and image a gelatin phantom with a cylindrical rubber inclusion. The inclusion was successfully characterized as an oil-bearing material using thermal strain imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Apparent Power-Dependent Frequency Shift Due to Collisions in a Cesium Fountain

    Page(s): 1721 - 1722
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    We describe a situation where a varying collisional frequency shift in cesium fountain primary frequency standards can be misinterpreted as a power-dependent shift. This misinterpretation may affect analyses of fountains test-operated at multiple pi/2 microwave pulse areas. Such tests are typically performed in the search for microwave- and cavity-related systematic frequency biases. View full abstract»

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  • Mercuric Ion Sensing by a Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    Page(s): 1723 - 1725
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) mass sensor for detecting Hg2+ ion in water with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. When a thin Au film was deposited on the surface of an FBAR, the resonant frequency shifted to a lower value when the film was exposed to Hg2+ in aqueous solution. The FBAR sensor detected as low as 10-9 M Hg2+ (0.2 ppb Hg2+) in water. Other ions such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ had little or no effect on the resonant frequency of the FBAR. Coating of the FBAR Au surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid decreased the Hg2+ response. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of One-Transistor-Capacitor Structure of Nonvolatile TFT Ferroelectric RAM Devices Using Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 Gated Oxide Film

    Page(s): 1726 - 1730
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    In this study, the Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (BZ1T9) thin films have been well deposited on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. The optimum radio frequency (RF) deposition parameters are developed, and the BZ1T9 thin films deposition at the optimum parameters have the maximum capacitance and dielectric constant of 4.4 nF and 190. As the applied voltage is increased to 8 V, the remnant polarization and coercive field of BZ1T9 thin films are about 4.5 muC/cm2 and 80 kV/cm. The counterclockwise current hysteresis and memory window of n-channel thin-film transistor property are observed, and that can be used to indicate the switching of ferroelectric polarization of BZ1T9 thin films. One-transistor-capacitor (1TC) structure of BZ1T9 ferroelectric random access memory device using bottom-gate amorphous silicon thin-film transistor was desirable because of the smaller size and better sensitivity. The BZ1T9 ferroelectric RAM devices with channel width = 40 mum and channel length = 8 mum has been successfully fabricated and the ID-VG transfer characteristics also are investigated in this study. View full abstract»

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  • Electronics for the Pulsed Rubidium Clock: Design and Characterization

    Page(s): 1731 - 1740
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    Pulsing the different operation phases of a vapor-cell clock (optical pumping, interrogation, and detection) has been recognized as one of the most effective techniques to reduce light shift and then to improve the stability perspectives of vapor cell clocks. However, in order to take full advantage of the pulsed scheme, a fast-gated electronics is required, the times involved being of the order of milliseconds. In this paper we describe the design and the implementation of the electronics that synchronizes the different phases of the clock operation, as well as of the electronics that is mainly devoted to the thermal stabilization of the clock physics package. We also report some characterization measurements, including a measurement of the clock frequency stability. In particular, in terms of Allan deviation, we measured a frequency stability of 1.2times10-12 tau-1/2 for averaging times up to tau = 105 s, a very interesting result by itself and also for a possible space application of such a clock. View full abstract»

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  • High Q Printed Helical Resonators for Oscillators and Filters

    Page(s): 1741 - 1750
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    High Q compact printed helical resonators which operate from around 1.8 to 2 GHz are described. These consist of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) incorporating a printed helical transmission line. Loss in the via hole is reduced by ensuring that the standing wave current at this point is near zero. This ensures a significant increase in Q. Further increased energy storage per unit volume is achieved due to the 3-D helical nature of the resonator. Unloaded Qs of 235 and 195 have been obtained on low loss PCBs with dielectric constants of 2.2 and 10.5, respectively. Two applications for these resonators are described in this paper. The first is the design of a compact low noise oscillator where the ratio of QL/Qo, and hence insertion loss, is adjusted for low noise. The 2-GHz oscillator demonstrates a phase noise of -120 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz which is predicted exactly by the theory. The second is a three- section filter designed to offer the response required by the front end filter of a modern GSM mobile telephone. In the filter design three helical resonators are coupled together to produce a completely printed triplate bandpass filter. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Displacement Location for Enhanced Strain Imaging

    Page(s): 1751 - 1771
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    Ultrasonic strain imaging usually begins with displacement estimates computed using finite-length sections of RF ultrasound signals. Amplitude variations in the ultrasound are known to perturb the location at which the displacement estimate is valid. If this goes uncorrected, it is a significant source of estimation noise, which is amplified when displacement fields are converted into strain images. We present a study of this effect based on theoretical analysis and practical experiments. A correction method based on the analysis is tested on phase zero and correlation coefficient strain imaging, and compared to the amplitude compression techniques of earlier studies. We also test adaptive strain estimation to provide a benchmark, but the performance of our new method matches or surpasses this benchmark under normal scanning conditions. Furthermore, the new correction is suitable for real time applications owing to its extreme computational simplicity. View full abstract»

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  • A Computer-Controlled Ultrasound Pulser-Receiver System for Transskull Fluid Detection using a Shear Wave Transmission Technique

    Page(s): 1772 - 1783
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    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a computer-controlled ultrasound pulser-receiver system incorporating a shear mode technique for transskull fluid detection. The presence of fluid in the sinuses of an ex vivo human skull was examined using a pulse-echo method by transmitting an ultrasound beam through the maxilla bone toward the back wall on the other side of the sinus cavity. The pulser was programmed to generate bipolar pulse trains with 5 cycles at a frequency of 1 MHz, repetition frequency of about 20 Hz, and amplitude of 100 V to drive a 1-MHz piezoelectric transducer. Shear and longitudinal waves in the maxilla bone were produced by adjusting the bone surface incident angle to 45deg and 0deg, respectively. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skull were performed to verify the ultrasound experiment. Using the shear mode technique, the echo waveform clearly distinguishes the presence of fluid, and the estimated distance of the ultrasound traveled in the sinus is consistent with the measurement from the CT images. Contrarily, using the longitudinal mode, no detectable back wall echo was observed under the same conditions. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that the proposed pulser-receiver system with the shear mode technique is promising for transskull fluid detecting, such as mucus in a sinus. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband PVDF Membrane Hydrophone for Comparisons of Hydrophone Calibration Methods up to 140 MHz

    Page(s): 1784 - 1791
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    A PVDF membrane hydrophone has been constructed in particular for comparisons of broadband ultrasound hydrophone calibration methods and of the results obtained by different laboratories. Intercomparisons have to accompany the efforts currently undertaken to enhance the calibration frequency ranges and to implement the extension from the determination of amplitude-only to complex-valued calibration data. It can be expected that such hydrophone data will be used much more frequently in the future for exposure measurements on medical ultrasound equipment, in particular for the detection of non- linearly distorted waveforms. The hydrophone design chosen has a foil thickness of 9 mum and an electrode diameter of 210 mum. A broadband differential preamplifier ( -3 dB roll-off frequency: 95 MHz) is integrated to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio over a broad frequency range (e.g., 26 dB-30 dB in the range 50 MHz to 140 MHz for measurements of nonlinearly distorted pulses). The hydrophone response was characterized by means of a primary interferometric calibration technique, by substitution calibration using time-delay spectrometry, and by complex broadband pulse calibration using nonlinear sound propagation. The results show a flat frequency response up to 40 MHz (maximum variations below plusmn0.6 dB) and a thickness mode resonance at about 105 MHz. They indicate a useable bandwidth up to 140 MHz. The effective diameter as derived from directional response measurements is 240 mum at frequencies beyond 15 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Envelope Detector for High-Frame Rate, High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging

    Page(s): 1792 - 1801
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    This paper proposes a novel design of envelope detectors capable of supporting a small animal cardiac imaging system requiring a temporal resolution of more than 150 frames per second. The proposed envelope detector adopts the quadrature demodulation and the look-up table (LUT) method to compute the magnitude of the complex baseband components of received echo signals. Because the direct use of the LUT method for a square root function is not feasible due to a large memory size, this paper presents a new LUT strategy dramatically reducing its size by using binary logarithmic number system (BLNS). Due to the nature of BLNS, the proposed design does not require an individual LOG-compression functional block. In the implementation using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a total of 166.56 Kbytes memories were used for computing the magnitude of 16-bit in-phase and quadrature components instead of 4 Gbytes in the case of the direct use of the LUT method. The experimental results show that the proposed envelope detector is capable of generating LOG- compressed envelope data at every clock cycle after 32 clock cycle latency, and its maximum error is less than 0.5 (i.e., within the rounding error), compared with the arithmetic results of square root function and LOG compression. View full abstract»

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  • Doppler Mode Pulse Sequences Mitigate Glomerular Capillary Hemorrhage in Contrast-Aided Diagnostic Ultrasound of Rat Kidney

    Page(s): 1802 - 1810
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    Glomerular capillary hemorrhage (GCH) induced in rat kidney by diagnostic ultrasound involving contrast agent destruction was characterized for different modes to explore possible mitigation strategies. Anesthetized hairless rats were scanned at 2.5 MHz in a water bath with contrast agent infused at 10 mul/kg/minute via tail vein. B mode flash echo imaging (FEI), color Doppler (CD) FEI and realtime Doppler imaging at 1 frame per second were tested, which had image pulse sequences of approximately 0.53 ms, 15.8 ms, and 83.5 ms duration, respectively. Bioeffects endpoints included grossly observed blood-filled tubules, histological evaluation of GCH, and detection of hematuria. B mode FEI for 1 minute induced GCH in 38.6plusmn17.1% of glomeruli in histology from the scan plane for a peak rarefactional pressure amplitude (RPA) of 2.6 MPa. The threshold for GCH was approximately 1.5 MPa, confirmed by 10-minute exposure with agent infusion. Paradoxically, CD mode FEI delivered many more pulses but produced less GCH (P < 0.02), and real-time Doppler mode induced only 5.3plusmn3.8% (P < 0.005). Hematuria results followed the GCH trends. These findings indicate a promising strategy, which is to use relatively slow ramp-up of pulse RPAs in agent-destroying image pulse sequences, for mitigating potential bioeffects in contrast-aided diagnostic ultrasound. View full abstract»

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  • Effects Influencing Focusing in Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    Page(s): 1811 - 1825
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    Previously, a synthetic aperture vector velocity estimation method was proposed. Data are beamformed at different directions through a point, where the velocity is estimated. The flow direction is estimated by a search for the direction where the normalized cross-correlation peaks and the velocity magnitude along this direction are found. In this paper, different effects that influence the focusing in this method are investigated. These include the effect of phase errors in the emitted spherical waves, motion effects, and the effect of various interpolation methods in beam- forming. A model based on amplitude drop and phase error for spherical waves created using the virtual source concept is derived. This model can be used to determine the opening angle of a virtual source. Simulations for different virtual source placements are made, and it is recommended that the virtual sources be placed behind the aperture when shallow structures are imaged, and when deeper-lying structures are imaged the virtual sources be placed in front of the aperture. Synthetic aperture methods involve summation of data from numerous emissions. Motion between these emissions results in incoherence and affects resolution, contrast, and the signal-to-noise ratio. The effects of motion on the synthetic aperture vector velocity estimation method are investigated, and it is shown that for both axial and lateral motion, the contrast and signal-to-noise ratio can be seriously affected. A compensation method using the previous vector velocity estimate, when new data are beamformed, is implemented and tested. It is shown from a number of flow phantom experiments that a significant improvement with respect to bias and standard deviation of the velocity estimates can be obtained by using this compensation. Increased performance is gained at the expense of computation time. Different interpolation methods can be used for beam- forming the data. In this paper, the velocity estimation performance using - - various more complex interpolation schemes are compared to that using linear interpolation. No significant difference in the performance of the method is seen when other interpolation methods are used. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Temperature Compensation in a Plate Thickness Mode Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator

    Page(s): 1826 - 1833
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    We analyze temperature-induced frequency shift in a thickness mode bulk acoustic wave resonator with a layer of another material for temperature compensation. The perturbation integral by Tiersten is used to calculate frequency shifts in the resonator under a temperature change. It is shown that, with a proper design of the compensation layer, temperature sensitivity of the resonator can be reduced or made zero. View full abstract»

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  • The Diagonalized Contrast Source Inversion Approach for Elastic Wave Inversion

    Page(s): 1834 - 1840
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    This study focuses on the inverse scattering of objects embedded in a homogeneous elastic background. The medium is probed by ultrasonic sources, and the scattered fields are observed along a receiver array. The goal is to retrieve the shape, location, and constitutive parameters of the objects through an inversion procedure. The problem is formulated using a vector integral equation . As is well-known, this inverse scattering problem is nonlinear and ill-posed. In a realistic configuration, this nonlinear inverse scattering problem involves a large number of unknowns, hence the application of full nonlinear inversion approaches such as Gauss-Newton or nonlinear gradient methods might not be feasible, even with present-day computer power. Hence, in this study we use the so-called diagonalized contrast source inversion (DCSI) method in which the nonlinear problem is approximately transformed into a number of linear problems. We will show that, by using a three-step procedure, the nonlinear inverse problem can be handled at the cost of solving three constrained linear inverse problems. The robustness and efficiency of this approach is illustrated using a number of synthetic examples. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial Correlation Coefficient Images for Ultrasonic Detection

    Page(s): 1841 - 1850
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    In ultrasonics, image formation and detection are generally based on signal amplitude. In this paper, we introduce correlation coefficient images as a signal-amplitude independent approach for image formation. The correlation coefficients are calculated between A-scans digitized at adjacent measurement positions. In these images, defects are revealed as regions of high or low correlation relative to the background correlations associated with noise. Correlation coefficient and C-scan images are shown to demonstrate flat-bottom-hole detection in a stainless steel annular ring and crack detection in an aluminum aircraft structure. View full abstract»

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  • Consideration of Impedance Matching Techniques for Efficient Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    Page(s): 1851 - 1859
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    This study investigates multiple levels of impedance-matching methods for piezoelectric energy harvesting in order to enhance the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. First, the transduction rate was improved by using a high piezoelectric voltage constant (g) ceramic material having a magnitude of g33 = 40 times 10-3 V m/N. Second, a transducer structure, cymbal, was optimized and fabricated to match the mechanical impedance of vibration source to that of the piezoelectric transducer. The cymbal transducer was found to exhibit ~40 times higher effective strain coefficient than the piezoelectric ceramics. Third, the electrical impedance matching for the energy harvesting circuit was considered to allow the transfer of generated power to a storage media. It was found that, by using the 10-layer ceramics instead of the single layer, the output current can be increased by 10 times, and the output load can be reduced by 40 times. Furthermore, by using the multilayer ceramics the output power was found to increase by 100%. A direct current (DC)-DC buck converter was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy in a capacitor to a lower output load. The converter was optimized such that it required less than 5 mW for operation. View full abstract»

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  • DPSM Modeling for Studying Interaction Between Bounded Ultrasonic Beams and Corrugated Plates with Experimental Verification

    Page(s): 1860 - 1872
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    Periodically corrugated structures play an important role in the field of vibration control and for designing structures with desired acoustic band gaps. Analytical solutions for corrugated plates are available for well-defined, smooth corrugations, such as sinusoidal corrugations that are not very common in the real world. Often corrugated plates are fabricated by cutting grooves at regular intervals in a flat plate. No analytical solution is available to predict the wave propagation behavior in such a periodically corrugated plate in which the equation of the plate surface changes periodically between a planar flat surface and a nonplanar parabolic groove. This problem is solved here for steady-state case by a newly developed semianalytical technique called distributed point source method (DPSM), and the theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results generated by reflecting a bounded 2.25 MHz ultrasonic beam by a fabricated corrugated plate. The main difference that is observed in the reflected beam profile from a flat plate and a corrugated plate is that the back- scattering effect is much stronger for the corrugated plate, and the forward reflection is stronger for the flat plate. The energy distribution inside the corrugated plate also shows backward propagation of the ultrasonic energy. View full abstract»

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  • SAW Parameters on Y-cut Langasite Structured Materials

    Page(s): 1873 - 1881
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents results and investigations of several new, man-made piezoelectric single crystal, Czochralski-grown substrate materials for surface acoustic waves (SAW) applications. These materials, langanite (LGN), langatate (LGT), Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (STGS), Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 (SNGS), Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS), and Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (CNGS), have the same structure as langasite (LGS) and are of the same crystal class as quartz. These compounds are denser than quartz, resulting in lower phase velocities. They also have higher coupling. Unlike quartz and lithium niobate, there is no degradation of material properties below the material melting points resulting in the possibility of extreme high-temperature operation (> 1000degC). This paper gives a summary of extracted SAW material parameters for various propagation angles on Y-cut substrates of the six materials. Parameters included are electromechanical coupling, phase velocity, transducer capacitance, metal strip reflectivity, and temperature coefficient of frequency. Using previously published fundamental material constants, extracted parameters are compared with predictions for LGT and LGN. In addition, power flow angle and fractional frequency curvature data are reported for propagation angles on CTGS and CNGS Y-cut substrates that exhibit temperature compensation near room temperature. Detailed descriptions of the SAW parameter extraction techniques are given. A discussion of the results is provided, including a comparison of extracted parameters and an overview of possible SAW applications. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk