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Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Reliability Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Rituals

    Page(s): 129
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  • Sad Software

    Page(s): 129
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  • New editorial structure - new editor

    Page(s): 130
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  • Correspondence Items

    Page(s): 130
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  • Modeling, Metamodeling, and Taxonomy of System Failures

    Page(s): 131 - 136
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    A methodology, called the metasystem approach, is used to discuss modeling and metamodeling of systems failures. The methodology is based on a hierarchy of control where decisional and behavioral processes are differentiated on the basis of domain and logic levels. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating MTBF Approximations for Simple Maintained Systems

    Page(s): 137 - 138
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    This paper compares two approximations for evaluating the reliability of redundant systems subject to periodic maintenance (PM) wherein failed portions are periodically replaced. Such approximations are useful because exact analytic methods become burdensome even for seemingly simple redundant schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium

    Page(s): 138
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  • ESCAF for MTBF, Time Evolution, Sensitivity Coefficients, Cut-Set Importance, and Non-Coherence of Large Systems

    Page(s): 139 - 144
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    ESCAF - an "Electronic Simulator to Compute and Analyze Failures" ¿ is a commercially available desktop apparatus, now in wide use, which employs special electronic circuit boards to simulate and analyze a system by methods and procedures that are easy to learn and apply by engineers with only very limited knowledge of electronics or computing. The apparatus has been used mainly to determine the cut sets and failure probabilities of very large systems, with up to 416 components, offering possibilities well beyond those of conventional methods of analysis. This article defines new parameters that can be calculated by ESCAF, including novel parameters (degree of non-coherence). It also explains how ESCAF determines, for systems of any complexity, measures that were previously inaccessible for other than very simple systems: ¿ Mean time between failures, mean time to failure, mean time to repair, failure and repair intensities, and equivalent failure or repair rates as a function of time, ¿ Time-derivative of the unavailability and/or failure probability, ¿ Sensitivity coefficients indicating the importance of each component in probability calculation, ¿ Importance of each minimal cut set (for coherent systems), ¿ Whether a system is coherent or not. The first three results can be obtained regardless of system coherency. All results are obtained very simply and very rapidly. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of Four Monte Carlo Methods for Estimating the Probability of s-t Connectedness

    Page(s): 145 - 155
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    This paper describes and compares the performance of four alternative Monte Carlo sampling plans for estimating the probability that two nodes, s and t, are connected in an undirected network whose arcs fail randomly and independently. Models of this type are commonly used when computing the reliability of a system of randomly failing components. The first method, dagger sampling, relies for its advantage on inducing negative correlation between the outcomes of the replications in the sample. The second method, sequential destruction/construction exploits permutation properties of arc failures and successes. The third method uses easily determined bounds on the reliability probability to gain an advantage. The fourth approach enumerates all failure sets of the network to achieve its appeal. An example based on a 30-arc 20-node network illustrates the variance reducing features and the time and space needs of each sampling plan. Dagger sampling and sequential construction offer limited benefits when compared to the bounds and failure-sets methods. The failure-sets method performs best on the example for small failure probabilities. However, in general it offers no guarantee of a smaller variance than crude Monte Carlo and requires substantially more memory than the other methods. Moreover, this memory requirement can grow rapidly as the size of the network increases. By contrast, the bounds method guarantees a smaller variance than for crude Monte Carlo sampling and has modest memory requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Practical papers-computer programs

    Page(s): 155
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  • Reliability Modeling and Analysis of Computer Networks

    Page(s): 156 - 160
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    The reliability analysis of computer communication networks is generally based on Boolean algebra and probability theory. This paper discusses various reliability problems of computer networks including terminal-pair connectivity, tree connectivity, and multi-terminal connectivity. This paper also studies the dynamic computer network reliability by deriving time-dependent expressions for reliability measures assuming Markov behavior for failures and repairs. This allows computation of task and mission related measures such as mean time to first failure and mean time between failures. A detailed analysis of the bridge network is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Network Reliability Evaluation Using Probability Expressions

    Page(s): 161 - 166
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    The terminal-pair reliability of a graph (network) is evaluated by means of probability expressions. These expressions result from a transformation of Boolean expressions from the Boolean domain into the probabilistic domain. Basic operations on probability expressions are shown, and a data representation is given for automation of the procedure. The performance of this procedure is compared with other published results. Two new measures, PRI and POST, give relationships between a network's terminal-pair reliability and individual element reliabilities, and derive an element ordering for network diagnosis. These measures can be computed easily using probability expressions. View full abstract»

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  • On the Relationship between Two Fatigue-Life Models

    Page(s): 167 - 169
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    The relationship between two fatigue life distributions, namely the Birnbaum-Saunders and the Inverse Gaussian, is further investigated. An intimate connection exists between the two models, viz, the Birnbaum-Saunders is a mixture of two probability distributions: 1) an Inverse Gaussian random variable, and 2) the reciprocal of an Inverse Gaussian random variable. Advantages and disadvantages of the two distributions are discussed. The arguments favour the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution from a stochastic modeling point of view, whereas the Inverse Gaussian distribution seems to be the more attractive of the two with respect to statistical analysis and analysis of censored data. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Papers

    Page(s): 169
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  • Lifetime Distribution Identities

    Page(s): 170 - 174
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    Five ways of representing the distribution of a continuous nonnegative random variable T are used extensively in the reliability literature: the probability density function, the reliability (survivor function), the hazard rate, the cumulative hazard function, and the mean residual life function. Properties, identities, and intuitive interpretations of the five representations are discussed. Several examples are given. Although there are other functions, such as normalized mean residual life for studying replacement policies, these five distribution representations have surfaced as vehicles for representing a lifetime distribution. The choice of which distribution representation to use depends on whether ¿ 1. The representation has a tractable form 2. Intuition is gained concerning the distribution by seeing a plot of the representation. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to: Age Replacement Policies for Weibull Failure Times

    Page(s): 174
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    Table 1 in the original paper is practical and useful. But a normalization factor needs to be pointed out to make the table ready to use. View full abstract»

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  • Conditional Availability of Intermittently-Used Systems in Non-Markov Environment

    Page(s): 175 - 178
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    This paper discusses the steady-state conditional availability of intermittently-used systems during the periods of demand. All the distributions governing system and demand status are arbitrary. The history dependence of the system and demand behavior is tackled by introducing history and cumulative-history functions. The system is assumed to fail only in use. Two processing disciplines regarding an interrupted demand (due to a system failure) are treated: fail-resume and failrepeat. The steady-state conditional availability under the fail-resume discipline is MTBF/(MTBF + MTTR), but not under the fail-repeat discipline. Therefore, care must be exercised not to misuse the formula. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Series-Parallel Production Networks without Buffers

    Page(s): 179 - 184
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    Unreliable production networks are examined in this paper. The aim is to find simple quantitative models to compute average production and throughput rates for series-parallel production systems without buffers. This is done using elementary probability. The analysis of complex networks relies on existing results for simple series and parallel networks. Two exact algorithms are presented for computing average production. Computation of throughput rates is done approximately. Simulation studies showed that the approximations were good for a network for one work station connected in series with two parallel work stations. The main virtue of the results of the paper is their simplicity. View full abstract»

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  • An Inventory Model with Product Obsolescence and Its Implications for High Technology Industry

    Page(s): 185 - 187
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    The advent of micro-computers and other high technology products, such as visual inspection systems and robots, with their supporting hardware/software components has been paralleled with an appreciable increase in the number of distribution outlets. Each commercial outlet has to carry enough inventory to provide proper service to its customers. However, due to the fast change in the technology involved, numerous inventory items become obsolete at a rapid rate. The situation can be treated as a perishable inventory problem. This paper develops that analogy, and presents the expressions for the: Required stock level, Optimal order quantity, and Total cost of the inventory policy. It is shown that as obsolescence rate increases, the Kanban (Just-in-Time) concept of purchasing, lot sizing, and inventories should be considered by the hierarchical organizations or the distribution network. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Allocation of Effort to Improve System Reliability

    Page(s): 188 - 191
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    The optimal allocation of development effort to improve reliability for systems of general, but fixed, structure is discussed from a deterministic standpoint and also when there is uncertainty in component reliabilities at various stages of development. A computational algorithm is given for implementing the optimal allocation, called the optimal policy, and the form of the solution is related to the special case of a series system when development effort functions are the same for all components. This methodology is a useful aid to decision-making about reliability improvements. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Reliability is concerned with the problems involved in attaining reliability, maintaining it through the life of the system or device, and measuring it.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Way Kuo
City University of Hong Kong