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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 199
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 7
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 1980 Nuclear Science Symposium Committee

    Page(s): 8
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 1980 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems Committee

    Page(s): 9
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Nucleus

    Page(s): 10
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Prudent Energy Path

    Page(s): 11 - 15
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    The crucial energy problem of this century is the balance between supply and demand for liquid fuels. Our conventional petroleum source is limited and much of it comes from countries that we consider unstable. Our near-term national energy effort should be devoted almost exclusively to reducing our dependence on petroleum, using every means at our disposal. Our present fleet of automobiles should be replaced as soon as possible with cars using less than half as much gasoline and with electrically propelled vehicles. We must move faster on the production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale. A way must be found to cut through the politics and financial problems of converting our oilfired electricity generating plants to the use of coal or uranium. Houses and stores that are now heated with oil should be insulated to use less fuel and should be converted to heating with electricity, provided that the electricity is produced from coal or uranium. Our transmission lines should be strengthened so that electricity generated from coal or uranium can be wheeled to oil-burning areas of the country. Even with these measures and more, it will take all of the remainder of this century to reach even a moderately comfortable position with respect to liquid fuels. While this is happening we can expect to be sharing our ample supplies of coal with other NATO countries, and what we thought was several centuries' worth of coal will turn out to be more like one century's worth. View full abstract»

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  • Session Chairmen

    Page(s): 16
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Survey of Plasma Diagnostic Techniques

    Page(s): 17 - 24
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    This brief review provides an indication of the types of diagnostics that are used to study high temperature plasma. No attempt has been made to provide an exhaustive survey or to describe the many subtle and sophisticated variations that are employed. The basic plasma parameters that one would like to measure have been indicated and it has been pointed out that the diagnostic techniques can be classified into four categories: passive electromagnetic, passive particle, active electromagnetic, and active particle. Our ability to create and control high temperature, high density plasmas, has increased tremendously over the past 25 years. This has been due, at least in part, to the development of increasingly sophisticated diagnostic techniques that have provided more detailed information on the plasma behavior. There is still a need for new or improved diagnostics, especially for diagnostics that will provide spatially resolved, time continuous measurements. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of Nrc Instrumentation Needs

    Page(s): 25 - 31
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    The accident at Three Mile Island highlighted the need to make improvements in nuclear power plant instrumentation. Since the accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has required the installation of new equipment aimed at improving both post accident monitoring capability and the operator/equipment interface. Replacement of some existing equipment with qualified, highly reliable sensors and processing equipment will satisfy many of the new requirements. But implementation of other requirements will be more difficult. New measurement techniques must be developed or use of new technologies must be judged acceptable for safety purposes before some instrumentation needs can be satisfied. The lack of commercially available equipment has caused reassessment of the importance of other instrumentation needs. Looking beyond those modifications needed to correct deficiencies discovered as a result of the TMI experience, improvements in the reliability of normal plant operating equipment should be considered to reduce the frequency of safety system challenges. Advanced instrumentation presently available or under development may be useful in identifying equipment degradation, thereby preventing major equipment failures and consequent plant upsets. There is also a need for better diagnostic tools for improving the operator's response capability following plant upsets. Some of these tools are now available but others which show considerable promise require more development effort. Although significant improvements in safety may be possible through implementation of improved instrumentation, those improvements can be made only if the industry supports the development effort with both money and manpower. View full abstract»

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  • The Breeder Reactor Program of France

    Page(s): 32 - 38
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    First Page of the Article
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  • 200 Channel Semiconductor Detectors for X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Page(s): 47 - 49
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    Prototype 200 channel semiconductor detectors for third generation X-ray computed tomography have been developed using surface-barrier diodes fabricated from high-purity n-type silicon. The image reconstruction test was successful, and the relationship between the image quality and the detector characteristics has been studied. View full abstract»

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  • A Portable Device for the Measurement of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Icu and or Using Cd Te Detectors and a Fourier Transform Based Data Analysis

    Page(s): 50 - 54
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    A portable system for the measurement of cerebral blood flow in critical care environments such as the intensive care unit or operating room has been developed and tested in a limited series of patients. The flow measurements are based on the 133Xe inhalation or IV injection method. The system uses miniature solid state detectors, microprocessor technology and Fourier transform based data analysis to provide compactness and rapid on-line analysis of data. Preliminary patient studies comparing this system with a larger sodium iodide detector system show comparable results. View full abstract»

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  • Cardiac Imaging with a High Pressure Low Dead Time Multiwire Proportional Chamber

    Page(s): 55 - 56
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    A sealed, 10 atmosphere MWPC has been constructed for cardiac imaging applications in nuclear medicine. Spatial resolution is < 3.5mm and count rate characteristics are a factor of 2 better than current cameras, resulting in improved statistical quality of information. Major applications are first pass radionuclide angiocardiograms with 9.3 m. Ta-178 and 4.9s Ir-191m. Animal and patient studies have been performed and the advantages of this system have been demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Transverse Image Reconstruction in Tl-201 Myocardial Scans

    Page(s): 57 - 59
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    A commercially available tomographic imaging system has been interfaced to a digital computer in our laboratory. This enables the computer to collect list-mode data which can be reconstructed by backprojection to yield longitudinal and transverse digital tomographic planes. A phantom was scanned and both longitudinal and transverse digital images are shown. A patient study using the myocardial imaging agent Tl-201 was performed, yielding both longitudinal and transverse images of the heart. The problems associated with transverse reconstruction by backprojection are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Large-Field-of-View Image-Intensifier Gamma-Camera Detectors Using a Silicon X y Scintillation Localizer

    Page(s): 60 - 63
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    Two years ago, a gamma camera detector, consisting of a 34 cm input field image intensifier coupled to a scintillator crystal at the input and to a silicon localizer at the output, was built and tested at Thomson-CSF. Snce that time the 34-cm model has been further developed, and a 40 cm model using an improved silicon localizer has been built and tested. This paper discusses the performances of the two cameras, and explains how the localizer output signal is processed to obtain gain uniformity and low geometrical distortion. View full abstract»

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  • Physical Factors Affecting Quantitative Measurements Using Camera-Based Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (Spect)

    Page(s): 69 - 80
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    The qualitative imaging capability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using complete angular sampling has previously been demonstrated by several investigators. In order to obtain quantitative information such as absolute volumes and regional radionuclide concentrations using SPECT systems it is necessary to determine the system characteristics which contribute to the intrinsic measurement process and limit its precision. This manuscript describes some of the more important physical factors which can affect the measurement process of scintillation camera based SPECT systems and provides information concerning the type of quantitative measurements that can currently be obtained with these devices. Using our rotating camera based SPECT system the root mean square (rms) noise level in attenuation corrected images of a uniform cylindrical source was measured and found to agree with theoretically predicted vaiues obtained with the following equation: %rms = 100 (1.8)3/2 ¿ Reff Rs1/2 Abody Cavg / 21/2Ntotal1/2(FF)1/2 where Reff is the "effective" radius of the source, RS is the actual source radius, Abody is the attenuation factor for surrounding non-source body material, Cavg is the average attenuation correction factor for the center of the source, Ntotal is the total number of events, and FF is the algorithm filter factor and equals the integral of the square of the spatial frequency filter function. Using a semi-automatic region of interest (ROI) program and the multi-slice capability of our SPECT system, the volumes of plastic spherical sources placed inside a larger cylindrical source were measured. View full abstract»

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  • Imaging Properties of a Positron Tomograph with 280 Bgo Crystals

    Page(s): 81 - 89
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    The basic imaging properties of the Donner 280-BGO-Crystal positron tomograph were measured and compared with the same system when it was equipped with 280 NaI(T1) crystals. The NaI(T1) crystals were 8 mm × 30 mm × 50 mm deep, sealed in 10 mm wide stainless steel cans. The BGO crystals are 9.5 mm wide × 32 mm × 32 mm deep and as they are not hygroscopic do not require sealed cans. With a shielding gap of 3 cm (section thickness 1.7 cm FWHM) the sensitivity of the BGO system is 55,000 events per sec for 1 ¿Ci per cm3 in a 20 cm cylinder of water, which is 2.3 times higher than the NaI(T1) system. For a 200 ¿Ci/cm line source on the ring axis in a 20 cm diameter water cylinder, the BGO system records 86% of the scatter fraction and 66% of the accidental fraction of the NaI(T1) system. The lower light yield and poorer time resolution of BGO requires a wider coincidence timing window than NaI(T1); however, the ability to use full-energy pulse height selection with a 2.3-fold improvement in sensitivity results in an overall reduction in the fraction of accidental events recorded. The in-plane resolution of the BGO system is 9-10 mm FWHM within the central 30 cm diameter field, and the radial elongation at the edge of the field in the NaI(T1) system has been nearly eliminated. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Wobbling Motion on Image Quality in Positron Tomography

    Page(s): 90 - 93
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    The design of any positron emission tomograph involves some compromises. In particular, the simultaneous goals of high sensitivity and good resolution have resulted in circular ring systems using relatively large crystals and rotation/wobbling motions. The wobbling motion unfortunately results in nonuniform linear sampling. In this paper we investigate the effect of wobble diameter and number of wobble positions on reconstructed image quality. Computer simulations were performed with noise-free and Poisson noise projection data. For the best choice of wobble parameters, image artifacts were less than 1% and the noise level was increased by less than 5%. Noticeably worse performance was obtained when using some parameters suggested by others. View full abstract»

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  • A New Sampling Scheme for the Ring Positron Camera: Dichotomic Ring Sampling

    Page(s): 94 - 98
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    A new sampling scheme applicable to the circular ring geometry positron camera is described. The new scheme employs Dichotomic-Ring (two half rings) with linearmotion which allows parallel or fan mode sampling with any desired degree of sampling interval. The parallel and fan data sets obtained by dichotomic motion provide d/4 and d/2 samplings where d is the detector to detector spacing. Computer simulations were made which confirmed the expected performances and results are compared with other conventional schemes such as wobbling and d/2 angular motion sampling schemes for a ring geometry positron camera. View full abstract»

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  • A New Tomograph for Quantitative Positron Emission Computed Tomography of the Brain

    Page(s): 99 - 103
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    A new system (NEUROECAT) has been designed and built for quantitative positron emission computed tomography (PCT) of the brain. It consists of three octagonal arrays of bismuth germanate detectors (BGO) providing 5 simultaneous image planes. The design utilizes unique shielding and detector geometries which optimize uniformity in image and axial resolution and also minimize scatter and accidental coincidence rates. The basic system image resolution is 11.0±.4 mm FWHM with a total system sensitivity of 270,000 counts/sec/microcurie/cc uniformly dispersed in a 20 cm diameter cylinder. View full abstract»

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  • System Design of Fast Pet Scanners Utilizing Time-of-Flight

    Page(s): 104 - 108
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    Recent advances in PET designs have shown that a gain in signal-to-noise ratio can be expected by incorporating time-of-flight data in positron emission tomography over the conventional PET mode. It has also been shown that cesium fluoride (CsF) offers the potential of faster timing and high detection efficiency which would be required for a clinical scanner utilizing time-of-flight information. Our research with CsF and the results of a feasibility study of time-off-light positron emission tomography reconstruction have shown that, indeed, a significant improvement in image quality results from such an approach and that coincidence resolving times of less than 500 psec FWHM are easily achievable with CsF detectors. However, the design of fast tomographic systems with multiple detectors which maintain this fast coincidence timing poses a challenging technical problem. The solution to this problem requires a departure from the conventional mode of PET designs to a fast on-line microprocessor based system which is capable of compressing and correcting the data for timing differences, normalization and image function. Such a system is described in this paper and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • One Dimensional Scintillation Cameras for Positron Ect Ring Detectors

    Page(s): 109 - 113
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    A one-dimensional scintillation camera configured as a continuous ring with coincidence-mode collimation avoids many of the problems associated with rings formed from an array of discrete detector elements. With the goal of achieving a stationary detector exhibiting high spatial resolution and sensitivity, several detector configurations have been designed. Both analytic and Monte-Carlo simulation techniques have been used to evaluate these designs. Results of the calculations and comparative measurements on the various detector designs are discussed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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