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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 174
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1 - 6
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  • 1979 Nuclear Science Symposium Committee

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 7
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  • 1979 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems Committee

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 8
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  • Photographs Taken at Meeting

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 9 - 10
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  • The Nucleus

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 11
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  • VLSI Technology Trends

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 12
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  • Tribute to Hartmut Kallmann

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 13
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  • Session Chairmen

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 14
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  • Workshops, Panels, Discussions, and Roundtables

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 15
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  • Nuclear Power Plant Control beyond the 1980s

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 17 - 22
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    Designers of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems are being pushed by an electronics technology that currently passes through several generations of development during the time taken to design and bring a plant into production. Despite the success of existing designs and the pressure to stick to them, the rapidity with which new components become available and others drop from the suppliers' shelves, require that we give attention to system architectures that are more tolerant of this situation. A distributed data base, containing both on-line and archival information, made available to all systems of a nuclear power plant by means of a highly reliable communications medium, could form the basis for such an architecture. It could not only solve this problem of rapid component development but also provide for complete and comprehensive plant control and surveillance. The possibility of implementing such schemes in an operating plant is probably ten years away but development must begin now if the new electronics technology is to have a planned place in the architectures of the future. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories a long range program is underway. It is exploiting extensive additions that were needed in the data acquisition and processing capability associated with engineering experiments in the large research reactors NRU and NRX. View full abstract»

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  • Estimates of the Hazard of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 23 - 27
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  • The Construction and Performance of Large Flash Chambers

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 29 - 37
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    The constuction and performance of 12¿ × 12¿ flash chambers used in a 340 ton neutrino detector under construction at Fermilab is described. The flash chambers supply digital information with a spatial resolution of 0.2¿, and are used to finely sample the shower development of the reaction products of neutrino interactions. The flash chambers are easy and inexpensive to build and are electronically read out. View full abstract»

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  • A High Density Projection Chamber

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 38 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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  • The plastic ball - a multi-detector, large solid angle spectrometer with charged particle identification for the bevalac

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 42 - 45
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    For the study of central relativistic nuclear heavy ion collisions, which are characterized by the emission of a large number of particles, one needs a detector which covers a large solid angle - 4π if possible - and which is capable of identifying charged particles. The high multiplicity requires a large number of detectors, and the need for charged-particle identification requires a measurement of the energy loss, and the total energy for each particle detected. The spectrometer consists of 815 detector modules, which cover 94% of 4π. The geometry of these modules has been taken from the Stanford crystal ball detector for γ-rays - with minor modifications. This geometry is suited for the high multiplicities of particles emitted in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The dimension of the individual elements have been chosen to stop 240 MeV protons. Above this energy reaction losses start to dominate, so that the light output of a scintillator would no longer be a true indication of the energy. Out of 100 charged particles, 94 will hit the Plastic Ball, 87 will fire a detector element, and 80 will be identified uniquely. For the individual detector modules we have used the "Phoswich" idea, by gluing a 4 mm thick CaF2 scintillator to a 35 cm thick plastic scintillator (NE114) with the shape of a truncated pyramid, which is viewed by one photomultiplier tube (PM2202B).The extremely different decay times of the CaF2 scintillator and the plastic allow us to separate their light output by integrating the signal from the phototube for the first 20 nsec (the "E signal") and then integrating the "delayed" signal for 2 μsec (the "ΔE signal"). This constitutes a simple low cost detector telescope, which can identify the hydrogen and helium isotopes. We describe the electronic setup to separate the "ΔE" and "E" signals, and give some test results, which show the separation and identification, of protons- - , deuterons, tritons, 3He, and alpha particles. View full abstract»

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  • A Monte Carlo Simulation of an Actual Segmented Calorimeter: A Study of Calorimeter Performance at High Energies

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 46 - 53
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    The computer code system CALOR has been used to simulate data taken with a large segmented liquid argon/iron calorimeter at Fermilab. The resulting energy and angular distributions along with the longitudinal and transverse shower shapes are compared to experimental data in the range 1-38 GeV. Results are presented extending the Monte Carlo simulations to 125 GeV. The energy resolution of an incident hadron can be determined with a resolution ¿E/E = (7.6 + 29.2/¿E)% and its direction with a resolution of ¿(¿) = 22.7 + 390/E) mrad (where E is in GeV). View full abstract»

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  • Relativistic Rise Measurement by Cluster Counting Method in Time Expansion Chamber

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 54 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    A new approach to the measurement of the ionization energy loss for the charged particle identification in the region of the relativistic rise was tested experimentally. The method consists of determining in a special drift chamber (TEC) the number of clusters of the primary ionization. The method gives almost the full relativistic rise and narrower "Landau" distribution. The consequences for a practical detector are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of the Lead/Liquid Argon Shower Counter System of the Mark II Detector at SPEAR

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 59 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Although the cryogenic and electronic problems of a large lead/liquid argon shower system such as in the Mark II require considerable attention to detail during design, construction, and set-up, the performance of a large system equals that of small test systems and agrees well with reasonable expectations. The shower detector system of the Mark II has been mechanically, cryogenically, and electronically very reliable during eighteen months of normal operation at SPEAR. Performance has provided a good compromise among the various demands upon shower detection. The system has enabled physics measurements previously untenable to other e+e- detectors. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Operating Experience with Electronic Systems for High Rate Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 64 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A number of experiments have been instrumented by an ADC scheme utilizing an integrated amplifier, a packaged delay line, the difference of two samples taken Before and After the signal exits the delay, and a multiplexer to a single ADC for a system. This paper discusses design features, operating peculiarities, and experience to date. View full abstract»

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  • Position Determination of High Energy Photons in Lead Glass

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 68 - 73
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
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    Two 25 element SF5 lead glass Cerenkov counter arrays have been used in the study of photon and ¿° production in pN collisions at Fermilab. The method used to identify shower patterns, and the determination of the position of the photon in the lead glass arrays in the energy range 2-32 GeV is presented. The method enables the spatial position of photons in this energy range width to be measured with a resolution of ¿ = 0.25 inches. View full abstract»

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  • A Silicon-Emulsion Shower Counter for Cosmic Ray High Energy Electron Observation

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 74 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An instrument consisting of a combination of position sensitive silicon detectors, nuclear emulsion plates and lead plates is proposed for measurement of the energy of primary cosmic ray electrons with the energy of lower than 30 GeV. As position sensitive detector, two dimensional Si(Li) circular detectors with sensitive area of 38.5 cm2 have been fabricated and build-up curves (transition curves) of deposited energy in the detector versus thickness of lead plate for high energy electron beams are presented as fundamental data for design of such an instrument. View full abstract»

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  • Construction and Operation of an Electromagnetic Shower Detector

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 79 - 82
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    An electromagnetic shower detector consisting of lead glass blocks and scintillator hodoscopes was constructed. During calibration runs detector resolutions were measured for single incident electrons. Performance of the detector for ¿° and multi-photon showers, including sizable backgrounds, was studied during actual data runs. View full abstract»

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  • A Microchannel Plate Based Detector for a Heavy Ion Beam Spectrometer

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 83 - 84
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    The design parameters and operating characteristics of the detector used in the Brutus and Fannie heavy ion beam spectrometers at the SuperHILAC facility are described. The detector utilizes a 25 mm diameter microchannel plate array to obtain gains of 102 to 108 with a linear dynamic range of 103. It has had over three years of almost maintenance-free service, detecting ion beams from carbon to xenon with energies between 1.2 and 8.5 MeV per nucleon. View full abstract»

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  • Use of a Streamer Chamber for Low Energy Nuclear Physics

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 85 - 90
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    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88" cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers. View full abstract»

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  • An Evaluation of Detectors for a Cerenkov Ring-Imaging Chamber

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 91 - 95
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    We report results from an ongoing study of single photon detectors for use in a ring-imaging Cerenkov counter. New results on the operation of parallel plate avalanche gaps is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Silica Aerogel Cerenkov Detectors

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 96 - 100
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    Recently silica aerogel has been employed as a Cerenkov radiator. This solid material can be produced with a refractive index of 1.01-1.10, thus complementing the refractive indices easily obtained with gases and liquids. It is very well suited for identification of particles having momenta of about one or a few GeV/c. Examples of efficient detectors with active surfaces of about 0.1 m2 using light collection system constructed from mirrors and diffusing walls are given. With a refractive index of 1.03 and an aerogel thickness of 9 cm, signals of about 6 photoelectrons have been obtained for ß = 1 particles. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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