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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3  Part 1 • Date June 1979

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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 2949
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  • Contents

    Page(s): 2950
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  • Conference Committees

    Page(s): 2951
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  • Comments on the 1979 Particle Accelerator Conference

    Page(s): 2952 - 2955
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  • Program Contents

    Page(s): 2956 - 2968
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  • High-Intensity Deuteron Linear Accelerator (FMIT)

    Page(s): 2985 - 2991
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    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm3 at a neutron flux of 1015 n/cm2-s, and 500 cm3 at a flux of 1014 n/cm2-s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10-20 years of operation. To produce the neutrons, a 100-mA, 35-MeV deuteron beam will be directed onto a 2-cm-thick, 600-gpm curtain of liquid lithium metal, which strips the deuterons and allows the remaining neutrons to continue on to the test samples. The deuterons will be produced by the largest component of the facility, a high-intensity, continuously operating linear accelerator (Linac). View full abstract»

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  • Particle Accelerators in Cancer Therapy Current Status and Overview of the Planned Program for Heavy Particle Therapy

    Page(s): 2992 - 2996
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    The goal of radiation therapy is uncomplicated local control of cancer. Practical approaches to this goal currently utilize a variety of electron accelerators which produce electron and photon beams at a range of energies for the treatment of cancer. To capitalize on the physical advantages of the available beams and the mechanical sophistication of isocentric mounting, treatment planning (tumor and organ localization, beam shaping, accuracy and reproducibility of setup, and computerized dosimetry) must be individualized and optimized so far as possible. An exciting potential for improvement in results of cancer treatment is the use of heavy particles for therapy (neutrons, protons, heavy ions, and negative pi mesons). These offer the potential for either or both an increased biological effect and improved dose distribution over standard photon or electron beam therapy. A program for heavy particle therapy has been proposed by the Committee for Radiation Oncology Studies and reviewed by the National Cancer Institute. The proposal and current status of the program are described briefly. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Progress and Plans for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Page(s): 2997 - 3001
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    The heavy ion inertial fusion community has completed two years of conceptual designs, cost estimates, theoretical analyses and a modest experimental effort in ion sources and preaccelerators. Designs have narrowed to rf linacs (with storage rings) and induction linacs. Considerable progress has been made in the theory of high current beam handling. Ion sources at levels appropriate to both linac types have been demonstrated. Attention is turning to more detailed accelerator designs appropriate to a three-stage program, the first stage involving demonstration of high current beam techniques, the second stage aimed at ion-pellet deposition experiments, the third stage being a megajoule class pellet driver. In this paper progress is reviewed, with emphasis on program implications. View full abstract»

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  • The Linear Accelerator Fuel Enricher Regenerator (LAFER) and Fission Product Transmutor (APEX)

    Page(s): 3002
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    Two major problems face the nuclear industry today; first is the long-term supply of fissile material and second is the disposal of long-lived fission product waste. The high energy proton linear accelerator can assist in the solution of each of these problems. High energy protons from the linear accelerator can interact with a molten lead target to produce spallation and evaporation neutrons. The neutrons can be absorbed in surrounding light water power reactor (LWR) fuel elements to produce fissile Pu-239 or U-233 fuel from fertile U-238 or Th-232 in-situ. A schematic of the target assembly for enriching PWR fuel elements is shown in Figure 1. The enriched fuel element is used in the LWR power reactor until reactivity is lost after which the element is regenerated in the linear accelerator target blanket assembly and then the element is once again fissioned in the power LWR. In this manner the natural uranium fuel resource can supply an expanded nuclear power reactor economy without the need for fuel reprocessing, which satisfies the administration's policy of non-proliferation. Furthermore, the amount of spent fuel elements for long-term disposal is reduced in proportion to the number of fuel regeneration cycles. The limiting factor is the burnup damage to the fuel cladding. A 300 ma-1.5 GeV (450 MW) proton linear accelerator can produce approximately one ton of fissile (Pu-239) material annually which is enough to supply fuel to three 1000 MW(e) LWR power reactors. View full abstract»

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  • High Purity Radioactive Beams at the Bevalac

    Page(s): 3003 - 3005
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    Peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions of primary Bevalac heavy ion beams are used to produce secondary beams of radioactive nuclei. The large cross section and small deflection of the projectile fragments lead to high production and delivery efficiency for these beams. Dispersive beam transport allows good separation and purification of the desired secondary beams. 11C and 19Ne beams of high purity and good intensity (almost 0.2% of the primary beam current) are presently being used for biomedical experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Commissioning of the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS-I) Accelerator

    Page(s): 3006 - 3008
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    The IPNS-I 500 MeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) was commissioned during March of 1977. It was originally designed as an injection energy booster for the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS), as well as a source of high intensity proton beams for neutron production. With the termination of the high intensity operation of the ZGS, the accelerator became a dedicated machine for neutron physics. After a period of tuning and improving accelerator components, the accelerator officially began neutron physics experiments on July 1, 1978. The accelerator has achieved a repetition rate of 15 Hz with beams of 1 × 1012 protons delivered on target. Operation at 30 Hz is expected soon. A description of the accelerator is presented. Turn on procedures, operating experience and initial performance problems are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Progress Report on Testing of a 100-kV 125-mA Deuteron Injector

    Page(s): 3009 - 3011
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    The Linear Accelerator to be used for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) will require an injection energy of 100 keV at a dc current level of 125 mA. Studies are being made on a pre-prototype version of this injector, including performance tests of both a single aperture reflexarc ion source and a cusp-field source. A single stage, high-gradient extraction system is used prior to mass analysis in a 90° bending magnet. A two-stage beam steering device to measure beam emittance under full beam power has been designed and constructed. To avoid production of neutrons, all prototype tests are run with H2+ ions rather than D+ ions. View full abstract»

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  • Choice of Geometry for the Alvarez Section of the FMIT Deuteron Linac

    Page(s): 3012 - 3014
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    The Hanford Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) 35-MeV linac is intended to produce neutrons for materials studies. Its operation will be virtually continuous for at least 20 years. Such operation implies that the accelerator design must be conservative to avoid excessive downtime and that the accelerator be economical of power. The initial design of the linac drift-tube section was preceded by more than 800 SUPERFISH computer runs. SUPERFISH allows the selection of a geometry for the FMIT machine that has very nearly the maximum value of ZT2 consistent with Kilpatrick's criterion. This maximum value insures that power costs will be as low as possible while keeping the maximum surface fields at a level conservative enough to prevent sparking. The optimization procedure is examined to show how the best geometry is achieved. The drift-tube section will operate at 80 MHz with an average 1.4 MV/m gradient. As presently conceived, it will consist of two tanks, one 248 cm in diameter and about 18.-m long and the other 240 cm in diameter and about 14.-m long. The number of drift-tubes will be 73 if a stable phase of -30° is chosen. View full abstract»

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  • The FMIT Accelerator Vacuum System

    Page(s): 3015 - 3017
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    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 35 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this "neutron factory," the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability. View full abstract»

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  • A Proposed RF System for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility

    Page(s): 3018 - 3020
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    Preliminary rf system design for the accelerator portion of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is in progress. The 35-MeV, 100-mA, cw deuteron beam will require 6.3 MW rf power at 80 MHz. Initial testing indicates the EIMAC 8973 tetrode is the most suitable final amplifier tube for each of a series of 15 amplifier chains operating at 0.5-MW output. To satisfy the beam dynamics requirements for particle acceleration and to minimize beam spill, each amplifier output must be controlled to ±1° in phase and the field amplitude in the tanks must be held within a 1% tolerance. These tolerances put stringent demands on the rf phase and amplitude control system. View full abstract»

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  • Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS-I) Accelerator RF System

    Page(s): 3021 - 3023
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    RF equipment constructed for the IPNS-I accelerator system, formerly called the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) Booster II, is described in this report. The accelerator is a first harmonic rapid cycling machine intended to accelerate 3 × 1012 protons from 50 MeV to 500 MeV, 30 times per second. The RF system produces a peak accelerating voltage of 22 kV over a 2.2 MHz to 5.3 MHz frequency band. Two single gap ferrite loaded cavities are located 180° around the accelerator and operated 180° out of phase to provide the desired voltage. High level equipment, low level subsystems and control equipment are covered as well as modifications incorporated after start-up. View full abstract»

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  • Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS-I) Accelerator 500 MeV Fast Kickers

    Page(s): 3024 - 3025
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    Two ferrite loaded picture frame magnets with a kick of up to 15 mrad each are used to extract 500 MeV protons from the IPNS-I accelerator to the neutron source target at the Argonne National Laboratory. The magnet aperture is 10 cm wide by 5 cm high and the length is 60 cm. The single bunch extraction requires a magnetic field rise time (0 to 100%) of 90 ns and a flattop of 100 ns. The magnets receive the 3600 A maximum current via an array of 50 ¿ coaxial cables connected in a shunt arrangement. The two legs of each magnet are energized with separate lines to keep the potential to ground to less than 40 kV. The system is designed to run at 30 pulses per second repetition rate. The complete system of control electronics, power supply, deuterium thyratron switch, magnet and resistive load will be described along with some of the problems of stray inductances and the techniques used to reduce them. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Model Experiment to Study Instabilities in Long Periodic Focusing Systems for Intense Beams

    Page(s): 3026 - 3028
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    The proposed use of intense beams of high-energy heavy ions for pellet fusion have renewed interest in the problem of space-charge limits in long periodic focusing systems. Recent analytical and numerical studies at Berkeley and NRL for beams with a K-V distribution indicate that instabilities may develop in such systems when the beam currents exceed certain thresholds. Since no relevant experimental data exists with which to compare the theory, we propose an inexpensive, small-scale experiment with a 5-20 kV electron beam to study this problem. The electron beam is injected into a periodic solenoid focusing system consisting of 20 solenoid lenses initially. The pertinent results of beam transport theory are reviewed and the design features of the electron beam experiment are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Bunched Beam Neutralization

    Page(s): 3029 - 3030
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    One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft-Walton can be neutralized within a micro-second. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nano-seconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. View full abstract»

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  • Longitudinal Motion in High Current Ion Beams - A Self-Consistent Phase Space Distribution with an Envelope Equation

    Page(s): 3031 - 3033
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    Many applications of particle acceleration, such as heavy ion fusion, require longitudinal bunching of a high intensity particle beam to extremely high particle currents with correspondingly high space charge forces. This requires a precise analysis of longitudinal motion including stability analysis. Previous papers have treated the longitudinal space charge force as strictly linear, and have not been self-consistent; that is, they have not displayed a phase space distribution consistent with this linear force so that the transport of the phase space distribution could be followed, and departures from linearity could be analyzed. This is unlike the situation for transverse phase space where the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution can be used as the basis of an analysis of transverse motion. In this paper we derive a self-consistent particle distribution in longitudinal phase space which is a solution of the Vlasov equation and derive an envelope equation for this solution. The solution is developed in Section II from a stationary solution of the Vlasov equation derived in Section I. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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