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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 272
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 905
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  • Conference Committees

    Page(s): 906
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  • Comments on the Conference

    Page(s): 907 - 909
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  • Opening Plenary Session

    Page(s): 918 - 928
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  • Contributions of the Accelerator Fraternity to the Solution of Energy Problems

    Page(s): 936 - 939
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    A brief summary is presented of the present situation in the field of energy production and consumption. Particular attention is given to areas where accelerator builders are particularly active. This will include fusion, solar energy, and energy storage and transmission. A few leaders in these fields who have been active in building or using particle accelerators will be identified. In conclusion a few problems will be mentioned which could be assisted toward solution by the talents of the accelerator fraternity. View full abstract»

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  • Uses of Accelerators in Energy R & D

    Page(s): 940 - 945
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    At many laboratories an increasing emphasis is being placed on energy-related research, often at the expense of more basic programs. The effects of this change can be clearly seen at accelerator laboratories, where tools traditionally reserved for nuclear and particle physicists are being applied in areas such as radiation damage, nuclear waste management, and materials science. The success of accelerator-based work in these fields is reflected by the increasing interest in proposals for new facilities devoted entirely to applied programs. Current proposals include various forms of intense neutron sources for fusion-related work, synchrotron x-ray sources for materials studies, and even the use of accelerators for large-scale nuclear waste disposal. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Electrostatic Accelerators

    Page(s): 946 - 955
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    Advances in the design and performance of electrostatic accelerators since 1969 are reviewed with special emphasis on the "forefront" accelerators that are currently leading in voltage capability. A comparison of the acceleration tube design offered by the National Electrostatics Corporation and the High Voltage Engineering Corporation will also be made. Other methods of increasing heavy ion energy by means of dual foil stripping will be discussed as well as the performance of a newly developed sputter ion source for the production of negative heavy ions with reliability and flexibility that greatly exceeds all other present systems. Finally, new developments in terms of both booster systems and very high voltage electrostatic accelerators (25-60 MV) are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Uses of Intense Electron Beams

    Page(s): 956 - 961
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Collective Acceleration with Intense Electron Beams

    Page(s): 962 - 969
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    Collective acceleration methods that employ an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) are discussed. A brief history and a classification of collective acceleration methods are given. Methods examined include IREB injection into neutral gas; IREB injection into vacuum; plasma-filled IREB diodes; and vacuum-filled IREB diodes. Accelerating fields of order 106 V/cm have been observed experimentally. The collective acceleration processes for IREB injection into neutral gas and vacuum are discussed. It is noted that the collective acceleration processes for IREB diodes have not been elucidated yet. A summary of present collective ion acceleration research areas that involve IREB's is given. View full abstract»

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  • Harp, A Short Pulse, High Current Electron Beam Accelerator

    Page(s): 975 - 978
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    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oildielectric Blumleins with low jitter (< 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. View full abstract»

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  • Untriggered Water Switching

    Page(s): 979 - 982
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    Recent experiments indicate that synchronous untriggered multichannel switching in water will permit the development of relatively simple, ultra-low impedance, short pulse, relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerators. These experiments resulted in the delivery of a 1.5 MV, 0.75 MA, 15 ns pulse into a 2 ¿ line with a current risetime of 2 x 1014 A/sec. The apparatus consisted of a 3 MV Marx generator and a series of three 112 cm wide strip water lines separated by 2 edge-plane water-gap switches. The Marx generator charged the first line in < 400 ns. The first switch then formed 5 or more channels. The second line was charged in 60 ns and broke down with 10 to 25 channels at a mean field of 1.6 MV/cm. The closure time of each spark channel along both switches was measured with a streak camera and showed low jitter. The resulting fast pulse line construction is simpler and should provide considerable cost savings from previous designs. Multiples of these low impedance lines in parallel can be employed to obtain power levels in the 1014 W range for REB fusion studies. View full abstract»

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  • The VEBA Relativistic Electron Accelerator

    Page(s): 983 - 988
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    The VEBA high-current, relativistic electron accelerator has been designed and constructed at NRL for application in the study of high-power microwave sources. To meet the requirements of this study, the accelerator was designed for operation in either a short (60 nsec) or long (2.2 ¿sec) pulse mode. The short-pulse mode has been in operation for nearly two years and has proven to be an extremely reliable design. The design of the long-pulse mode is now complete and component fabrication will soon be underway. The pulse-forming network in the short-pulse mode is an unbalanced, water Blumlein with an output impedance of 9.2¿ The Blumlein is pulse charged by a 17 stage Marx generator which has a series capacitance of 29.4 nF. By transmission along a tapered coaxial line, the output pulse is transformed to 20 ¿ and the voltage developed across a matched load increased to a maximum of 2.5 MV. The proposed conversion to the long-pulse mode will require that the Blumlein and transformer sections be removed and the diode assembly be attached directly to the oversized Marx tank. The direct coupling between the Marx and the Blumlein will then be replaced by two, nested, water capacitors which are shunted by spiral inductors. When coupled in series with the Marx, this output filter will form a three-section, voltage-fed, Guillemin (type A), pulse-forming network with a characteristic impedance of 40 ¿ and a maximum output voltage of 0.9 MV. View full abstract»

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  • Collective Acceleration of Protons and Helium Ions in the Garching ERA

    Page(s): 989 - 991
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    Collective acceleration of hydrogen and helium ions by relativistic electron rings has been achieved in the Garching ERA. It features fast electron ring compression and smooth magnetic expansion acceleration. Acceleration of the confined ions was demonstrated by the increase of inertia with the load of the rings and by nuclear track recording. View full abstract»

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  • Compression of Electron Ring: Thie System and Results in IPP-Japan

    Page(s): 992 - 994
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    The exact solution of the magnetic field produced by the pulsive current flowing in the coils placed inside the metal vacuum chamber of ERA device in IPP-Nagoya, is calculated to design the compression system of the electron ring. Actual design of the compression coils and installations of power supply systems are also described. View full abstract»

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  • Single Particle and Collective Effects Observed in the Electron Beam of the Maryland ERA Experiment

    Page(s): 995 - 998
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    The formation of rotating, relativistic electron beams with properties suitable for collective ion acceleration has been studied under a variety of experimental conditions. A straight, cylindrical, relativistic electron beam (typical energy 2-3 MeV, typical current 2-10 kA) is passed through a narrow magnetic cusp, and the resulting rotating downstream beam has been studied using a number of diagnostic techniques. Two current regimes have been investigated: one in which the self-fields of the downstream electron beam are small compared to the applied fields, and one in which the self-fields are comparable to the applied fields. The beam characteristics in both regimes have been compared to single particle expectations. Experiments have also been conducted in which the effect of an inner and outer conducting boundary on the time-resolved beam cross section has been measured. Results will be discussed in the context of collective ion acceleration experiments now in preparation. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of the Acceleration of Ion-Loaded Electron Rings

    Page(s): 999 - 1002
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    Numerical studies were performed to simulate the acceleration of ion-loaded electron rings by the magnetic expansion method. A finite-sized multiparticle code is used that computes particle-particle interaction forces directly and approximates conductive boundaries. Initial conditions are electron-ion rings in equilibrium, trapped in a magnetic mirror. On one side, the magnetic field is reduced in time, allowing the ion-loaded ring to move into a region of expansion acceleration. The calculations show that the use of a "squirrel-cage" type conductor inside the beam, which suppresses azimuthal magnetic image currents, assures sufficient axial focusing to retain the integrity of the ring. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of Linear-Beam Collective Ion Acceleration in Vacuum

    Page(s): 1006 - 1008
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    Preliminary experimental results of collective ion acceleration using a linear beam from the University of Maryland Electron Ring Accelerator injector are presented. Neutron yield of 109 neutrons/pulse from Cu(p, n) Zn reactions are observed. From the Q value of the reaction, the energy of the proton must be above 4 MeV. The number of protons per pulse is estimated to exceed 1013. View full abstract»

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  • A New Collective Effect, High Flux Ion Accelerator

    Page(s): 1009 - 1012
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    A new type of accelerator capable of producing a large flux of medium energy ions is discussed. The accelerator contains a charge neutral plasma in a magnetic field. Electron currents parallel to B¿ heat the plasma electrons to an average energy kTe by the Joule process. The electrons try to escape from the plasma into an adjacent vacuum region along the magnetic field lines. In doing so they create a charge separation electric field which collectively accelerates the ions to energies ¿10 kTe . The large resistivity necessary to obtain both the rapid heating and impedance matching to high power sources results from electron streaming instabilities in the plasma. Feasibility is investigated using a one dimensional, time dependent fluid model. In this model a realistic circuit is coupled to the plasma electrons. The resultant plasma heating and expansion are numerically followed in time and space. These calculations seem to imply that present day technology utilizing high voltage Blumlein transmission lines (Z ¿ 1¿) seem capable of creating a 10 MeV proton stream with energy >10 kJ, and equivalent current density >10 kA/cm2 View full abstract»

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  • Trace I, A Transformer-Charged Electron Beam Generator

    Page(s): 1013 - 1015
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    A transformer-charged electron beam generator has been developed. The system is designed to operate with up to 500 kV on a water-dielectric pulse-forming line (PFL) and to generate a 100 kA, 30 ns electron beam. The transformer charging supply replaces a 12-stage Marx generator and reduces the size, weight, and complexity of the system. It also eliminates the need for a large insulating-oil supply. A description of the physical features of the machine is included along with a discussion of the electrical characteristics of the system. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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