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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 1972

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 77
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 5
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  • Conference

    Page(s): 6
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  • The Nucleus

    Page(s): 7
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  • Summary of 1972 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects

    Page(s): 8
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  • IEEE Nuclear Science Group Radiation Effects Committee

    Page(s): 9
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  • 1972 IEEE Conference Outstanding Paper Award

    Page(s): 10
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  • Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Gunn Diode Amplifiers

    Page(s): 11 - 14
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    X-band Gunn diode amplifiers have been tested while exposed to pulsed ionizing radiation. Peak photo currents induced vary as the .65 power of the dose rate, as had been found for oscillator diodes. The principal effect is a transient loss of gain, with the recovery time less than 400 ns for dose rates up to 5×1010 rad (Si)/s. The dependence of gain on dose rate agrees very well with a calculation based on the change in electric field distribution caused by radiation-induced excess carriers. A permanent failure mode was also observed at the maximum operating voltage and dose rate. View full abstract»

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  • X-Ray-Induced Photoconductivity in Dielectric Films

    Page(s): 15 - 22
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    We have measured the conductivity induced in films of polyethylene, epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyimide, and glass by x rays at dose rates between 109 and 1010 rad/sec (dose in air). The films were 0.05 to 1.25 mm thick. The x-ray spectrum peaked in the vicinity of 10 keV, and the x-ray pulse width was about 40 nsec FWHM. X-ray induced photocurrents were found to obey Ohm's law at low bias voltages (less than 1 kV). Above 1 kV, however, we observed that the peak photoconductivity signals from some of the 0.05-mm-thick materials began to increase at a slightly faster than linear rate with bias voltage. The glass samples exhibited no apparent delayed conductivity, while the other sample materials showed various amounts. The magnitude of the delayed conductivity in polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyimide depended on the electric field, an effect that is consistent with Poole-Frenkel field assisted carrier generation. We have qualitatively described the magnitude and time dependence of the conductivity signals by a simple trapping model, using reasonable values for mobility, trap density, capture cross sections and trap depths. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid Annealing of Frequency Change in Crystal Resonators Following Pulsed X-Irradiation

    Page(s): 23 - 32
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    A transient negative frequency change in AT-cut 125 MHz 5th overtone quartz resonators has been observed following exposure to an intense burst of x-rays. All natural, Z-growth synthetic, and swept Z-growth synthetic resonators suffer a significant initial negative frequency offset. At room temperature, the transient frequency change in natural quartz anneals in approximately ten minutes to a relatively stable negative offset. For the synthetic quartz resonators, appreciable annealing of the initial negative offset continues for a longer period, finally arriving at an offset which may be positive in the case of the Z-growth synthetic but negligibly small for swept Z-growth synthetic. The transient frequency change is attributed to a relaxation process, which anneals above 165°K (Stage I). This annealable relaxation is superposed on a more stable part (Stage II) which is removed only by heating the crystal well above room temperature. The kinetics of Stage I annealing obeys a t-2 relationship and is interpreted in terms of a one-dimensional diffusion limited annealing of uncorrelated defects. In particular, it is proposed that the annealing involves the trapping of monovalent cations, most probably H+, at substitutional aluminum sites in the crystal lattice. The activation energy governing the diffusion of the defect to the trapping center is estimated to be 0.80 ± 0.05 eV. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Transport in Insulating Films

    Page(s): 33 - 40
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    This paper gives a brief review of various electronic transport processes in insulating films. The topics include a brief consideration of energy bands and the concepts of extended and localized states; the properties of traps with emphasis on Shockley-Reed theory; the space-charge limitation of currents for one-carrier injection; the bulk trap limitation of currents including hopping conduction, the Poole-Frenkel effect, and field emission from traps; and ionic conduction. View full abstract»

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  • EMP Response of a Cavity: Field Generation within a Lossy Dielectric Cylinder Excited by a Radiation Pulse

    Page(s): 41 - 48
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    A transient electromagnetic field problem is solved for a finite length cylindrical cavity bounded by perfectly conducting walls. The cavity is filled with a homogeneous lossy dielectric material. Analytic solutions for the relevant components of the electric and magnetic fields generated by an axially propagating current pulse are presented. Results obtained for various sample problems are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Grid Characteristic Method for the Numerical Integration of the Three-Wire Transmission Line Equations

    Page(s): 49 - 56
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    We have developed a method for the numerical solution of the system of hyperbolic equations that arise from the study of signal propagation on a three-wire transmission line. This method solves the characteristic form of the equations by using a distinct spatial grid for each traveling wave. The resulting computer code produces calculations that are virtually free of numerical dispersion. View full abstract»

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  • Non-Destructive Screening for Thermal Second Breakdown

    Page(s): 57 - 67
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    The feasibility of developing nondestructive screening techniques to determine the second breakdown vulnerability of semiconductor devices at submicrosecond pulse conditions has been demonstrated. In addition, it has been shownl that second breakdown can be nondestructively initiated under certain current limiting conditions without causing degradation in device operating characteristics or device second breakdown vulnerability level to subsequent pulses of electrical energy. A low energy current impulse damage mechanism at second breakdown initiation has also been observed. The experimental investigations were performed using 1N4148 diodes fabricated with various junction areas and a fixed diffusion depth. The complete results of this work are documented in Reference 1. View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductor Device Degradation by High Amplitude Current Pulses

    Page(s): 68 - 75
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    This paper presents the results of a lengthy and comprehensive investigation of semiconductor device degradation from nanosecond current pulses. Topics discussed include (1) previously published literature on pulse degradation and second breakdown, (2) experimental results obtained in several studies, (3) pulse damage recovery using several annealing techniques, (4) a model of the pulse damage, (5) possible methods of hardening against pulse degradation, and (6) a preventive measure that can be taken to eliminate pulse damage. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptation of the P-N Junction Burnout Model to Circuit Analysis Codes

    Page(s): 76 - 81
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    Transient electrical pulses impressed upon a circuit containing semiconductors subject the semiconductors to a thermal transient. Potential burnout of the parts is of particular interest and concern. A model is presented which permits the calculation of the transient temperature throughout the semiconductor given the instantaneous power dissipation within the device. The basic technique is to mathematically partition the device by isothermal surfaces, and construct the corresponding RC circuit. Lateral dispersion of the heat (two dimensional heat flow) is included as part of the model. The model has been compared to theory and test. The model is simple and can easily be programmed as a subroutine and attached to existing TREE circuit analysis programs. This permits efficient calculations from the applied electrical pulse to the internal temperature of the semiconductor for prediction of burnout. A demonstration computer solution is shown, and the memory size and run times are given. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Damage Effects in Microwave Dielctric Substrate Materials

    Page(s): 82 - 85
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    Permanent radiation damage effects on the microwave properties of the alumina, sapphire, and teflon-glass substrate as employed in microstrip and stripline microwave circuits have been investigated by means of a simple bandpass resonator. No changes in the microwave properties of alumina and sapphire substrates were noted to 1.3 × 108 rads (H2O) and 2 × 1015 neutrons/cm2 (E > 10 KeV), although slight discoloration of the alumina substrates was noted for gamma fluences as low as 104 rads. Gamma irradiation produced gradual increases in the dielectric constant and loss tangent of teflon-glass substrates, but neutrons did not appear to affect the microwave properties of these substrates to levels of 2 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. View full abstract»

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  • Terminal Modeling and Photocompensation of Complex Microcircuits

    Page(s): 86 - 93
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    Results are presented on generalized approaches to derive radiation-inclusive simplified models of linear and digital microcircuits. Application of the principle of superposition allows generation of a compact small-signal model of the linear microcircuit, with extension of the model to include large-signal saturation effects. The digital microcircuit model is the combination of current-voltage terminal networks with a logical decision function to represent the truth table of the device. A factor of 20 to 50 improvement in required computer time and storage was realized with the terminal models over detailed models, with no significant loss in the representation of key performance parameters or radiation vulnerability. The linear modeling technique suggests that photocompensation networks can be applied successfully at the terminals of the device. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling IC's in an Ionizing Radiation Environment with a Time Varying Wiener Model

    Page(s): 94 - 95
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    The Wiener theory of modeling nonlinear systems is generalized to include time varying systems. With radiation effects in integrated circuits being considered as internal time varying effects, this generalized technique can be used to model an integrated circuit in a radiation environment. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Models for Digital Integrated Circuits

    Page(s): 96 - 102
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    The effort to be described had as its objective the development of new techniques to define simplified models of digital integrated circuits suitable for use with the SCEPTRE or similar computer programs. These models were required to account for normal electrical performance as well as performance in an environment of ionizing and/or neutron radiation. Techniques were established to derive models capable of representing both the radiation effects and the first order transient response of the microcircuits as system components for many different kinds of digital integrated circuits. A "black-box" approach was employed to achieve the desired results. View full abstract»

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  • Lumped Model Analysis of Semiconductor Devices Using the NET-2 Circuit/System Analysis Program

    Page(s): 103 - 107
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    Capability of the NET-2 circuit/system computer program in semiconductor device analysis is presented. Semiconductor devices are described in terms of lumped model networks of user-selected complexity. The basic capability is illustrated through the calculation of electrical and radiation-induced transient response of diodes and transistors. Capability of NET-2 is demonstrated by the analysis of a junction-isolated TTL gate. The TTL gate model was derived by the interconnection of detailed lumped models of each of the transistor elements. Calculated electrical switching response and photoresponse accurately simulated observed results. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Equipment Probability of Survival to Radiation Stress

    Page(s): 108 - 114
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    Two analytical techniques (Monte Carlo and Small Sample Theory) are described which have been used to produce a survivability function, PS(RS), for equipment subject to a radiation stress, RS. The methods have been used for permanent damage due to neutron fluence and transient upset due to ionizing radiation. The methods are illustrated using a series regulator circuit. The techniques are sufficiently general such that they are applicable to a variety of environmental stresses. View full abstract»

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  • Bipolar Transistor Screening Methods for Neutron Hardness Assurance

    Page(s): 115 - 120
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    A detailed bipolar transistor model has been developed to determine the dependence of post-irradiation electrical parameters on preirradiation electrical measurements and physical parameters. Some of the features of the model are the following: (a) Postirradiation lifetimes vary with injection level. (b) Electric fields in base and emitter regions increase the emitter efficiency and normal base transport factor. (c) Collector resistance decreases when minority carriers are injected into the collector. (d) Collector resistance decreases when the collector-base junction is reverse biased and the depletion region extends into the collector. (e) Junction doping profiles are modeled as exponential-constant. (f) Junction efficiency degrades as injection level increases. (g) Base width varies with collector-base voltage. (h) All parameters except emitter width and junction areas are determined from electrical measurements, and radiation damage constants are determined from postirradiation parameters. The radiation damage constants are utilized in calculating sensitivity parameters for preirradiation parameters to be used for neutron hardness screening. A computer program varies selected preirradiation model parameters one at a time and the resulting change in an electrical parameter of interest at a specified neutron fluence is determined. The postirradiation performance of other devices of the same type at the same operating point and irradiation level can be predicted as follows: (1) Multiply the appropriate sensitivity parameter by the normalized deviation of each screening parameter from the corresponding reference unit value: (2) add the sum of these products to unity; (3) multiply this quantity by the post-irradiation electrical parameter of the reference unit. View full abstract»

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  • Prevalent Error Sources in Transistor Delay-Time Measurements

    Page(s): 121 - 124
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    Measurements of bipolar transistor delay times are extensively employed to predict neutron vulnerability. Of the various possible delay times, phase delay is most commonly measured. Although this is the simplest delay measurement to implement, the measurement circuit may be quite susceptible to extraneous signal coupling at the measurement frequency and this can cause the accuracy to be severely degraded. A technique for minimizing this delay-time error has been developed. It employs simple, preferably non-reactive, but at least known, networks in place of the transistor. From the differences between the "delay times" measured on these known networks, the location and magnitude of the error sources in the circuit are found. This allows one to reduce greatly the effects of the error sources on all subsequent measurements. To confirm the theory of the error-correcting technique, RC networks with known delay times were assembled on transistor headers. For a particular bridge configuration, the uncorrected delay times measured were quite frequency dependent, but this dependence was removed by adding a correction term to the delay times. The correction term is obtained from measurements on the non-reactive networks and does not at all depend on the measured RC network delay times. The effects of error-sources are particularly severe when transistors with low or moderate hfe values are measured, as when measurements are made on transistors that have been degraded by subjecting them to neutron radiation. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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