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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1  Part I and II • Date Feb. 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 95
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Nuclear Science Group

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 1 - 5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Committees Nuclear Science Symposium

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 6 - 7
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Session Chairmen

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 8 - 10
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Nucleus

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 11
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Some Physical and Biological Aspects of Air Pollutants

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 13 - 18
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Nuclear Power - Risks and Social Concerns

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 19 - 27
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    I hope that this outline of the radioactivity problems associated with nuclear power has answered some of your questions, and has explained some of the current controversy in this field. There is no real need for either radioactive pollution of the environment or for blackouts, so far as nuclear power is concerned. It is clear that by known technology, and for a very reasonable cost, we can essentially eliminate the radioactive pollution without impeding the development of the industry in any way. It is suggested, then, that we heed the admonition of all responsible authorities to minimize radiation exposure, and go about the business of doing what we know how to do as engineers. If we do that, the arguments as to how much radioactivity is "safe," and how many people may be harmed, will become truly academic, as there won't be enough radiation exposure to measure. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear Power - Social Needs and Benefits

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 28 - 30
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    The present severe shortage of electric power plants cannot be ignored. Some alternatives are discussed and the merits of building nuclear plants presented. The environmental effects of nuclear and fossil fuel plants are compared. It is argued that the small but finite risk of living near a nuclear plant is preferable to the certain pollution of a coal-fueled power station. View full abstract»

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  • Global Temperature Effects of the Use of Fusion Energy and the Fusion Torch

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 31 - 36
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    Per capita energy requirements for the world are projected for 2000 AD and 2020 AD, The release of this energy will cause the surface temperature of the earth to rise. This places a limit on world population in terms of standard of living and increase in surface temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Prudence and Technology a Technologist's Response to Predictions of Catastrophe

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 37 - 40
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  • Neuroelectric Signal Analysis Using Nuclear Instrumentation Techniques

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 41 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A real-time system for nerve spike recognition and separation has been developed. The system is based on the techniques, commonly used in nuclear instrumentation, which have been adapted here for biological signal measuring and processing. Techniques used are signal shaping and optimum noise filtering; pulse peak stretching; peak sampling; pulse shape discrimination and multichannel pulse height analysis. Spectra for nerve pulse heights of the cockroach are shown, for the case of spontaneous activity as well as for evoked activity (e. g. for a living object exposed to radiation wind or light). Similarities and contrasts between nuclear and biomedical signal analysis are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Medical Problems in Eye Tumor Identification

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 46 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The accurate identification of eye tumors continues to be a difficult medical diagnostic problem. The several non-nuclear clinical diagnostic techniques that have been used, such as direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp examination, transillumination, fluorescein angiograph, ultrasonography and direct analysis of the subretinal fluid, have all resulted in a high percentage of misdiagnoses. This has resulted in eyes being enucleated that did not contain malignant melanomas, but more tragically, eyes with malignant tumors were not enucleated, resulting in the death of the patient due to the metastatic spread of the tumor. At the present state of development, the 32p uptake test offers the best diagnostic method. For tumors of the uveal tract both G. M. and semiconductor detectors can be used. Detectors more sensitive to lower energy betas are needed to diagnose deeper lying tumors and to study the possible correlation between percent 32p uptake and the particular cell type of the tumor. View full abstract»

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  • Eye Tumor Identification Tests Using Semiconductor Detectors

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 50 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The 32P eye tumor identification test is being reevaluated using semiconductor detectors. Diagnostic tests for both anterior and posterior lesions of the uveal tract are being performed on patients, and a comparison is being made between the conventional G. M. eye tumor counter and the silicon lithium drifted, Si(Li), silicon surface barrier and silicon avalanche beta detectors. Results from 31 tests performed to date indicate that among the detectors tested, the Si(Li) posterior detector gives the most consistent, sensitive and reliable results. For tumors of the uveal tract a beta energy threshold as determined by the detector window thickness and electronic noise can be as high as several hundred keV. Surface barrier detectors placed in suitable probes can therefore also be used for these lesions. For more deeply imbedded tissue tumors, such as lesions of the choroid, iris or retina, the silicon avalanche detector shows considerable promise because of its greater sensitivity for lower energy betas. View full abstract»

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  • Environmental Contamination with 131-Iodine Related to the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism and Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 57 - 59
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  • A Comparison of Digitally Processed Scintillation Images Part II

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 60 - 63
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  • Self-Triggered Wipe Chambers for Radiation Imaging Purposes

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 64 - 67
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    Spark chambers with digitized readouts offer distinct advantages in spatial resolution and coverage over other gamma-ray imaging devices. While these chambers usually require external logic signals for triggering, in this paper we describe a method that provides self-triggering spark chambers. We also describe initial tests of a 45 ?? 45 cm spark chamber with 60Co and 198Au samples. View full abstract»

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  • A Counter for the Direct Measurement of 55Fe in Blood and Other Liquid Samples

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 68 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Iron-55 can be accurately determined directly in blood or other liquid samples by placing the sample in a long length of fine-bore thin-walled polyethylene tubing which is located between two large-area, low background proportional counters. This method reduces the required analysis time from days to minutes with only a slight reduction in sensitivity. View full abstract»

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  • Whole-Body Counter for Neutron Activation Analysis

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 73 - 78
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    For the measurement of total-body calcium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen and phosphorus by in-vivo neutron activation analysis, there are two basic requirements. First, it is necessary to achieve a uniform neutron flux through the human subject. It is also necessary to quantitatively measure the induced radionuclides in the body. The Brookhaven 54-detector whole-body counter with its on-line computer satisfies this latte requirement by providing an absolute measure of the induced activity in the subject, independent of its location in the body and the size of the body itself. The application of this whole-body counter in the in-vivo measurement of total body calcium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen and phosphorus is described. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron Activation Studies of the Roanoke River System

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 79 - 85
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    A study of an unusually compact and well defined river system containing many environmental factors leading to water pollution has been carried out by neutron activation analysis. Detailed baseline measurements of the levels of sodium, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, calcium, strontium, and aluminum were made and tests made above and below major effluent sources. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Contaminations in Biological Samples by Heavy Ion Scattering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 86 - 90
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    In the elastic scattering of a moving ion by a stationary target nucleus, the maximum scattering angle in the laboratory reference frame is equal to, or less than, 90?? if the mass of the scattering nucleus is equal to, or less than, that of the incident ion. Thus, beams of oxygen ions incident upon a biological sample composed of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen will not scatter into detector placed at an angle greater than 908 . Any element heavier than oxygen scatters incident oxygen ions into such a detector. This particular choice of incident ion and detector position discriminates against the bulk of the material in a biological sample and allows detection of only the minor constituents . Accelerated beams of 20- to 30-MeV oxygen ions from the Kansas State University tandem Van de Graaff accelerator have been used in this technique. Initial studies have centered upon determining the contaminations that are present in flour. Thick targets are used, so that the beam is stopped entirely within the sample. The spectrum consists of a continuous distribution of energies up to a maximum energy corresponding to ions scattering from the surface of the sample. This maximum energy determines the mass of the contaminant nuclei, while the number of scattered particles is proportional to the quantity of contaminant nuclei. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Trace Elements in Samples by Nuclear Scattering and Reaction Techniques

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 91 - 95
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    The feasibility of using low energy (15-25 MeV) ??-particle scattering for detecting traces of heavy elements in a bulk of light elements as, for example, in biological and environmental matter is explored. These measurements can provide information on all the elements in the sample simultaneously. Heavy elements require good energy resolution (~10 keV) for definite identification while light elements can be identified even with very poor energy resolution (??100 keV). Results of some measurements on a fish sample are presented. Similarly sub-Coulomb (p,??) reactions are explored for measuring traces of very light elements in a bulk of heavy elements. Suitable choice of bombarding energy almost completely suppresses the contribution from the heavy element. Results of a measurement in a very pure Zr sample are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Developments in Linear Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 96 - 101
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    The paper reviews recent developments of monolithic linear integrated circuits. Attention is given to operational amplifiers, voltage comparators and voltage regulators. Other developments including the monolithic four-quadrant analog multiplier and the phase-locked loop are also described. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Electronic Modules for Nuclear Physics Experiments

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 102 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Fast electronic modules for nuclear physics experiments are under design at Dubna. In this paper the following modules are described: a pulse shaper with a fixed discriminating level, a pulse shaper using the constant fraction of pulse height technique, two-fold coincidence unit. The modules for discriminating and timing signals contain the fan-out standard circuit with both nanosecond logic and subnanosecond outputs. The compensation of temperature variations of the discriminating level and the compensation of time drift of subnanosecond output pulses has been designed and introduced in modules. In our pulse shlapers after the temperature compensation was introduced, the long time stability and time drift of subnanosecond logic output pulses were measured and found within ?? 10 ps/ 24 hours. The attempts are made to build a coincidence-anticoincidence logic for nuclear physics experi-FWHM.ments with the time resolution of 0.5 ns at View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Zero-Crossing and Constant Fraction Timing Discriminator with Emitter Coupled Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 108 - 114
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    A fast timing circuit suitable for zero-crossing and constant fraction pulse-height trigger constructed with matched pairs of emitter coupled integrated circuits and a tunnel diode is described, the former for the negative leading pulse recognition and the latter for the true zero-crossing detection. Current pedestal is generated internally to assure true zero-crossing detection without external bias signals. Zero-level bias compensation was found to be necessary for slow zero-cross detection and a method suitable for the purpose is given together with a brief discussion. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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