By Topic

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

Issue 3 • Date June 1966

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 81
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): c1
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (62 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Nuclear Science Group

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): c2
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):i - iv
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Nucleus

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): v
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (117 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Radiation Detectors in High Energy Physics

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):1 - 8
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1515 KB)

    Spark chambers, scintillation and Cerenkov detectors are used extensively in high energy physics experiments. The potential usefulness of semiconductor detectors is being investigated. There is a need for detectors which will identify very high energy particles. The various types of spark chambers are briefly reviewed, including narrow gap, wide gap and filmless chambers. Applications of scintilla... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Detectors in Biology and Medicine

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):9 - 17
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2137 KB)

    Detector applications are discussed for three fundamental areas of Biology and Medicine: Radiobiology, Photobiology and Nuclear Medicine. The detectors discussed include photomultiplier tubes, image intensifier tubes, scintillators, semiconductors and spark chambers. Examples of biomedical work in progress are given which have been made possible by the development of adequate detectors. The biolog... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some Recent Applications of Scintillation and Solid State Counters in Chemistry

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):18 - 20
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB)

    The high resolution obtainable with semiconductor radiation detectors has extended the scope of neutron activation analysis. Illustrations are nondestructive analysis of archeological artifacts, meteorites and terrestrial rocks. A quite different new technique is the counting of tracks produced by massive energetic particles in glasses and crystals, which has been used, for example, to date ancien... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Applications of Detectors in Low Energy Nuclear Physics

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):21 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2422 KB)

    This review paper discusses new applications of detectors in low energy nuclear physics and emphasizes semiconductor particle detectors where new developments have had an outstanding influence on the nuclear physics which can be done. The paper includes an account of: new limits of detector resolution; a new method for measurement of gamma ray lifetimes; gamma-gamma angular correlation studies wit... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Recent Developments in Spark Chambers

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):34 - 45
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2401 KB)

    The parallel developments of a variety of spark-chamber schemes have produced many workable systems with success in experimental applications. Major efforts have developed several methods for direct electrical readout of spark-chamber data. These include the use of magnetic cores for direct digitizing of information from wire spark chambers, as well as the use of Vidicon cameras to observe sparks,... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hybrid Photomultiplier Tubes Using Internal Solid State Elements

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1116 KB)

    A new family of photomultiplier tubes has been developed using silicon diodes and transistors as multiplying elements. For applications requiring low and medium gains these tubes offer several advantages over tubes utilizing ordinary dynode multiplication. These include ease of fabrication, mechanical ruggedness, reduced sensitivity to magnetic fields, and fast response. Diode structures have prov... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Phototube Using a Semiconductor Diode as the Multiplier Element

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):54 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1315 KB)

    A phototube has been developed with a semiconductor diode as the multiplier element. The tube has an electron gain of 1200 at 5 keV and has a linear output current in the 6-A range with a dynamic range between 107 and 108. A description is given of the fabrication of the shallow-diffused p-n junction diodes and their use in sealed envelopes with a cesium-antimonide photocathode. Also included is a... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Photocathodes used in photomultiplier tubes for scintillation counters-characteristics and effect on performance

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):63 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4348 KB)

    In recent months a variation of the caesium antimony cathode has been developed with a quantum efficiency up to 30%. The characteristics of this 'super' S-11 cathode are compared with the caesium potassium bialkali cathode, the trialkali cathode and other variants of the caesium antimony cathode. The parameters dealt with are quantum efficiency, spectral response, dark current at various temperatu... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multiple Reflection Effects Observed for S-1, S-11, and S-20 Photocathodes

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):72 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)

    A simple optical model has been used to describe the influence of light trapping on the performance of photocathodes. The model is based on the assumption that light trapping occurs as a result of total internal reflection in the faceplate-photocathode structure. The analysis based on the model predicts that successive light photocathode interactions are related through a geometric progression, an... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance of a Photomultiplier with a Porous Transmission Dynode

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):77 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (965 KB)

    The root-mean-square deviation in number of secondary electrons from a normal secondary emitter increases with the square root of the secondary-emission ratio. The constant of proportionality is slightly greater than unity. The pulse-height resolution of a multiplier is therefore improved by the use of a high-gain first dynode. The secondary-emission ratio from a porous potassium chloride transmis... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Secondary Electron Multiplication in Image Intensifier Dynode Structures

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):81 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1544 KB)

    The distribution in the number of photons in the light pulses from the phosphor of a five dynode transmission secondary electron image intensifier (TSEM) has been measured for single photoelectrons emitted from the cathode. This distribution reflects the distribution in the secondary electron multiplication in the dynode structure. The distribution is monotonically decreasing, but deviates signifi... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Mechanism of Channel Electron Multiplication

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):88 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2658 KB)

    The paper attempts to relate the important parameters observed in channelled electron multiplication to the physical processes involved. Ionic feedback and the effect of channel geometry on it are discussed. Saturation effects occurring in straight channels and curved channels are described and the different pulse height distributions are contrasted. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Continuous Channel Electron Multiplier Operated in the Pulse Saturated Mode

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):100 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2404 KB)

    Peaked pulse height distributions are obtained from curved channel electron multipliers at high gain levels. They are caused by a gain saturating mechanism which limits the instantaneous output current from the multiplier. Various limiting mechanisms are considered. Experimental and theoretical evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that space charge limiting is the major cause of gain saturati... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the Performance of Grid-Controlled Photomultipliers in the Nanosecond Region

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):112 - 118
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1205 KB)

    Controlled photomultipliers may be used for analysing modulation frequencies and other time parameters of radiation, which lie beyond the bandwidth or the time parameters of secondary emission systems. On the basis of the electron-optical characteristics of a control system for photomultipliers with two control grids, the properties to be expected are investigated for quasi-stationary operation an... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Time Resolution Measurements with Fast Photomultipliers

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):119 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)

    A comparision of experimental data and theoretical predictions on time resolution limits of fast photomultipliers has been performed. XP 1020 photomultipliers have been used and measurements were done with a fast electronic system built in our laboratory. This system was tested with a Co60 source, the best time resolutions achieved over a period of two hours being 164 psec at f.w.h.m. A hydrogen d... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurement of Resolving Times with the Fast RCA C-70045 Photomultipliers

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):127 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB)

    This work deals with tests of the RCA C-70045 photomultipliers in a delayed coincidence apparatus. Illuminating the photocathode of the photomultiplier with constant height light pulses, resolving time measurements are performed. Prompt resolution curves are then measured using two photomultipliers of this type associated with two plastic scintillators. A time resolution of 1.85¿¿1O-10s (f.w. h.m.... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Line-Widths in Nal(Tl) Scintillation Counters for Low Energy Gamma-Rays

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):132 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1081 KB)

    The line-width for a number of NaI(Tl) scintillation counters for low energy gamma-rays has been examined in detail down to an energy of 6 KeV. Below 100 KeV, the photomultiplier accounts for about half the relative variance. For energies in the range 30-40 KeV there is a curious anomaly in the line-width, interpreted as being associated with the K-edge of iodine at 33.2 KeV. The surface preparati... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Energy Transfer and the Role of Thallium Dimers in the Nal(Tl) Scintillation Process

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):138 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB)

    The thallium dimer center, which is a pair of thallous ions occupying nearest neighbor cation sites in NaI, is found to have a decay time of less than 7 nanoseconds. Analysis of the emission spectrum of a typical NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal indicates that the dimer centers are responsible for approximately 25% of the scintillation light although only a small part of this is rapid. It is proposed... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improved Timing with NaI(Tl)

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):140 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (917 KB)

    By timing on the earliest component of the anode current pulse of the photomultiplier, the time resolution obtained with NaI(TI) at 300°K can be made somewhat superior to that reported for pure NaI at 77°K. For example, the time distribution for x rays (31. 6 keV) relative to the conversion electrons from a Cs137 source, shows a full width at half maximum of 1.6 nsec and a slope corresponding to... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Influence of Excimer Formation on Solvent-Solute Energy Transfer in Organic Liquid Scintillators

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):148 - 152
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)

    Excimer (excited dimer) formation occurs in all the aromatic hydrocarbon solvents used in liquid scintillators. The influence of this process on solvent-solute energy transfer has been studied for a model system: 9, 10-diphenyl anthracene (DPA) in 1, 6-dimethyl naphthalene (DMN), diluted by n-heptane (Hp). Data on the fluorescence lifetimes, spectra and quantum yields and the viscosity of DMN in H... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Decay Times of Commercial Organic Scintillators

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):153 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (997 KB)

    Response curves showing both short and long decay components are presented for fifteen commercially-available scintillators. Scintillator time-response functions for detection of 1.114-Mev gamma radiation (Zn-65) were measured over a range of three decades by employing a delayed coincidence technique. The apparatus, which was described in a previous paper, measures time intervals between the start... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dressendorfer
11509 Paseo del Oso NE
Albuquerque, NM  87111  USA