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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 1964

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 75
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Nuclear Science Group

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): i - iv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Nucleus

    Page(s): v
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  • Introduction

    Page(s): vi - vii
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  • The Scintillation Process in Alkali Halide Crystals

    Page(s): 4 - 11
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    The scintillation process in impurity-activated alkali halide crystals is considered by analogy to that in binary solid organic solutions. A general relation is proposed for the differential scintillation efficiency dL/dE as the product of the efficiencies of the primary and secondary scintillation processes. The primary efficiency is influenced by electron-hole recombination and ionization quenching and is a function of the specific energy loss dE/dr. The secondary efficiency is influenced by host-activator energy transfer and concentration quenching and is a function of the activator concentration c . Experimental data in support of the model are cited. An extension of the model is proposed to account for the temperature dependence of the scintillation efficiencies and decay times of pure and impurity-activated alkali halides, and this is compared with experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • CaI2 and CaI2(Eu) Scintillation Crystals

    Page(s): 12 - 14
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    Scintillation crystals of CaI2 and CaI2(Eu) have been produced which iypically show pulse heights of 180% relative to NaI(Tl). The emission spectra for both pure and activated materials are well matched to a S-ll phototube response. Pure CaI2 has a decay time of 0.55, ¿sec; CaI2(Eu) has a 0.79, ¿sec decay time. Though this material is difficult to grow and to package, performance results thus far obtained are encouraging. View full abstract»

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  • The Scintillation Mechanism in Thallium Activated Sodium Iodide

    Page(s): 15 - 19
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    The emission and transmission of both pure and Tl activated NaI crystals have been studied as functions of wavelength and plastic deformation in the sample. The results show an increase in emission at 0.42 micron for the NaI(Tl) phosphor, and a probable decrease for the pure NaI specimen. In pure NaI three emission bands, located at 0.33, 0.375 and 0.42 micron, were observed. The 0.42 micron band in both NaI(Tl) and NaI is associated at least in part with chemical contamination of the surface. Some reduction in absorption in both the activated and pure crystals was observed upon increasing the dislocation density. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Response of Nal(Tl) and a Comparison with Anthracene and Pilot B

    Page(s): 20 - 23
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    An investigation was made of the relative response of NaI(Tl) to electrons over an energy range of 6 keV to 1 MeV. The light output at 6 keV is quite sensitive to the nature of the exposed surface. The results are given for the two best cleaved NaI(Tl) crystals and compared to the electron response deduced from photon data. There is good agreement above 20 keV, where little sensitivity to changes in surface condition was observed. Similar measurements were made for anthracene and Pilot B. The relative light output per unit energy is shown for all three scintillators. Their merit as low energy electron detectors was found to be significantly affected by the amount of backscattering and the intensity and duration of long lived excitation states arising from ionizing events. View full abstract»

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  • The Fluorescent Decay of CsI(Tl) Excited by Charged Particles

    Page(s): 24 - 26
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    The fluorescence from a CsI(0.08% Tl) scintillator excited by charged particles which come to a stop within the scintillator has been measured for alpha particles, deuterons, and protons. In the region 0.1 to 0.6 microseconds after its initial rise, the fluorescent decay can be accurately described by a simple exponential. The characteristic time for this exponential decay has been measured at several energies up to 28.7 MeV for a particles and 7.2 MeV for protons. We have found a linear relationship between this decay time and the logarithm of the particle energy, ¿ = k ln E + ¿o, where k and ¿o are constants which are characteristic of the type of stopping particle. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Fluorescence Decay-Time Measuring Apparatus

    Page(s): 27 - 28
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    An apparatus has been assembled which is capable of detecting and reproducing the fluorescence pulse contours from scintillation materials. In this report we are emphasizing two areas of our work: The recent modifications in our apparatus and the presentation of preliminary data. A comparison is made between the fluorescence decay time of ordinary and deuterated compounds. Also preliminary results indicate that in a series of similar type molecules each with a high quantum yield, the longer the molecule the shorter the fluorescence decay time. View full abstract»

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  • Relative Light Output Evaluation of Different Commercial Plastic Scintillators

    Page(s): 29 - 37
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    An evaluation of light emitted from commercial plastic scintillators, when bombarded with radioactive particles, was done using photomultiplier tubes with S-11 and S-13 responses. Fourteen plastic scintillators, 1-in. long, were compared and eight different kinds were used to study light output as a function of length. It was found that light output does not fall exponentially with increasing length but rather as the sum of two exponents. A proposed method of analysis leads to two different absorption coefficients. Two possible explanations are given for this phenomenon. View full abstract»

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  • Light Collection from Long Thin Scintillator Rods and Optical Coupling

    Page(s): 38 - 43
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    In nuclear detection, it is often advantageous to detect the nuclear events occurring at widely separated points and to route this information to a central location. This problem was encountered in the design of a nuclear gaging system for the reaction control tanks of the Apollo vehicle. An evaluation of system requirements showed that a design using a multiplier phototube and an array of scintillator rods offered optimum efficiency, weight and accuracy. This approach demands that the scintillator rods act both as gamma detectors and as light pipes to conduct the light to the phototube. An investigation of the light conducting properties of various scintillator materials as a function of rod length, diameter, shape and surface conditions is herein reported. The light piping properties of several materials and geometries have been explored both experimentally1,2 and theoretically3,4. Scintillation materials have been used as light pipes in several instances,5,6 although usually where environmental conditions make more direct means infeasible (for instance, where intense magnetic fields would effect the phototube). View full abstract»

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  • The Slow Component of Scintillation in Stilbene

    Page(s): 44 - 47
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    Experimental study of the response of stilbene to protons (0,8 to 1,8 MeV) indicates a non-linearity in the intensity of the fast components vs energy and a linear relationship for the slow component. It was found for stilbene and anthracene a decreasing intensity of the slow component with increasing particle mass (electrons, protons, alphas). The temperature dependence of both components has been measured between -130°C and 20°C. A relative increase of the same magnitude, about 20 % has been observed for the fast and the slow emission at low temperature. This paper presents the experimental devices used in these experiments and a discussion of the results in relation to models proposed for the slow emission process (mainly triplet-triplet interaction). View full abstract»

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  • Multiplier Phototubes for Single Electron Counting

    Page(s): 48 - 55
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    Typical operating characteristics of ITT Industrial Laboratories' special purpose multiplier phototubes are described, with particular emphasis on the ability of these tubes to count single photoelectrons with minimum interference from dark noise. This ability, of particular significance in the detection of low energy quanta, including single photons, follows from the Poisson-like output pulse height distribution observed in the tubes in which a well-defined most probable pulse amplitude appears, compared to a more complex but lower amplitude dark noise pulse height spectrum. Other features of these tubes, such as adjustable cathode size and shape, electrical deflection for automatic gain calibration, alignment and image tracking, and reduction of dark noise with cooling, are also described. View full abstract»

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  • Radioactive Tracer Study of a Photomultiplier Manufacturing Process

    Page(s): 56 - 63
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    A quantitative measurement of the cesium disposition within a multiplier phototube was accomplished by the use of cesium-137 as a tracer. The processing and measurement techniques are described, and the significance of the findings are discussed in relation to tube performance and improvement. An attempt was made to examine the role of cesium in the fatigue behavior of the AgMgOCs dynode surface. The effort met with interpretation difficulties when it was found that an apparent excess of cesium masks the postulated surface changes. Experimental work with the Du Mont 6292 showed that a low fatigue rate is associated with a high degree of dynode oxidation, but no correlation with cesium uptake was readily evident. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Photomultiplier Developments at RCA

    Page(s): 64 - 71
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    Data on transit time and rise time for numerous types of photomultipliers are presented. Two new photomultipliers designed to provide superior time resolution are discussed. The properties of existing types designed for energy spectroscopy are reviewed. New types designed to reduce dark noise due to radioactive contaminants, dark current, and leakage are described and performance data presented. Some of the advantages of the K2CsSb photocathode are shown. The development of photomultipliers for severe environments is reviewed. Two new families of tubes for this service are described. View full abstract»

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  • New Developments in Radiation Detectors and Electron Multipliers

    Page(s): 72 - 75
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    This paper describes several electron devices for the detection of radiation. Discussed are a photomultiplier for UV and X-ray spectrum analysis which uses a switchable segmented photocathode; a large area scintillation counter tube which uses a large size multiplier structure giving it high coupling factor and high current capability; and a small, two terminal electron multiplier structure which uses an inclined strip of semiconductor material in an electric field. Illustrations and some performance data are given. View full abstract»

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  • Multiplier Phototubes for the Far Ultraviolet

    Page(s): 93 - 99
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    A new group of extreme solar-blind multiplier phototubes with cleaved lithium fluoride windows consisting of: end-on tubes with 28 mm active diameter cesium iodide (542G-08) and potassium bromide (542J-08) photocathode; 10 mm active diameter cesium iodide (541G-08) and copper iodide (541H-08) photocathodes; and a side-window tube with a cesium iodide reflective photocathode (641G-08), are described. The spectral responses have characteristic long wavelength cut-offs which serve as an efficient means of rejecting the scattered long-wavelength radiation in dispersive systems. The tubes have anode dark currents at room temperature equivalent to approximately one photoelectron per second. The count rate in the dark of cathode-originating electrons is 10-20 counts per minute. The pulse height distribution from a 541G-08 illuminated with low-level ultraviolet shows an exponential form down to a small fraction (1/25) of the average single electron pulse height. The highly ruggedized tubes are designed for the rigors of space applications. View full abstract»

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  • Improvements in Light Amplifier Operation

    Page(s): 100 - 107
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    The P. 829 thin film light amplifier has been greatly improved and been shown to be capable of providing very high photon gains exceeding 106, and low dark currents down to 3 scintillations/sq. cm./sec. Under continuous operating conditions, a resolution exceeding 60 line pairs/mm. has been reported, and excellent pulsing characteristics have been achieved at 20 nano seconds exposure time. A tube incorporating a flat photocathode of 2" diameter and a first stage demagnification of 2:1 has been made. Useful information has been gained by using the P. 829 type tube to study stellar spectra, Cerenkov rings, profiles of beams of charged particles, plasma physics, and bioluminescence. Some examples of photographic results obtained in these investigations are given. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Dynode Multipliers for High-Speed Counting

    Page(s): 108 - 113
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    The WX 30006 and WX 5009, whose characteristic are summarized in Table I, are just two representatives of a whole family of high-speed tubes which can be constructed using the building blocks at hand. Many trade offs ar possible allowing one to design a tube tailore to a specific application. All tubes incorporating planar dynode multipliers have several features in common, some of which are enumerate below: 1. Uniform and close spacing of dynodes in a plane parallel geometry, combined with high voltage per stage, allowing a substantial reduction in transit time fluctuations as wel as total transit time. 2. Absence of positive ion feedback (owing to the compartmentalized structure of the tube) resulting in virtual eliminatio of after pulses. 3. Ability to operate in the presenc of relatively intense magnetic fields because of the close spacings, high voltages, and guardring effect of the kovar mounting flanges. All TSE tubes have operated effectively in axial fields in excess of 1200 gauss, and there is no reason to suspect that the gain would suffe appreciably even in axial fields of 20 Kilogauss. There are, however, two possible limitation n the usefulness of these tubes which frankly require further investigation: 1. At present the life of these devices is only imperfectly understood. 2. The high voltage required for operating these tubes will in many cases pose problems which require some imagination for their solution. View full abstract»

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  • Progress on Photomultipliers and Image Intensifiers at EMI Electronics Ltd.

    Page(s): 114 - 119
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    This paper reviews recent work at E.M.I. on photomultiplier tubes. Dark current measurements by various techniques are presented, including data on tubes with high quantum efficiency and minimum thermionic emission suitable for low energy scintillation counting. Mention is made of a new fast tube, a small tube, and modified ion detectors. Two four-stage image intensifiers are described. View full abstract»

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  • The Photon Scintillator

    Page(s): 120 - 128
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    A new sealed-off detector for accurate photon counting in the ultraviolet (1100-1800 A%o) is described. The resultant pulse height distributions exhibit a clear separation between signal and multiplier dark current. At operating voltages of 20-25 KV across the photon scintillator the peak of the signal distribution occurs at pulse heights greater than 30 times that of the average single electron. Because of the broad valley between signal and dark current the counting rate is relatively insensitive to substantial changes in bias level. The integral background above the bias level due to both the photon scintillator and the coupled photomultiplier dark current is of the order of 1 count/ sec or less. The pulse height resolution (FWHM) at 25 KV for low-light level ultraviolet radiation (single events) is approximately 45%. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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