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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

Issue 3 • June 1964

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 75
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Nuclear Science Group

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):i - iv
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  • The Nucleus

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): v
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  • Introduction

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):vi - vii
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  • A Large Liquid Scintillator for the Detection of Antineutrino Reactions

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):1 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • The Scintillation Process in Alkali Halide Crystals

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):4 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    The scintillation process in impurity-activated alkali halide crystals is considered by analogy to that in binary solid organic solutions. A general relation is proposed for the differential scintillation efficiency dL/dE as the product of the efficiencies of the primary and secondary scintillation processes. The primary efficiency is influenced by electron-hole recombination and ionization quench... View full abstract»

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  • CaI2 and CaI2(Eu) Scintillation Crystals

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):12 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB)

    Scintillation crystals of CaI2 and CaI2(Eu) have been produced which iypically show pulse heights of 180% relative to NaI(Tl). The emission spectra for both pure and activated materials are well matched to a S-ll phototube response. Pure CaI2 has a decay time of 0.55, μsec; CaI2(Eu) has a 0.79, μsec decay time. Though this material is difficult to grow and to package, performance r... View full abstract»

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  • The Scintillation Mechanism in Thallium Activated Sodium Iodide

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):15 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)

    The emission and transmission of both pure and Tl activated NaI crystals have been studied as functions of wavelength and plastic deformation in the sample. The results show an increase in emission at 0.42 micron for the NaI(Tl) phosphor, and a probable decrease for the pure NaI specimen. In pure NaI three emission bands, located at 0.33, 0.375 and 0.42 micron, were observed. The 0.42 micron band ... View full abstract»

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  • Electron Response of Nal(Tl) and a Comparison with Anthracene and Pilot B

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):20 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB)

    An investigation was made of the relative response of NaI(Tl) to electrons over an energy range of 6 keV to 1 MeV. The light output at 6 keV is quite sensitive to the nature of the exposed surface. The results are given for the two best cleaved NaI(Tl) crystals and compared to the electron response deduced from photon data. There is good agreement above 20 keV, where little sensitivity to changes ... View full abstract»

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  • The Fluorescent Decay of CsI(Tl) Excited by Charged Particles

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):24 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB)

    The fluorescence from a CsI(0.08% Tl) scintillator excited by charged particles which come to a stop within the scintillator has been measured for alpha particles, deuterons, and protons. In the region 0.1 to 0.6 microseconds after its initial rise, the fluorescent decay can be accurately described by a simple exponential. The characteristic time for this exponential decay has been measured at sev... View full abstract»

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  • Improved Fluorescence Decay-Time Measuring Apparatus

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):27 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB)

    An apparatus has been assembled which is capable of detecting and reproducing the fluorescence pulse contours from scintillation materials. In this report we are emphasizing two areas of our work: The recent modifications in our apparatus and the presentation of preliminary data. A comparison is made between the fluorescence decay time of ordinary and deuterated compounds. Also preliminary results... View full abstract»

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  • Relative Light Output Evaluation of Different Commercial Plastic Scintillators

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):29 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1299 KB)

    An evaluation of light emitted from commercial plastic scintillators, when bombarded with radioactive particles, was done using photomultiplier tubes with S-11 and S-13 responses. Fourteen plastic scintillators, 1-in. long, were compared and eight different kinds were used to study light output as a function of length. It was found that light output does not fall exponentially with increasing leng... View full abstract»

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  • Light Collection from Long Thin Scintillator Rods and Optical Coupling

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):38 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2746 KB)

    In nuclear detection, it is often advantageous to detect the nuclear events occurring at widely separated points and to route this information to a central location. This problem was encountered in the design of a nuclear gaging system for the reaction control tanks of the Apollo vehicle. An evaluation of system requirements showed that a design using a multiplier phototube and an array of scintil... View full abstract»

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  • The Slow Component of Scintillation in Stilbene

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):44 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB)

    Experimental study of the response of stilbene to protons (0,8 to 1,8 MeV) indicates a non-linearity in the intensity of the fast components vs energy and a linear relationship for the slow component. It was found for stilbene and anthracene a decreasing intensity of the slow component with increasing particle mass (electrons, protons, alphas). The temperature dependence of both components has bee... View full abstract»

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  • Multiplier Phototubes for Single Electron Counting

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2032 KB)

    Typical operating characteristics of ITT Industrial Laboratories' special purpose multiplier phototubes are described, with particular emphasis on the ability of these tubes to count single photoelectrons with minimum interference from dark noise. This ability, of particular significance in the detection of low energy quanta, including single photons, follows from the Poisson-like output pulse hei... View full abstract»

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  • Radioactive Tracer Study of a Photomultiplier Manufacturing Process

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3034 KB)

    A quantitative measurement of the cesium disposition within a multiplier phototube was accomplished by the use of cesium-137 as a tracer. The processing and measurement techniques are described, and the significance of the findings are discussed in relation to tube performance and improvement. An attempt was made to examine the role of cesium in the fatigue behavior of the AgMgOCs dynode surface. ... View full abstract»

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  • Recent Photomultiplier Developments at RCA

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):64 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3927 KB)

    Data on transit time and rise time for numerous types of photomultipliers are presented. Two new photomultipliers designed to provide superior time resolution are discussed. The properties of existing types designed for energy spectroscopy are reviewed. New types designed to reduce dark noise due to radioactive contaminants, dark current, and leakage are described and performance data presented. S... View full abstract»

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  • New Developments in Radiation Detectors and Electron Multipliers

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):72 - 75
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB)

    This paper describes several electron devices for the detection of radiation. Discussed are a photomultiplier for UV and X-ray spectrum analysis which uses a switchable segmented photocathode; a large area scintillation counter tube which uses a large size multiplier structure giving it high coupling factor and high current capability; and a small, two terminal electron multiplier structure which ... View full abstract»

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  • Present State of Research and New Developments at the Laboratories D'Electronique et de Physique Appliquees (L. E. P.) in the Field of Photomultiplier Tubes

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):76 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6266 KB)

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  • Multiplier Phototubes for the Far Ultraviolet

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):93 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1539 KB)

    A new group of extreme solar-blind multiplier phototubes with cleaved lithium fluoride windows consisting of: end-on tubes with 28 mm active diameter cesium iodide (542G-08) and potassium bromide (542J-08) photocathode; 10 mm active diameter cesium iodide (541G-08) and copper iodide (541H-08) photocathodes; and a side-window tube with a cesium iodide reflective photocathode (641G-08), are describe... View full abstract»

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  • Improvements in Light Amplifier Operation

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):100 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4508 KB)

    The P. 829 thin film light amplifier has been greatly improved and been shown to be capable of providing very high photon gains exceeding 106, and low dark currents down to 3 scintillations/sq. cm./sec. Under continuous operating conditions, a resolution exceeding 60 line pairs/mm. has been reported, and excellent pulsing characteristics have been achieved at 20 nano seconds exposure time. A tube ... View full abstract»

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  • Planar Dynode Multipliers for High-Speed Counting

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):108 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1377 KB)

    The WX 30006 and WX 5009, whose characteristic are summarized in Table I, are just two representatives of a whole family of high-speed tubes which can be constructed using the building blocks at hand. Many trade offs ar possible allowing one to design a tube tailore to a specific application. All tubes incorporating planar dynode multipliers have several features in common, some of which are enume... View full abstract»

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  • Progress on Photomultipliers and Image Intensifiers at EMI Electronics Ltd.

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):114 - 119
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2679 KB)

    This paper reviews recent work at E.M.I. on photomultiplier tubes. Dark current measurements by various techniques are presented, including data on tubes with high quantum efficiency and minimum thermionic emission suitable for low energy scintillation counting. Mention is made of a new fast tube, a small tube, and modified ion detectors. Two four-stage image intensifiers are described. View full abstract»

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  • The Photon Scintillator

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):120 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1749 KB)

    A new sealed-off detector for accurate photon counting in the ultraviolet (1100-1800 A%o) is described. The resultant pulse height distributions exhibit a clear separation between signal and multiplier dark current. At operating voltages of 20-25 KV across the photon scintillator the peak of the signal distribution occurs at pulse heights greater than 30 times that of the average single electron. ... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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