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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1964

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Professional Technical Group on Nuclear Science

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): i - iii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Nucleus

    Page(s): v
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Cesium Plasma Measurements

    Page(s): 1
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Anomalous Quasi TE11 Mode Absorption in the Afterglow of a Positive Column Occupying a Long Guide Cylindrical Wave

    Page(s): 3 - 11
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    Experimental observations of reflection and transmission of a cw wave propagating in the quasi TE11 mode in a cylindrical wave guide filled with a time decaying plasma are presented. The discharge column occupies, with the exception of a thin layer of quartz, the entire cross-section of the wave guide. The transmitted wave displays a series of optima whose relative amplitudes increase with decreasing electron density. With regard to phase separation, frequency and pressure variation the extrema seem to fit a simple theoretical model, which, however, fails to explain the absorption mechanism, the latter being also associated with a reversed cross-modulation not explainable by the Ramsauer effect. View full abstract»

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  • An RF Technique for Plasma Number Density Measurement

    Page(s): 12 - 22
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    It is well-known that a cylindrical plasma column in a transverse rf electric field is subject to a dipole resonance. The frequency at which this occurs can be used to determine the average electron density across the plasma section. This paper describes the experimental application of the technique to plasmas with and without a confining axial static magnetic field, and gives theoretical curves to assist in rapid reduction of the data. Higher order multipole resonances can also be excited. The feasibility of applying these to determination of the number density profile is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The Propagation of an Electromagnetic Wave through a Diffusing Plasma

    Page(s): 23 - 33
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    The propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a fully ionized diffusing plasma slab is investigated. The slab is considered to be diffusing in an ambipolar fashion, with the electron-ion collision frequency proportional to the spatial and time varying ion density. The propagation characteristics of the wave are shown to be dependent on the relationship between np and nc, the densities where the signal frequency is equal to the plasma frequency and collision frequency respectively. This relationship is temperature dependent. The reflection and transmission coefficients of the plasma are calculated as a function of signal frequency, and their behavior as the slab diffuses is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Waves in a Circular Plasma Column with General Impedance Boundary Conditions

    Page(s): 34 - 40
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    Electromagnetic waves in a plasma column subjected to generalized impedance boundary conditions are studied. A general dispersion equation is obtained which is solved numerically on a high speed digital computer, the boundary impedances being either read in on cards as fixed impedances or calculated from a subroutine written for a specific problem. The effects of resistive and reactive components in the boundary impedances are shown. True zeros of the determinantal equation are found to occur for real ß only when pure reactance is presented to the plasma surface. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of High Voltage Vortex-Stabilized Arc Heaters

    Page(s): 41 - 46
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    Phenomena occurring in a particular vortex-stabilized geometry are discussed. In arc heaters of this type, voltage increases linearly with flow and with size. The level of performance for various sizes is both predictable and fairly constant. Smoke techniques have elucidated re-entrant flow patterns associated with the vortex flow, and windows permit studying the effect of an auxiliary magnetic field on arc rotation. Measurements of effluent fluctuations are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Basic Measurements in a Rail Type Plasma Gun

    Page(s): 47 - 57
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    The rail-type plasma-gun is a well suited laboratory set-up for the experimental determination of the physical properties of short lived plasmas. The ONERA plasma-gun is the most conventional rail type gun, with two cylindrical electrodes; an electrical discharge between two auxiliary electrodes generates the plasma whenever a puff of argon is injected into the plasma gun. Measurements on the set-up are devised to give the following data: - mass flow rate through the injection nozzle or amount of argon corresponding to each puff; - current and voltage during a discharge; - self induction of the rails; - shape and displacement of the plasma column (magnetic coil probe and photo-cell recordings). Though not necessarily an efficient space propulsion device, the parallel rail plasma-gun allows the development and improvement of many experimental techniques, which can be used for the study of more efficient electric thrustors. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of a Surface Contact Hall Current Accelerator

    Page(s): 58 - 65
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    An electric propulsion device is described which utilizes surface contact ion generation followed by space-charge-neutralized, electrostatic ion acceleration in an annular, low-density, Hall current accelerator. Performance analyses and design criteria are presented to illustrate the potentialities of the device for use as an efficient, high-thrust-density engine in the intermediate specific impulse regime. Preliminary experimental data obtained with a laboratory model are presented. View full abstract»

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  • On Cooled Anodes in Contact with a Laminar Arc-Heated Flow

    Page(s): 66 - 91
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    This paper is concerned with the physics and operating characteristics of cooled anodes In contact with an arc-heated laminar plasma flow in a constant area duct. Various modes of anode behavior are identified and described. Some Influences of gas type, flow rate, arc current, anode material and geometry are demonstrated. A theory is developed to explain the low-current mode of the anode characteristic. It is shown that the local current density on the anode surface is related approximately to the surface's local bias relative to its electrically floating voltage. Anode current distribution data is presented; the distribution is shown to be unstable above a transition bias volt,. age, with the current concentrating intensely on the edge of the anode toward the cathode. Neighboring points on the duct wall are shown to be electrically independent. This fact greatly simplifies an interpretation of anode phenomena. The information presented makes a fairly complete picture of the physical behavior of finite-length, cooled anodes in contact with fully-developed laminar plasma-arc flows. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Arc-Heating Phenomena in a Tube

    Page(s): 92 - 103
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    This paper presents an analysis of the flow and energy transport processes in an arc-heating device in which an electric arc and a gas flow pass concurrently through a cylindrical tube. The particular region of interest in the tube is the inlet length over which the hot gas is always separated from the tube wall by a layer of unheated gas. The analysis demonstrates the manner in which the flow parameters in the tube may be computed by the matching of the unheated flow and the heated flow at the thermal boundary for given end boundary conditions. Experimental data obtained with an arc heater are presented in support of the analytical model. View full abstract»

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  • Axial Flow through the Wall-Constricted Direct-Current Arc-Comparison of Theory and Experiment

    Page(s): 104 - 108
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    The basis of a simple theoretical analysis by Stine and Watson of the behavior of a wall-constricted plasma generator is considered. Experimental results are presented for a plasma generator designed from gas transport properties and theory. In general the agreement between theory and measured performance of the plasma generator indicates that the underlying physical principles are reasonably well understood. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and Experiment with a Gas Stabilized Constricted Arc

    Page(s): 109 - 118
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    Measurements of voltage gradient and static pressure distribution in the constrictor of a gas stabilized constricted arc discharge are reported. These and previously obtained data yielding the column diameter are used to compare the behavior of this discharge with laminar column theories. Significant disagreement are found, and it is concluded that the discharge represents an inlet flow region. A qualitative model is presented of the physical processes occuring in this inlet region. The implications for arc heater efficiency of this model and of the data are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Continuum Radiation from Arc Heated Plasmas

    Page(s): 119 - 124
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    Measurements of the spectral continuum of arc heated nitrogen plasma have been made using high dispersion spectroscopic equipment. These measurements cover a wavelength range of 2700 Å to 44t,000 Å and a temperature range of 9500°K to 12,000°K. The measurements have been compared with a number of theoretical studies of both the spectral and total emissivity. An estimate of the contribution to the continuum of the negative nitrogen ion has been included, and a new value of the effective nuclear charge for Kramers free-free radiation has been measured. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Diagnostics with Short Electromagnetic Pulses

    Page(s): 125 - 136
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    The propagation of short electromagnetic pulses in an ionized medium and the reflection of transient pulses from bounded ionized regions is discussed. Analytical expressions for transient oscillations in reflected and propagated electromagnetic fields excited by a unidirectional pulse are derived for certain simple cases. The transient oscillations show a periodicity which is directly related to the plasma frequency and are useful for nearly instantaneous plasma diagnostics. An experiment is described in which the reflection and transmission of unidirectional pulses of approximately 1 nanosecond duration is observed in the afterglow of a coaxial discharge tube. In addition to the dispersion of the quasi TEM mode in the coaxial test tube a transient oscillation with much lower periodicity is also observed and interpreted as arising from a surface-wave propagating near the interface between glass walls and the annular ionized region. This surface-wave propagates only at frequencies below the plasma frequency of the ionized region and its application for diagnostics of dense plasma is indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Diagnostic Studies in Electrodeless Discharge Plasmas

    Page(s): 137 - 144
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    This paper reports an experimental study of microwave diagostic techniques as applied to electrodeless discharge plasmas. Here relatively dense plasmas (~1012. electrons/cm3) are created by inductive coupling from a radio frequency (40 mc) coil using only a one kilowatt generator. A microwave diagnostic system has been developed which permits X-band (8840 mc) waveguide transmission in the TM01 mode through this plasma without appreciably loading the RF excitation coil. Simple slotted line probing techniques have been developed which are capable of measuring the point by point plasma densities with a high degree of accuracy in relatively dense plasmas using only a single microwave frequency. The techniques described here are to be applied to a large 100 kilowatt plama generator now nearing completion. View full abstract»

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  • Stagnation Point Radiative Heat Transfer Measurements at Supersatellite Velocities

    Page(s): 158 - 169
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    Total heat transfer measurements were made using standard calorimeter techniques in an electrically driven 6.5 inch diameter shock tube at stagnation point enthalpies corresponding to velocities of up to 47, 000 ft/sec in air at an altitude of 140,000 feet. The radiative component was separated from the total by subtracting the measured convective component from the total heat transfer rate measurement. The remaining radiative component is compared with the equilibrium radiative heat transfer theory of Kivel and Bailey and the nonequilibrium estimates of Teare, Ge¿rgiev, and Allen. The possible sources of error, the advantages and limitations of this technique and the discrepancy with theory is discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • A Collimated Total Radiation Probe for Arcjet Measurements

    Page(s): 176 - 186
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    The total energy radiation of an argon arcjet was measured by a simple collimated thermopile. Radiation from the luminous jet was found to vary as T7.2 when the peak (centerline) temperature at the arcjet exit plane was 12,600°K. Total radiated energy from the arcjet, including the downstream-directed component from the cathode face, was found to agree quite well with theoretical estimates given in the present paper. The use of a purified helium atmosphere and lithium fluoride optical components permitted achievement of transmissivity down to 1060 angstroms on all measurements. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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