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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Nov. 1963

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Professional Technical Group on Nuclear Science

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): c2
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  • [Table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): i
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  • From the Editor

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): iii
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  • The Nucleus

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): v - vi
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  • Radiation Effects in Diamond Lattice Semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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  • Mechanisms of Transient Radiation Effects

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 11 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Transient radiation effects are defined to be manifestations of electrons excited in materials, i. e., ionization effects. Manifestations of particular interest are the emission of secondary electrons from surfaces, conduction in ionized gases, semiconductors and insulators, and the emission and absorption of optical radiation by excess electrons. In each case the processes can be described as a sequence leading from the primary interaction of the incident nuclear radiation with an atom in the target material through the slowing down of the electrons which are detached in this interaction to the eventual recapture or trapping of the free electrons. Most of the phenomena can be described in terms of a mean lifetime for the electrons and a mobility. Assuming reasonable values for these quantities, calculations can be performed to estimate the order of magnitude of transient effects in typical materials and electronic components. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Charged Particles and Neutrons on Magnetic Materials

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 20 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    There is a growing interest in the effects of radiatio on the properties of magnetic materials, with greater activity abroad (on both sides of the Iro Curtain) than in the United States. While several of the papers are extensive in nature, reporting results on a variety of materials, the trend is toward more intensive investigations of selected materials, with the goal of identifylng more exactly the nature of the radiation induced dmage. Pure metals, as well as order-disorder type alloys, are of particular interest. While many results have been reported, most conclusions to date concerning the nature of defects are indefinite. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Gamma Radiation on Glass Coated Silicon Transistors

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 28 - 34
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    It has previously been found that semiconductor devices employing various gas encapsulation techniques exhibited significant alterations of their electrical responses under gamma and neutron exposure. Since the neutron bombardment produces bulk or volume damage, the device surface environment has little effect on the neutron induced changes. It has been observed that gamma exposures at doses well below the threshold for permanent damage have caused changes in several electrical characteristics of transistors and diodes which may be described as of surface origin. The parameters exhibiting significant change are the transistor ICBO and the reverse biased diode leakage current. This paper will describe the results of experiments performed to study the effects of exposure to gamma radiation on selected silicon transistors when coated with a low temperature melting glass. The surface sensitive parameters of the coated transistors degraded to a much lesser extent than observed for the gas encapsulated units, indicating a more favorable surface environment to minimize the effect of gamma radiation. Comparison of the glass coated transistors with devices employing a planar structure incorporating a silicon-oxide coating on the device material surface yielded comparable results. The results of these experiments are consistent with the model proposed to explain this effect and its various ramifications. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Effects of Radiation on Transistors

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 35 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Surface effects caused by ionizing radiation have been found to result in serious parameter changes in certain transistors. These effects include large increases in leakage current, changes in gain, and increases in noise. Studies have been made of the effects of dose, dose rate, bias, transistor environment, and surface protection, in addition to the phenomena of recovery and memory. The greatest changes occur when bias and radiation are applied simultaneously to a gas-encapsulated silicon transistor with unprotected surfaces. Most of these effects can be qualitatively explained through the use of a simple model of the process. Radiation ionizes the encapsulating gas, and the resulting ions and electrons are directed to transistor surfaces by electric fields at the junction surfaces and between the transistor and its can. Inversion layers are produced at the surface which grossly change certain transistor parameters. The great variability among devices of the same type suggests that the gas ions interact with the surface by imparting charge to surface contaminants. Detailed investigation of the influence of electric fields between a transistor structure and its can have been carried out on special gas-encapsulated mesa and planar transistors which are electrically insulated from their cans. Results indicate that inversion layers on both collector and base are affecting ICBO. while, as would be expected, gain is altered principally by an inversion layer on the base. In the gasencapsulated planar devices the effect of can bias on ICBO is greatly reduced and its effect on gain is practically zero. View full abstract»

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  • Some Effects of Transit Gamma Radiation on Transistors

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 45 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    As a part of a study of nuclear radiation effects on shipboard electronic equipment, a large number of commonly used transistor types have been irradiated in similated transit radiation fields. A wide range was observed in the amount of radiation induced effects on gain and reverse leakage current, even within a group of one type of transistor. In general, only temporary changes were observed, with silicon types exhibiting smaller changes than the germanium units. For germanium types, reverse leakage current changed by a factor of 10-20 for some units while gain changed by a factor of 2 or less, with the change persisting in some types. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalence of Radiation Particles for Permanent Damage in Semiconductor Devices

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 54 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Selected transistors and diodes have been irradiated by various types and energies of dislocating radiation. Irradiation by protons of 10-Mev, neutrons of a reactor spectrum, electrons of 5, 10, and 25-Mev, gamma rays from cobalt-60, and bremsstrahlung from stopping of 5-Mev electrons are discussed. Passive and dynamic monitoring of permanent radiation damage was performed for exposures ranging from "threshold" to failure doses, utilizing various exposure rates. Changes in transistor forward current gain and changes in diode lifetime are presented in terms of integrated "particle" flux. From such analysis, the feasibility of ascribing an equivalence of radiation particles for aermanent damage in transistors and diodes has been successfully shown. Comparative damage curves, correlations of operational degradation with defect densities, and preliminary equivalences are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Studies on GaAs and Si Devices

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 60 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    GaAs and Si n/p cells were irradiated with 100 kev and 17.6 Mev protons, and 0.8 and 5.6 Mev electrons. The resulting difference in performance is interpreted in terms of the initial lifetime and the photo-absorption process. It is concluded that GaAs cells can deliver a given power longer than Si cells in a radiation field of high-energy protons and electrons. Thin shields will be required for both cells in environments of low-energy protons. It is suggested that the recombination centers introduced in silicon by high-energy particles are more effective than those introduced by 0.8 Mev electrons. View full abstract»

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  • Low Energy Proton Damage to Solar Cells

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 66 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Various types of silicon solar cells have been irradiated with 4.6 - 4.8 Mev protons in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, variations included the bulk material, impurity concentration, and oxygen concentration; the second experiment involved the cells of various manufacturers. Changes in diffusion length, spectral response, and efficiency under sun-like illumination are presented. Annealing effects in terms of the aforermentioned parameters are given. Comparison of the effects of this damage to that of 1 Mev electrons is made. Some preliminary results on the effects of proton damage to GaAs photovoltaic cells are also mentioned. View full abstract»

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  • Proton-Neutron Damage Equivalence in Si and Ge Semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 71 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Following an analysis of the basic radiation damage processes in semiconductors, and an analysis of existing radiation effects data, a proton-neutron damage equivalence was experimentally determined for silicon solar cells. The basis for comparison is the degradation of minority carrier lifetime during irradiation, as expressed by the lifetime damage constant, K¿, or the diffusion length damage constant, KL . Both p on n cells and n on p cells were irradiated with 96, 69, 48 Mev protons, and with fission and moderated neutrons. Measurements were made on the degradation of the solar cell dark voltage-current characteristics, the forward bias characteristics under one sun illumination, and the short circuit current response to monochromatic illumination of one micron wavelength. The degradation of minority carrier diffusion length was calculated from the short circuit current response at one micron. From the analysis of radiation damage processes in silicon, the derivation of a theoretical proton-neutron damage equivalence was hindered by inadequately developed theory relating the number and type of active defects associated with the vacancies created by the incident particles. The analysis of available data indicate that a reliable proton-neuton damage equivalence in Si or Ge is not possible, due to the spread in the existing damage constants and the absence of damage constants for proton and neutron irradiations of equivalent samples. The experimentally determined proton to neutron ratio of minority carrier diffusion length damage constants in silicon solar cells ranges from 0.96 to 4. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Simulated Transit Radiation on Digital Circuits

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 87 - 92
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    This paper describes results of tests made to determine the performance of digital computer circuits in a transit radiation environment. These tests were sponsored by the Bureau of Ships under direct cognizance of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory as part of a study of nuclear radiation effects on shipboard electronic equipment. The transit radiation is emitted by airborne weapon fission products after the fireball and cloud column have dispersed. The transit radiation was simulated by use of cobalt-60 gamma radiation to a maximum dose rate of 3 × 105 roentgens/ hour and to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 104 roentgens. The circuits tested consisted of conventional transistor digital circuitry with 11 to 32 components mounted on each printed wire card. A total of 72 cards of twelve types were actively tested using the manufacturer's acceptance specifications as a basis for determining proper performance. Circuit performance was recorded by photographing the oscilloscope display of circuitwaveforms at regular intervals during a test. As a result of the radiation measurable changes occurred in the output waveforms of some of the circuits, but in no instance did the circuit performance become unacceptable because of the radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Tolerant Magnetic Amplifier

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 93 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Several operational magnetic amplifier stages of low and medium power levels were designed and tested in a nuclear radiation environment to levels of 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 (E > 0.1 Mev) and were found to exhibit acceptable performance. Various diode characteristics were obtained under radiation to correlate behavior with amplifier designs. Diode test results are presented for irradiations at three different reactor facilities. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Test of a Nuclear Radiation-Tolerant Servo Amplifier

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 104 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A servo amplifier was designed to meet the nuclear radiation environment expected in the nuclear ramjet missile. An extensive search of radiation effects data was made to Judiciously select radiation resistant components and materials. The resulting design used RCA nuvistor tubes for voltage amplification, and power amplification was achieved with G. E. ceramic tubes. The amplifier was instrumented to evaluate individual stage performance. Irradiation testing was conducted over a 130 hour period and the unit was subjected to an integrated fast neutron flux of 2.0 × 1017 neutrons/cm2 (E>0.3 Mev) and an associated gamma dose of 2.5 × 1011 ergs/gm-(C). The servo amplifier operated throughout the test with negligible changes in amplifier characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • AN Experimental Investigation of Nuclear Radiation Effects on Radar Receiver Components

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 110 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Three ceramic tube 60-megacycle i-f amplifiers and one X-band mixer-preamplifier assembly were operated in the vicinity of a 3 megawatt nuclear reactor for a total of 300 megawatt hours, and their characteristics were monitored to determine the effects of nuclear radiation. There wrere essentially no changes in the characteristics of the i-f amplifiers throughout the test with a total integrated neutron flux of 2.8 × 1016 neutrons/ cm2 (Energy greater than 0.3 Mev) and a gamma dose of 3 × 1010 ergs/gm(C). The mixer-preamplifier operated with no noticeable changes to a total integrated neutron flux of 4 × 1015 neutrons/cm2 (Energy greater than 0.3 Mev) and gamma dose of 5.5 × 109 ergs/gm(C). Various degrees of degradation in crystal performance, gain, and noise characteristics were experienced throughout the remainder of the test. View full abstract»

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  • Gamma-Ray and Neutron-Induced Conductivity in Insulating Materials

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 118 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Excess conductivities induced by steady-state sources of gamma rays and by pulsed sources of neutrons and gamma rays in polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, Nylon, polyisobutylene (impregnated paper), mylar, Teflon, diallylphthalate, H-film, cellulose acetate, reconstituded mica, tantalum oxide, and an epoxy formulation have been measured. The measurements were made at steady-state gamma-ray dose rates within the interval from 1.0 × 10-3 rads(H2O)/sec to 1.0 × 104 rads(H2O)/sec, and at combined pulsedneutron and gamma-ray dose rates less than 2.0 × 108 rads(H2O)/sec. All measurements were made at controlled temperatures between 25°C and 71°C. With steady-state gamma-ray irradiation, an excess conductivity is induced which has distinct features in three time intervals denoted as A, B, and C. In interval A, induced conductivity (¿ - ¿o) is responding to a step increase in gamma-ray dose rate. The conductivity response is exponential (¿ - ¿o) = A(1 - e-t/¿o), with the time constant (¿o) decreasing with increased gamma-ray dose rare (¿). The change in time constant as a function of gamma-ray dose rate at a fixed temperature is approximated by ¿o = ko¿-¿ where ko and ¿ are empirical constants. In interval B the induced conductivity has arrived at an equilibrium value whose magnitude as a function of gamma-ray dose rate at a fixed temperature is characterized to a good approximation by (¿ - ¿o) = A¿¿¿, where A¿ and ¿ are empirical constants. In interval C the conductivity is recovering upon removal of the sample from the radiation environment. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Conductivity in Capacitor Dielectrics for Gamma Radiation Pulses

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 131 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Pulsed Radiation Effects on Thyratron Tubes

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 139 - 148
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    Thyratrons may be fired by intense pulses of nuclear radiation. The results of early experiments to characterize this phenomenon are reexamined in the light of the recent experimental results. Evidence is presented that the tube is fired by gas ionization rather than a radiation induced grid voltage transient. Plate voltage is observed to be an important determinant of the firing criteria. A significant time delay also exists between the radiation stimulus and the firing of the tube. General guidelines are presented for designing circuits which are more resistant to the effects of pulse radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Charge-Control Equivalent Circuit for Predicting Transient Radiation Effects in Transistors

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 149 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    A charge-control equivalent circuit is developed in detail which can be used with a computer to predict the time-dependent response of any transistor to a pulse of ionizing radiation. Operation of the equivalent circuit during saturation is also provided. Measurement procedures are described for each of the necessary parameters in the circuit and comparison with experimental flash X-ray data is presented. Use of this transistor representation is demonstrated for predicting the response of a complete transistorized amplifier circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation and Compensation of Digital Switching Circuits in Transient Radiation Environments

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 159 - 167
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    A method for determining the degree of vulnerability of a general digital switching circuit to intense bursts of radiation is presented. Emphasis is placed upon the ability of the circuit to maintain a desired state, rather than on the switching process itself. The advantages and disadvantages of added compensation are discussed. Application is made of the preceding theory to contemporary circuits, and reproductions of actual test results are presented to support this theory. The final section is a discussion of some additional considerations that are introduced when radiation bursts of short duration are concerned. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Computer Techniques for Determining Circuit Behavior in a Pulsed Nuclear Environment

    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 168 - 176
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    Two digital computer circuit analysis programs which predict circuit response in a pulsed nuclear radiation environment are presented. One program requires that linear direct current equations be written manually and then programmed for computer solution. The other program generates the equations from topological circuit information and then solves the equations during the radiation burst automatically. Predictions generated by the automated program on four different circuits are verified experimentally. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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