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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1963

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Professional Technical Group on Nuclear Science

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): i - ii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Nucleus

    Page(s): iii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A World in Space

    Page(s): 1 - 7
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    First Page of the Article
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  • The Bomb-Produced Radiation Belt

    Page(s): 8 - 11
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Radiation Dosage Due to Neutrons Produced in a Vehicle by Protons in the Trapped Radiation Belt

    Page(s): 12 - 16
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    The rate of production of neutrons by geomagnetically trapped protons incident on a vehicle was measured by a neutron counting system carried into the trapped radiation belt by a pod flow piggy back on an Atlas rocket on December 19, 1961. The flux of neutrons produced by radiation belt protons incident on the pod was determined to be at least 700 neutrons/(cm2 sec); the actual value depends somewhat on the energy spectrum of the neutrons. This flux was estimated to be equivalent to a dose rate in tissue of 0.10 rems/hr. On the basis of proton flux measurements made in the radiation belt by Freden and White, a calculation was made of the tissue dosage which would have been received in the same environment directly from protons. These calculations were made by obtaining a numerical integration of the dE/dx times RBE times flux product over the entire energy spectrum. The total dose calculated amounted to 2.78 rems/ hr. Further calculations were made to estimate the dose rates which would have been received by tissue in the same environment but with varying amounts of shielding around the vehicle. The proton dose is, of course, reduced by the shield but the neutron dose actually increases as the shielding thickness is increased. It is seen that the neutron dose equals the proton dose at .3 rems/hr. when aluminum shielding of 2.6" surrounds the vehicle and it exceeds the proton dose with thicker shielding. View full abstract»

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  • Shielding Problems for Manned Space Missions

    Page(s): 17 - 23
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    In order to estimate the magnitude of the radiation hazard presented by solar flare and Van Allen belt proton radiation, a simple spherical-shell shield geometry was chosen and physical dose calculatved as a function of shell thickness. Both point-target and body-phantom definitions of dose were used to define the primary particle dose. The secondary particles formed in the shield are shown to contributve a significant fraction of the total dose in the case of the 10 May 1959 flare spectrum and an aluminum shield. View full abstract»

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  • Possible Implications of the Damage by Radiation in the Storage of Propellants in Outer Space and Tentative Methods for Its Measurement

    Page(s): 24 - 30
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    The damage by radiation that can be expected during the storage of hydrogen-bonded propellants in outer space is analized in terms of the available data on radiation levels. On this basis, the alternatives of storing the propellants as liquids or as solids, at low temperature, are discussed, and account is taken of recent results on their thermal behaviour obtained at this Laboratory. Vitreous states of aggregation that could crystallize spontaneously after long periods of irradiation are shown to present some hazards that can be prevented. General considerations of radiation-damage detection in outer space are also made. Paramagnetic resonance is found to be of limited use although it could be used for studying the damage produced by intense solar flares. Solid-state devices are finally recommended. View full abstract»

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  • An Analog to Digital Converter Capable of Nanosecond Resolution

    Page(s): 31 - 35
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    Circuitry has been designed and constructed which is able to analyze and reproduce accurately the slope and pulse height at various points along a rapidly changing signal which occurs only once. The signal is analyzed at 10-nanosecond intervals. This circuitry is also able to sense a zero slope per unit time and in this mode it can be used as a multichannel pulse height analyzer with a dead-time which is dependent only on the rise time of the pulses it is analyzing (pulse pair resolution of 10-7 seconds for random pulses with a 0.1-¿sec rise time is possible). The model under discussion has a maximum storage capacity of 160 channels with 28 bits of information per channel. View full abstract»

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  • N-Decade Count-Rate-Meter with Automatic Scale Change Feature and Resolution of One Decade

    Page(s): 36 - 41
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    The most efficient use of telemetry channels is always a paramount problem of space flight projects. Monitoring radiation fields in space often requires coverage of large ranges of count rate which, if count rate meters are to be used, means either a decrease in resolution due to coverage of the entire range with one rate meter or use of several telemetry channels if several different rate meters are used. This paper describes a unique method permitting the desired resolution to be obtained by use of as many count rate meters as required while limiting the number of telemetry channels needed to two. A circuit switches one telemetry channel from one rate meter to the next as the input rate changes, while the other telemetry channel is used to monitor which rate meter is being read out. View full abstract»

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  • Analog Computer for Quadrupole Magnet Design

    Page(s): 52 - 60
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    In the design of particle accelerators, magnets are sometimes used to bend the paths of charged particles in linear accelerators for focusing and defocusing purposes. These magnets, in the present case, are known as quadrupoles. Their design hinges on the solution of certain mathematical expressions of particle trajectories. A computer of the analog type was constructed to solve the equations and so facilitate magnet design. The analog computer for this application has dials labeled "L", "¿", and "¿". The settings of these dials represent the design parameters under study. The operator can set the dials of each stage to any of thousands of different combinations of L, ¿, and ¿. The results of his settings may be observed on a CRO screen. He can then proceed to search for the best combination of control settings with regard to their effect on particle trajectories. Once having found a satisfactory combination, the corresponding magnet design parameters are obtained from the settings of the controls. Three features of construction required special consideration. These were: the high gain, minimum phase shift, and minimum crosstalk. These items and others are discussed in the article from the practical as well as the theoretical point of view. View full abstract»

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  • The Need for Flexibility in Amplifier Design

    Page(s): 61 - 67
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    Improvements in detector resolution and increases in the sophistication of nuclear experiments have placed an entirely new emphasis on linear amplifier design. Just a few years ago it was necessary to have specialized amplifiers to deal with each specific problem. The lack of flexibility now plaguing most existing linear pulse amplifying systems is often quite annoying to the user. Invariably, the user will find the amplifying system failing in part to provide either adequate stability, polarity reversibility, clipping mode selection, control of rise and fall times, adequate control of gain, or threshold cut and expansion. What usually ensues is that large amounts of time and effort are expended in modifying existing amplifiers in order to accomplish the particular job at hand, or the Job is done with an existing system where poor amplifier performance is accepted as a necessary evil. In the past several years many notable pulse amplifiers have been produced. Among these are the DD-2, the A-8, and the alpha amplifiers designed under the direction of Fairstein, Borkowski, and Blankenship at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Although these amplifiers show exceptional performance in their particular specialized application, all of these amplifiers lack the flexibility desired in a modern general-purpose laboratory amplifier. What is needed today is an amplifying system possessing the best basic features of these highly successful amplifiers with the addition of the features mentioned earlier to obtain greater flexibility and therefore greater utility. In early 1961, an amplifying system of this type was introduced at LRL. View full abstract»

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  • Tory II-C Nuclear Instrumentation System

    Page(s): 68 - 73
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    The design of the nuclear instrumentation system for the Pluto series of nuclear ramjet test reactors is an attempt to provide a very flexible nuclear sensing system that will be adequate for Tory II-C and following test reactors. The nuclear detectors will be exposed to the leakage neutron flux from the reactor during operation. Since the leakage flux is proportional to reactor power, the neutron detectors will give a measure of reactor power. A difficulty in providing nuclear instruments for this reactor is the uncertainty in the neutron energy spectrum of the leakage flux at the detectors. Since detector response varies with neutron energy, a large margin of flexibility is desirable. A difficulty which may be encountered is a significant shift in neutron energy spectrum at high power and temperature. This would make indicated nuclear power nonlinear with calorimetric power. A difficulty in insufficient instrument overlap was encountered with the Tory II-A experiment where a large margin of flexibility would have been useful. The detector placement for the Tory II-A experiment had the power range detectors in line with the reactor and main air pipe. At high air flows there was a much greater mass of air between the detectors and the reactor, allowing fewer neutrons to reach the detectors per unit reactor power. This is the reason for the power range detectors being placed off to the side of the Tory II-C test vehicle. Not all difficulties can be foreseen, but provision is made where possible to overcome them. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Transistor Failure in a Nuclear Environment

    Page(s): 74 - 79
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    This paper describes a method for predicting transistor reliability as a function of nuclear radiation exposure, through the use of the Weibull distribution. Graphical plots of seven different types of transistors show ac gain degradation as a function of integrated neutron exposure. The plots on Weibull graph paper are extended to include probability of failure to 0.1 and 0.01 percent. The graphs are interpreted and the plotting technique and assumptions for extrapolation of the Weibull distribution are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Correlation of Radiation Types with Radiation Effects

    Page(s): 80 - 87
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    The effects produced by different types of nuclear radiation can be compared by making use of the available information on radiation-effects mechanisms. One can separate radiation-effects manifestations into three categories: transient radiation effects, which are due to excited and ionized electrons; displacement radiation effects, which are manifestations of atoms displaced from their normal lattice sites in crystalline solids; and chemical radiation effects, which are due to molecular rearrangements occurring as a second stage to ionizing interactions. The effects produced by different primary radiations can be compared by first identifying the manifestation as belonging to one of these three types. For displacement effects one should then compute the relative cross sections for producing displaced atoms and the average size of the displacement cascade produced by the primary recoil atom. Similarly, for transient and chemical effects one should compute the ionization density produced by the incident radiation. Examples of the pertinent cross sections have been calculated for electrons, gamma rays, protons, and neutrons of various energies. View full abstract»

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  • The Degradation of Solar Cells under Van Allen Radiation

    Page(s): 88 - 96
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    The electrons and protons of the Van Allen Belt cause radiation damage to silicon solar cells which results in a gradual reduction of the power output of solar power plants on satellites passing through the Belt. The study of the radiation damage caused by monoenergetic electrons and by monoenergetic protons of various energy indicates that N on P solar cells are substantially more radiation resistant than the commonly used P on N cells. From such studies and a knowledge of the composition of the Van Allen Belt, a flux of, for example, 1 Mev electrons can be determined that will cause the same radiation damage per unit time to a bare solar cell as the Van Allen Belt spectrum would produce under a given shielding. Observations of radiation damage on satellites are also conveniently expressed in terms of such an equivalent flux. Measurements of solar cell short circuit current changes and changes in the current gain of specially designed highly radiation sensitive transistors have been performed on the Telstar satellite. The results are in general agreement with the radiation damage expected from the observed particle flux and they indicate that solar power is practical for long-life satellites passing through the Van Allen Belt, particularly if N on P solar cells are used. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Damage to Satellite Electronic Systems

    Page(s): 97 - 105
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    Space radiation can cause damage to satellite electronic systems. The amount of damage can be determined if the radiation induced component changes are known and if the behavior of the electronic system as a function of component changes can be determined. By relating space radiation damage to neutron damage, a large amount of semiconductor device data becomes available for satellite damage predictions. To obtain circuit and system performance from component performance in an economical way analysis is combined with experimental techniques. The experimental technique involves substitution of radiation degraded components into the circuit and measurement of its performance. The application of such techniques to satellite electronics indicates that performance degradation caused by lifetime reduction resulting from space radiation can generally be kept small, particularly, if modern high frequency transistors are used. However, ionization of the semiconductor environment from the artificial electron belt may cause significant surface effects resulting in a reduction in device performance even for shielding of several gm/cm2. View full abstract»

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  • The Role of Atomic Collisions in Space Phenomena

    Page(s): 111 - 118
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    Collisions involving electrons, photons, and atomic systems are important in upper atmospheric and astrophysical phenomena and in the exploration of space. Some of these types of reactions are enumerated and described. Examples are given of their significance with respect to diffusion in the atmosphere; radio communications and radar tracking; the excitation and study of the airglow and aurorae; the Van Allen radiation belts; estimation of densities, composition, and temperatures of nebulae and stellar atmospheres; the mapping of hydrogen in interstellar space; and the erosion of space vehicles and planets. Some of the work at the Georgia Institute of Technology on ion mobilities, ion-molecule reactions, ionization, and charge transfer is described. View full abstract»

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  • Measuremeints on Current Sheets in Plasmas

    Page(s): 119 - 123
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    The acceleration of a gas undergoing ionization in a crossed electric-magnetic field leads to the formation of current sheets similar to those observed in coaxial plasma guns. The dynamics of such sheets is of great interest to workers in plasma physics in view of their application to controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments and to space propulsion. In the present paper a detailed mapping of the magnetic field in the vicinity of a current sheet is described. Conventional small search coils are used for the detection of this field. From the configuration of this field an attempt is made to understand the processes taking place in the sheet. All of the experiments described in the paper are performed on a plasma coaxial gun of mall aspect ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Interaction of Recombining Atomic Nitrogen with Gaseous Plasmas

    Page(s): 124 - 135
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    Experiments are reviewed which measure the three-body volume recombination coefficient of neutral nitrogen atoms in nitrogen gas making use of an electron spin resonance (ESR) technique to determine the atomic concentration. The nitrogen atoms were created in an electrodeless discharge and were carried to the ESR detector by a stream of flowing gas. The temperature dependence of the atomic recombination coefficient near 300°K and the number of photons emitted in the Rayleigh afterglow bands per recombination have been determined. It has been found that the loss rate of nitrogen atoms is considerably enhanced when the atomic stream is exposed to a feeble DC discharge. The removal mechanism appears to be one of ionization of nitrogen atoms by electronic bombardment followed by a comparatively rapid ambipolar diffusion. If, however, the stream of atoms passes through a region containing a decaying afterglow plasma in nitrogen where the electronic temperature is low, it is observed that the electronic ambipolar diffusion coefficient is enhanced in the presence of atoms. The above implies an energy transfer mechanism between the recombining atoms and the cool electrons. This effect is presently being explored by observing the change in light emitted by the nitrogen electronic afterglow and the change in electronic concentration and electron-neutral collision frequency with microwaves upon intoducing atoms into the afterglow plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Wave Propagation in a Coaxial Glow Discharge

    Page(s): 136 - 145
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    The propagation of electromagnetic radiation from 500 to 4200 Mc in a coaxial cage transmission line passing through a cylindrical discharge chamber is investigated experimentally. Measurements were conducted in argon, helium, and nitrogen gas at pressures between 0.09 mm Hg and 2 mm Hg for a discharge-electromagnetic radiation interaction length of 30.48 cm. The results are compared with theory using a Lorentzian model to describe the electron motion in the presence of the RF field. A graphical method for determining the plasma frequency and electron momentum transfer collision frequency from measurements of the power transmission coefficient at two different radio frequencies is discussed. A comparison is made between the plasma frequency determined by this method and that obtained by the use of a cylindrical Langmuir probe. The electron momentum transfer collision probability is calculated from the RF and probe data. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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