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Military Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 & 3 • Date April-July 1963

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Professional Technical Group on Military Electronics

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): 83
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Where Do We Go from Here?

    Page(s): 84 - 85
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword

    Page(s): 86 - 89
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  • Signals Assimilable by Living Organisms and by Machines

    Page(s): 90 - 93
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    Man-machine systems may be highly unified and tightly coupled so that they operate practically as a single entity or they may be loosely coupled so that the interfaces are easily discernible and the interaction easily understood whether the interface be close to the biological organism, as in the case of bio-transducers or close to the machine as in conventional digital computers. In most existing cases, however, there is an unnecessary degree of formalization of the intercommunication in terms of an over-simplified clumsy physical or mathematical model or code. It appears possible to develop communication codes based on mathematical models more closely in conformity with indwelling biological codes and thus to facilitate man-machine and other bio-engineering interactions with expected simplification and performance improvement of machine systems and subsequent development of much more tightly knit, effectively functional man-machine systems. View full abstract»

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  • Systems and Information

    Page(s): 94 - 97
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    Information theory is essentially a method for retaining some knowledge of cause-effect relations when the causes, and their effects, become so many that detailed knowledge of each pair is abandoned, while an over-all check is retained that at least the number of causes is sufficient to account for the number of effects. Communication theory has been severely restricted by its original concentration on the ergodic and stationary. Adaptive systems, however, by leaving bad ways of behaving and changing permanently to other (and better) ways of behaving are necessarily nonergodic and nonstationary. The methods of uncertainty analysis (McGill and Garner) seem appropriate here. These methods give a new precision to such questions as: What is a 'system'?-a question that must be answered with precision if a proper theory and dynamics of systems in general is to be built. When systems become complex, their theory is practically that of how to simplify them. View full abstract»

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  • Functional Electronic Model of the Frog Retina

    Page(s): 98 - 103
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    Based on some earlier concepts, a functional electronic model of the frog retina has been designed and constructed. This system duplicates functionally the four image-feature-abstraction process found by Lettvin and co-workers in the frog retina. From the input image, the model abstracts 1) edges, 2) moving convexities, 3) contrast changes, and 4) net dimming. Information presented to the receptors flows in a parallel mode through successive separate processing layers of the model; this information is preserved as it flows as a transformed "map" of the input image. Finally, the processed information is displayed as a spatial map of the four abstracted features of the input image, similar to the "mapping" performed in the brain of the frog. The model was constructed using neon-lamp/photoconductive (Ne-Pc) circuits on separate processing layers. These two elements serve the dual purpose of being principal circuit components as well as providing the interconnections between processing planes. In this manner, the inputs to a processing plane are photoconductive cells and and the outputs are neon lamps. This fabrication technique provides the advantages of easy access to individual components, rapid visual inspection of the operation of individual layers, and the simplicity of modifying the system by inserting or removing a particular layer. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Scanning as a Mechanism of Color Vision

    Page(s): 103 - 108
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    In perceiving color the eye performs a wavelength discrimination process which is analogous to the angular discrimination performed in a tracking radar. There are two basic principles for achieving angular discrimination: 1) multiple detectors with different angular response characteristics and 2) a single detector which scans its response characteristic. Up to now only the multiple-detector approach has been applied to explain the phenomenon of color vision. This paper postulates that the eye employs the scanning discrimination principles to perceive color. A wavelength-dependent effect within the cone causes light of different wavelengths to produce different spatial distributions of energy in the photodetector region. An electrical process scans across this photodetector region producing a modulated waveform which defines the color information. The dc value of the waveform gives the white information, the first harmonic gives the blue-yellow information and the second harmonic gives the green-red information. The phase determines the difference between blue and yellow and between green and red The waveform is demodulated in the retina to generate separate dc voltages which produce the white-black, blue-yellow and greenred sensations. View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Presentation of Visual Information

    Page(s): 108 - 113
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    Psychophysical experiments on tactile sensations were performed to determine parameters needed in the design of a tactile display containing about one hundred stimulators. This tactile displayis being used to present spatial and temporal patterns to the skin to investigate the pattern recognition capabilities of the tactile sense. Airjet tactile stimulators were used in the experiments because they combine the fine localization property of poke-probe stimulators with the slight adaptation property of vibrators. Two perceptual phenomena that were investigated are apparent location and apparent motion. Apparent location occurs when two airjets of different pressure are sensed as one airjet located on the line connecting the two jets. Pressure difference and apparent location were found to be functionally related. This phenomena was extended to two dimensions with three noncollinear stimulators. Apparent motion occurs when two airjets with different onset times are sensed as one airjet moving between two locations. This phenomenon was found to occur when there was a 0.05-to 0.15-second time difference between the onsets of the two pulses, provided that the pulses overlap by less than 0.2 second. The system used to program the array of approximately 100 tactile stimulators is described. View full abstract»

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  • A Discrete Model for Eye Tracking Movements

    Page(s): 113 - 115
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    A sampled data model was developed to describe the major characteristics of the eye movement control system for nonpredictive tracking. It agrees with experimental transient responses and frequency characteristics for normal eye movements during following of a moving target in a horizontal plane. Furthermore, the model predicts the observed changes in transient and frequency characteristics and the limits of stability as the effective visual feedback is varied by adding the measured eye position to the target command signal. View full abstract»

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  • Limits to Animal Discrimination and Recognition in a Noise-Free External Environment

    Page(s): 116 - 131
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    One and two dimensional sensory mechanisms, corresponding to one patch and a line array, respectively, of sensory cells are analyzed. A fundamental stimulus conversion law to average neural pulse rate is employed to explain several phenomena in psychophysics. A theory for neural noise is developed which is shown to specify the limits to animal discrimination and to explain certain observed neural mechanisms. Finally, concepts of optimum detection are employed to specify the ideal animal recognition sensory schema as limited by constraints associated with unavoidable neural noise. Actual animal mechanisms appear to follow the ideal. Certain aspects of Gestalt psychology are also evidenced. The general theory provides quantitative insight into artificial animal recognition and information handling systems and indicates the extent to which the capability of a mechanical device can equal or exceed that of its living counterpart. Explicit design considerations for implementation of the ideal artificial animal system are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Tuning between Central Auditory Pathways and the Ear

    Page(s): 131 - 143
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    Emphasis in research on auditory signal reception has shifted in recent years from studies of the peripheral area alone to include more and more the central portion of the auditory pathways. The findings are characterized by timing mechanisms well balanced between excitatory and inhibitory processes on the one hand and both the selection of auditory information and the concept of two channels of the auditory transmission system on the other. Data on two types of optimizing processes will be presented: the process involved in selecting auditory information and the system responsible for the synergism of frequency (pitch)-and periodicity-analysis. The human CNS selects the 100 bits/sec processed for conscious perception from the 109 bits/sec offered from all sensory receptors in two principal ways: 1) "Specific auditory information" is modulated by "unspecific" information processed through the recticular formation of the brain stem; 2) The descending fiber systems alter selectively the information-flow on every level of the auditory pathway. The filtered information perceived in turn triggers a set of inborn and learned behavioral responses such as speech, mimicry and motor, altogether representing approximately 107 bits/sec. The system for frequency-and periodicity-analysis of the sensory excitation uses space and time attributes, respectively. Psychophysiological as well as electrophysiological data allow the relating of these two attributes to the two sets of sensory sources, the space on the basilar membrane (inner hair cells) and the time dependence of excitation (predominantly outer hair cells). View full abstract»

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  • Glial Control of Neuronal Activity

    Page(s): 144 - 155
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    The concept that the activity of neurons is both passively and actively modified by the surrounding glial and other non-neuronal cells is found in this review to be supported, but not conclusively demonstrated, by recent and previously unreported experiments. The evidence makes such non-neuronal control seem highly likely in the vertebrate retina. In particular, the non-neuronal horizontal cells of the retina were found to sunumate, and apparently to transmit, changes in their membrane potentials (the L-response type of S-potential) over distances many times the span of a single such cell. Available evidence is consistent with the idea that these potential changes can affect the neuronal transmission of excitation from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. This is proposed as the basis for a mechanism accounting for the low-luminance portion of light adaptation and for certain retinal functions of spatial summation and movement detection. View full abstract»

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  • CHILD and SPOCK

    Page(s): 156 - 159
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    In order to study the structure and acquisition of perception and motor skills, we are simulating on a digital computer some features of a baby's sensorimotor development. The baby comes to be able to recognize and manipulate objects, taking into account their movements and other spatial relationships. He performs purposeful actions naturally described in terms of their effects on his environment rather than in terms of particular muscle movements. For instance, we say that he picks up his rattle rather than saying that he moves certain muscles because from our usual point of view, we care about the act as related to other acts. The movements could have been any of a large number of movements performed by different sets of muscles so long as they combined to produce the desired effect of picking up the rattle. We are trying to learn more about the sequence of development which brings about this purposive regulation of movements. There have been a number of different approaches to problems like these. One is to deal with elements at the neural network level adjusting connection strengths of thresholds, while another is to write computer programs in which symbols may designate complex behavioral acts. We are working somewhere between these levels. View full abstract»

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  • Relational Biology and Bionics

    Page(s): 160 - 162
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    "Relational Biology" is the name given by N. Rashevsky to an approach to biological systems in which, roughly speaking, one seeks to understand the properties of these systems in terms of a decomposition into functional components, rather than into structural components as is commonly done in (metric) biology. An approach of this type seems a most natural way of comprehending the types of organization manifested by biological systems. A number of preliminary results, typical of those obtained by relational techniques, are cited to indicate the scope and potential fruitfulness of this type of approach. The emphasis on a functional rather than a structural orientation, characteristic of Relational Biology, naturally opens the possibility for the realization of systems of biological significance at the engineering level, rather than exclusively at the molecular or biochemical level, as is the case in actual biological systems. The possibility thus arises that close analogs of real biological systems may be constructed and studied, with a resulting enrichment both of our understanding of biological systems in themselves, and of our techniques for the simulation of important biological processes in engineering applications. Some theoretical problems connected with the realizability of abstract functional organizations, which are connected with the above possibilities, are here briefly outlined and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Constraint Algebra-A Supervisory Programming Technique and a Cognitive Process

    Page(s): 163 - 167
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    Mathematical models of complex physical or bionic systems involve many simultaneous nonlinear equations. These groups of relationships are difficult to manipulate and even simulalation on a computer is unwieldy because most computational paths are multidirectional and are either over-or under-constrained. The foundation and purposes for an algebra of contraints are outlined in this paper. A typical application of constraint algebra would be as a supervisory routine for a digital program that operates on the topological properties of the set of the equations and determines the allowable computational paths. At the conclusion of these logical operations, which are performed with the aid of a constraint matrix, normal programming can be employed for the quantitative operations on the allowable paths. Thus, one more rational function in the man/computer relationship-that of the generation of perfectly constrained relationships-can now be taken over by the computer. The inclusion of a theorem from thermodynamics allows quite a different application: new variables may be deduced from the constraints which, together with their corresponding equations, simplify the model. This ability to synthesize new concepts (variables) and relationships (equations) which tend to simplify models can be considered as an analog for the cognitive process of abstraction. View full abstract»

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  • Realizability of Inductive Logic

    Page(s): 168 - 173
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    The basic model is a two-way communication system in which observer O transmits axioms A, interprets received message S* by rules R of a Post normal logic. O's strategy is to generate (applying R to A) derivations S that minimze d(S, S*), subject, among other things, to R being Turing universal. This implies1 that (A, R: S*) are analogs of complementary observables and interaction potential in quantum mechanics. Here they represent words of binary information symbols (??1): R is a dictionary of pairs (gi : ki), which still can be universal with the restriction, length m(gi) = m0. If m?? is the maximum of m(ki), then all k words in R are made up to this length by additions of a neutral symbol (O), so that R is an m0-to-m?? function fR on the three values (O, ??1), realizable n fold redundantly by a nm0-to-nm probabilistic net with connexion matrices M??ij and thresholds ??j, where ??(m) is random with Poisson distribution. If d(S,S*) is a scalar product, suitable learning algorithm reinforces all connections contributing positively, etc., where input is a current segment of nm0 bits of S*. The quantum condition is realized, essentially, by making Mij periodic in m(S) with period m0. View full abstract»

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  • Experiments in Adaptive Pattern Recognition

    Page(s): 174 - 179
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    The purpose of this paper and the experiments which it describes has been to supply data concerning the power of some Perceptron-like adaptive pattern recognition systems using linear discriminate functions. Three problems have been presented to such a machine: hand-print classification, blood-cell sorting and target identification in gray-scale aerial photographs. Performance of decision functions utilizing corrective training were compared with that obtained by a simple form of Bayes' weighting. In general, the technique of corrective training was found to yield markedly superior results over the training sequence, but the ability to generalize or recognize samples not included in the training sequence was found to be about the same for the two techniques. Analysis of the experimental data permitted a quantitative evaluation of the effects of statistical dependence in the system together with a prediction of terminal error rates for the condition in which the number of A units is made infinitely large. View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of Sounds by Cochlear Patterns

    Page(s): 179 - 185
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    An electrical analog of the human ear has been developed to provide real-time cochlear patterns of subjective loudness along the basilar membrane. Resulting spatial patterns may be analogous to those found in the auditory centers of the central nervous system. It is hypothesized that cochlear pattern shapes are of primary importance in the recognition of sound. It is further hypothesized that the cochlea performs a partial analysis of the sound and that the higher analysis centers of the central nervous system perform additional analyses. Concepts and processes of analysis and recognition are developed. Analysis is discussed from the viewpoint of an information mapping process in a multidimensional space. Recognition is discussed as a process of locating unknown points (patterns) in multidimensional space by relative measures to known points. An experiment is described which demonstrates the similarity in recognition between the human and the analog using a recognition function based on cross correlation. View full abstract»

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  • Pattern Recognition as a Problem in Decision Theory and an Application to Speech Recognition

    Page(s): 186 - 189
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    After a general discussion of pattern recognition as a problem in statistical decision theory, an application of these concepts is made to the recognition of speech sounds by a method which uses the same principles for preprocessing of sound as does the human auditory system. The decision rule found for minimizing the average risk for a specified cost matrix is determined and it is shown that under appropriate conditions a pattern recognition technique which maximizes the cross correlation coefflicient of the signal with a set of functions representing the patterns is equivalent to this optimum decision rule. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Neural Logic to Speech Analysis and Recognition

    Page(s): 189 - 196
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    This paper describes signal-processing techniques for the recognition of speech phonemes by machine. An attempt has been made to employ, wherever useful, basic processing functions of the human auditory system. These basic functions include neural interconnections and the mechanical transfer functions of the receptor organs. The neural interconnections bave been simulated by the use of neural logic. The purpose of this paper is to describe the logic networks that have been developed for the abstraction of speech features. View full abstract»

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  • A Pattern Recognition Function of Integral Geometry

    Page(s): 196 - 199
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    A function of integral geometry, called the PF image transformation, which is characteristic of the shape of an optical image falling on a viewing retina is defined. Machine programming of the image transformation has been accomplished. Results of the machine computation of the function for a set of random imagery are displayed. It is demonstrated that the transformation yields automatic recognition of general imagery both as to class and as to discrimination between members of the same class. View full abstract»

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  • Limits of Genetic Control

    Page(s): 200 - 205
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    Control of behavior and specification of structure requires information. In simple cases lower bounds for the minimum amount of control information required can be computed. The amount of information in the genes of humans and related species is estimated (in different ways). By comparing the information available in the genes with the information required by certain structures and behavior patterns it can be decided what the genes can control and what not. Using an estimate derived from the number of nucleotides in DNA, it is shown that the genes cannot control the interconnections between individual neurons in the human brain in all potential complexity. They must be to some degree random or repetitive. Gene estimates derived from Drosophila studies result in lower estimates (104 to 3.5 ?? 105 bits). A stimulus-response pattern where all different possible response assignments are equally probable requires a minimum of n log2 n/e bits for n pairs. If antigen-antibody formation would satisfy this assumption, then the infonnation would well exceed the total information contained in the genes. Linguistic notions and their denotations may be considered as unconstrained stimulus-response pairs. A language of 4000 words requires about 5 ?? 104 bits. Hence a language of the complexity of human language cannot be innate. View full abstract»

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  • On Fundamental Limitations of Chemical and Bionic Information Storage Systems

    Page(s): 205 - 208
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    Bionic information storage combines stability and ultramicrominiaturization with self-replication. Rough estimates are given of thermodynamic limitations on stability and bit storage density and observations made on additional constraints self-replicative ability might entail. Reasonable storage stability requirement is bit configurational energy ??20 kT (~0.5 ev or 10-12 erg) to prevent thermal degradation of information; significant diminution requires low temperature storage. Bit linear dimension is ~10 ?? (much smaller goes below molecular size, much larger exceeds known bionic bit size), corresponding to storage density upper limit ~1021 bits/cc. Self-replication by diffusion of "building blocks" from solution and short-range chemical forces (e.g., template model) implies one-or two-dimensional structure by accessibility arguments; one dimensional favored over two dimensional to permit separation of copy and model via higher solution entropy of one dimensional. Static storage is more stable in three-dimensional packing via steric considerations, resonance stabilization, or internal H bonding. One thus expects a) three-dimensional bionic packing during inert storage, b) one-dimensional "unrolled" actively replicating form, c) rather close approach to ultimate storage density in inert form, d) higher configurational binding energy per bit for self-replicating systems than required for inert storage. These expectations seem to be reasonably well realized in nature. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1965. The new retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.

Full Aims & Scope