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Education, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1968

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Education Group

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • University Education in Electronics in the United Kingdom

    Page(s): 1 - 10
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    Although the overall aims of university engineering education in the U. S. A. and the U. K. are broadly similar, the means of achieving these aims in the two countries are rather different. This paper discusses teaching methods and philosophies in the Department of Electronics at the University of Southampton and compares them with attitudes in the U. S. A. First, high-school curricula in the U. K. are reviewed, as they determine the quality of students at university entry. Then, the probable future pattern of industry, and the aims of a university education are discu sed. The courses devised to train both "systems" and "device" engineers, including the all-important laboratory training, are outlined together with examination and assessment techniques. Postgraduate activities include a new type of postgraduate Master's degree course in semiconductor product technology and industrial techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Role of the Generalized Methods of Mechanics in Electrical Engineering

    Page(s): 10 - 12
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    A sound foundation in generalized mechanics is an important element in broadly based electrical engineering curricula. It is suggested that neglect of this basic subject is frequently evidenced by incorrect or ineffective use of the methods of generalized mechanics in the solution of electrical engineering problems. Application of the principle of virtual work to the problem of the equilibrium forces for a system of electrically charged conductors, and of Lagrange's equations to the problem of the forces for a system of current-carrying conductors, are discussed as relevant examples. Reference is made to the far more general problems which can be effectively treated by dynamical methods, including electromechanical energy converters, generalized networks, and electrical and mechanical vibrations. The close relationship of state-variable methods to Hamilton's canonical equations is noted. Finally, the modem trend toward genealization of knowledge, the increasing stress on systems concepts, and the broadening interests of electrical engineers, all point to the desirability of including a significant treatment of variational mechanics in electrical engineering curricula. View full abstract»

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  • Photoconductivity an Instructive Exercise in Semiconductor Theory

    Page(s): 12 - 18
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    An elementary discussion of photoconductivity is proposed to be a suitable addition to instruction on basic semiconductor theory. A discussion designed for junior electrical engineering students is presented in which photoconductivity is defined and both qualitative and elementary quantitative descriptions are given. A brief look is taken at the energy band structure and impurity levels in germanium, and the application of photoconductivity to infrared detection is considered. View full abstract»

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  • An Educational Tool for Use in the Introduction of Digital Computing

    Page(s): 19 - 24
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    A useful tool for introducing students to certain fundamentals of digital computation is a hypothetical, simplified digital computer. Such a computer is described, as well as the actual simulation of the hypothetical computer on a physical machine. Additional educational aids are introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Unipolar Transistors: Some Aspects Related to Their Inclusion in Electronics Curricula

    Page(s): 25 - 33
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    Some considerations related to including material on unipolar transistors in electronics curricula are presented. Techniques for estimating the ultimate capabilities of the unipolar transistor and a simple method for deriving circuit models are described. Important aspects of the processing are treated, and the speed and gain capabilities of unipolar and bipolar transistors are compared in terms of basic structural and material parameters. In the estimation of the ultimate capabilities of the unipolar transistor, the maximum charge that can be induced in the channel sets the upper limits for the static performance and the limiting carrier velocity sets the upper limits for the dynamicperformance. The details of pinch-off operation receive attention, particularly those that could yield confusion in a classroom presentation. Where possible, for clarity as well as for conciseness, the analysis uses a basic unipolar structure of which the junction-gate FET and the MOS transistor are special cases. Throughout, consideration is given to the application of unipolar transistors in integrated circuits. View full abstract»

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  • A Digital Computer Approach to the Grading and Critique of Problem Assignments

    Page(s): 33 - 36
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    The use of a digital computer to improve the communication between a teacher and his students is discussed. Specifically, a program is described which can provide effective grading and critique of problem assignments and tests. The program is designed for the "batch-processing" type of computer operation. View full abstract»

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  • An Experiment with Pretesting of Programmed Texts

    Page(s): 37 - 41
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    Since only one mistake in programmed instruction can completely upset the leaming process, pretesting of programs is essential. A low-cost method for such pretesting is presented. The time to finish a frame by answering a question is measured and recorded, as well as whether the answer is right or wrong. An additional feedback about unclear situations is provided by a "don't know" response which is not timed. Equipment is described which consists of a portable presentation unit for printed programs mounted on paper, together with eight response push buttons, a signal unit for marking the responses, and a tape recorder. The records may later be handled in stationary data processing equipment. The method and equipment were tested in an experiment with a linear program used by twelve students. The results in the form of error frequencies, uncertainty frequencies, average time taken, and time distributions are given. From these the program is analyzed and the needs for revision pinpointed. View full abstract»

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  • A Digital Systems Project Laboratory

    Page(s): 41 - 43
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    In the past two years a Digital Systems Project Laboratory has been developed within the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The major objective is to allow the student to acquire a working knowledge of digital systems early in his undergraduate career. The emphasis is experimental, but about one-third of the semester is devoted to classroom activities. The classroom portion of the subject is used to present theoretical material normally unavailable to the student until the latter part of his junior year. However, the principal emphasis, even in the classroom, is on the design and implementation of moderately complex digital systems using integrated circuits at realistic speeds. A modular equipment system is described. An evaluation of the subject has been made by the students and most of them consider it to be as interesting and valuable as most classroom subjects. View full abstract»

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  • Some Experiments on Linear System Response

    Page(s): 44 - 50
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    Simple experiments on systems and analogs enable engineering students to realize the relationship between mathematical analysis and the physical behavior of linear systems. Suitably chosen studies, in increasing degrees of complexity, show how simple apparatus is used to present linear system theory in the laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • The Circle Diagram as a Teaching Tool

    Page(s): 50 - 56
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    In today's electrical engineering curriculum, the use of the circle diagram as a teaching and analytical tool is all but forgotten. It has been neglected by the majority of recent textbooks on electromagnetic devices and electric circuits. Yet there are electrical devices whose behavior can easily be understood and analyzed by the use of circle diagrams. In fact, in some cases the use of circle diagrams makes the solution almost a trivial exercise. The graphical and constructional procedures of circle diagrams are presented, and then the circle diagram is employed to analyze two problems: 1) the variation of the mutual and net coil fluxes of a two-winding transformer with varying secondary load impedance, and 2) the study of the variation of the secondary and load voltages of an autotransformer whose load varies from open to short circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Conversion of an Arbitrary Nonsource Node into a Source Node in the Signal-Flow Graph

    Page(s): 57 - 59
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    Signal-flow graph technique is one of the most versatile methods in the modem analysis of linear networks and systems. This technique was therefore incorporated into a senior course on linear circuits in a Canadian university. Students were, in general, fascinated by the easy manipulation of the variables of interest, but they tended to use Mason's formula even when it was not applicable, e.g., when the desired quantity was the transmission gain from a nonsource node to another node, thus obtaining a wrong answer. Two rules are proposed by which any node, nonsource or sink, in the signal-flow graph can be directly converted to a source node, without rewriting the set of system equations of the original graph. These rules thus make it possible to obtain various quantities, i.e., gains and network functions, through simple graphical manipulations. View full abstract»

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  • An Introduction to Electromagnetic Surface Wave Propagation

    Page(s): 59 - 61
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    The problem of radiation of a surface wave by an elemental vertical electric dipole on an impedance plane is formulated in terms of a surface integral. This integral is solved approximately in one dimension, while integration with respect to the second dimension is achieved through Laplace transform methods. The result is the same as that obtained through the classical formulation using a spectrum of plane waves, but the use of a constant surface impedance avoids the difficulties of solving a boundary-value problem. The influence of the Fresnel zones is clearly indicated, and the effect of electrical parameters of the surface is discussed. Since the treatment is simpler and more compact than the usual classical solution, while retaining nearly all the salient features of the latter, it may prove useful as an introduction to surface wave propagation at the introductory graduate level. View full abstract»

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  • Some Classroom Thoughts on Third-Order Resistance Network Realizations

    Page(s): 61 - 63
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    Several simplifications in the current realization methods for third-order paramount matrices are presented, based on classroom experiences in the teaching of resistance network synthesis. View full abstract»

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  • A Numerical Approach to the Relating of Physical Quantities and Dimensional Analysis

    Page(s): 63 - 65
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    The basic concepts are discussed which underlie the development of a commercially available slide rule designed to perform dimensional operations. The concept and the slide rule are readily learned aids for teaching and emphasizing the importance and techniques of dimensional analysis. The basis for the device is the relating of physical quantities by numerical values, resulting from a consideration of the physical laws as a set of simultaneous equations with real roots. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of Symmetrical Networks

    Page(s): 65 - 66
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    A simple approach to the classroom presentation of symmetrical networks is discussed. This approach offers a better understanding of the properties of general symmetrical networks, with or without crossed middle terminals, without restorting to ideal transformers. View full abstract»

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  • Further Realizations of Rational Numbers

    Page(s): 66 - 67
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    A proper fraction A/B is written as a finite or infinite sum of fractions whose denominators, or numerators, are prescribed. The results yield resistive realizations for A/B. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on Symbolic Matrix Inversion

    Page(s): 67 - 69
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    The existing symbolic method for the partial inversion of coefficient matrices in a system of linear equations does not cover all possible cases. The method is extended here to include the missing cases, and some classroom simplifications of the original manipulation rules are introduced. View full abstract»

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  • An Equivalent Circuit for the Salient-Pole Synchronous Machine

    Page(s): 69 - 72
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    A time-phasor diagram is generally used to display amplitude and phase relationships between currents and voltages existing in an electrical network. However, although the simple equivalent circuit corresponding to steady-state operation of the round rotor synchronous machine and its associated phasor diagram are very familiar, the phasor diagram of the salient-pole machine is presented in many undergraduate texts without any attempt to specify the displayed quantities on a related circuit diagram. An equivalent circuit for the unsaturated salient-pole synchronous machine operated under balanced, steady-state conditions is derived from a consideration of the voltage and current equations implicit in the phasor diagram. Further equations are developed such that a knowledge of the terminal loading conditions of the machine, together with its armature resistance and synchronous reactances, enables the equivalent circuit parameters to be calculated. The unexcited synchronous reluctance machine is considered as a special case. View full abstract»

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  • An Algorithm for the Lowpass to Bandpass Transformation

    Page(s): 72 - 73
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    An algorithm is described which is used to determine the coefficients of the denominator polynomial of a bandpass network function. The polynomial is related to the denominator polynomial of a lowpass function by the lowpass to bandpass transformation. The algorithm is readily implemented on the digital computer. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Response Displayed in Real Time

    Page(s): 73 - 74
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    For the purpose of classroom and laboratory demonstration of linear system frequency response, the technique of applying a sinusoid of linearly varying frequency is especially dynamic. Here the restrictions on frequency sweep rate and observation time for which the envelope of the output signal is the system frequency response are clearly developed. It is shown that for such restrictions the output is a sinusoidal of frequency (¿+¿t) with instantaneous amplitude |G(j[¿+2¿t])|. View full abstract»

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  • On the Realization of Right-Half Plane Transmission Zeros

    Page(s): 74 - 75
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    A method is given of modifying a number of passive two-port networks so that they all realize their respective specified short-circuit transfer admittances within the same constant multiplier without affecting their short-circuit driving point admittances. This technique is useful in the realization of right-half plane transmission zeros of a specified open-circuit voltage transfer function wherein the two sub-networks, before interconnecting them in a particular fashion, have to be made to realize their respective specified short-circuit transfer admittances within the same constant multiplier. When the specified open-circuit voltage transfer function has all simple negative real zeros, an alternative method of decomposing it, so that the resulting network has a fewer number of elements, is also indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Education for Electric Power Engineering

    Page(s): 75 - 76
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    This invited paper was presented at the Second Panamerican Congress of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. A one-year graduate program in electric power engineering has been in operation at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute since the fall of 1962; it has been quite successful, with the number of participating students increasing tenfold in this five-year period, from three students in 1962 to thirty-five students in 1967. Among a total 10 percent of students from outside the United States in the program, some are from South American countries. This program is based on engineering education, with emphasis on the electrical phase, acquired in studies leading to a first degree on the bachelor level. Completion of the program results in the Master of Engineering degree. The students devote about half of their time to electric power engineering topics, and the other half to advanced studies covering engineering economics, mathematics, and applied physics. A suggested syllabus includes a variety of recommended courses which enable the student to develop a coordinated program that is general enough to provide a well-rounded foundation for continued studies in specialized areas. View full abstract»

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  • "Correction to choosing the limits on the convolution integral"

    Page(s): 76
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    Corrections are made to Table I, the response for Case 2 and in Case 4 the region for the last integral in the above-named work (ibid., vol. E-10, pp. 45-47, March 1967). View full abstract»

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Educational research, methods, materials, programs, and technology in electrical engineering, computer engineering, and fields within the scope of interest of IEEE.

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Jeffrey E. Froyd
Texas A&M University