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IRE Transactions on Nuclear Science

Issue 4 • Nov. 1956

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): c1
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  • IRE Professional Group on Nuclear Science

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): 1
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  • Introduction

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): 2
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  • Proceedings of the Fifth Scintillation Counter Symposium

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): 2
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  • Survey of Pulse Height Analyzers

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):3 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3245 KB)

    An excellent review of the pulse height analyzer field was published in 1952. The principal new developments have been in analyzers having a large number of channels, which make use of digital computer techniques. The characteristics of these analyzers will be discussed. The gray wedge analyzers for high speed applications and other new ideas will be described. An effort will be made to suggest th... View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Alkali Photo Cathodes

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):8 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The quantum efficiency of a photoemitting material is determined by a combination of physical properties. It has been found that the requirements are met best by semiconductors of low work function surfaces. In the light of these general considerations, a short survey is given of the photocathodes available heretofore. A more detailed description will then be given of the new multi-alkali cathodes... View full abstract»

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  • Techniques and Teory of Fast Coincidence Experiments

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):12 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4412 KB)

    A review of fast coincidence circuits, working in the millimicrosecond region, is presented. The main points covered are: 1) operating characteristics of the various types of coincidence circuits, 2) description of the various circuits, 3) differential coincidence method, 4) analysis of coincidence curves and the determination of time delays, 5) the resolving time, 6) effect of random time lags on... View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Secondary Electron Multiplication for High-Speed Pulse Counting

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):29 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1753 KB)

    A new type of high-speed electron multiplier employing transmission secondary electron emission from thin insulating films is described. Electrons from a photosurface are multiplied in a series of plane-parallel dynodes consisting of a thin scattering layer of a heavy metal followed by a layer of a pure crystalline insulating material of high secondary emission yield. The characteristics of such d... View full abstract»

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  • Recent Developments in Multiplier Phototubes

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):33 - 35
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    A number of developments on multiplier phototubes have taken place in these laboratories since the last scintillation counter symposium. The most important of these developments are discussed and detailed operating data on various tubes are presented. One development of interest has been the large area multiplier phototubes. These tubes have been constructed with usable cathode diameters of ll inc... View full abstract»

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  • Gaseous Scintillation

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):36 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (787 KB)

    The method of detecting the passage of charged particles through noble gases by analyzing the light of de-excitation will be discussed. A description is given of the mechanism, and various experimental methods are presented. Attention is directed to performance, applications, and some unsolved problems View full abstract»

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  • Alkali Halide Scintillators

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):39 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3148 KB)

    The spectra of the luminescence from unactivated Nal and thallium activated NaI have been measured in the temperature range -190°C. to +20°C. using alpha particles, gamma rays, and ultraviolet light as sources of excitation. The characteristic emission from NaI ("pure") is in a band centered at approximately 300 mμ. The intensity is weak at room temperature but increases by a fac... View full abstract»

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  • Scintillating Solutions Containing Heavy Elements

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):51 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1456 KB)

    The use of heavy metals in scintillators (excited by high energy) is limited by two factors: 1) Such materials are very often not sufficiently soluble in solvents exhibiting considerable energy transfer, and 2) they generally quench the excitation energy of the solution and thereby decrease the fluorescent output. The latter effect was found to be due mostly to a quenching of the excited molecules... View full abstract»

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  • Intrinsic Scintillator Resolution

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):57 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (559 KB)

    Measurements of spectrometer resolution using an electron gun and phosphor type of light source yield values considerably better than those obtained from scintillations in a phosphor. Line widths of about 3.4 per cent have been obtained at a pulse height equivalent to 661 kev in NaI. An investigation is being made to determine the causes of this difference. A number of possibilities have been elim... View full abstract»

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  • Some Aspects of Gas Scintillation Counters

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):59 - 61
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    A brief study has been made of the dependency of pulse heights obtained from alpha particles in gas scintillation counters on the gas and wavelength shifter used. Constant and reproducible pulse heights were obtained either by chilling the scintillation cylinder to inhibit evolution of contaminants or by chemically removing them in a uranium furnace. Relative pulse heights have been obtained for v... View full abstract»

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  • Relative Scintillation Intensity of Some Cerenkov Counter Media

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):61 - 62
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    Selected transparent media were bombarded with the 40 mev alpha particle beam from the 60-inch cyclotron. The ratio of the photomultiplier output current to the alpha particle beam current was taken as a measure of the relative scintillation intensity. The output current from an RCA type 6342 photomultiplier was read on a 50 microampere (full scale) meter. The alpha particle beam current was monit... View full abstract»

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  • Temperature Effects in Gas-Free Liquid Scintillators

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):62 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1067 KB)

    The effects of reduction of temperature on the response of Dumont 6292 and RCA 5819 multiplier phototubes and on the light outputs of the gas-free liquid scintillators DPO, αNPO, and PBD, dissolved in xylene, have been measured from room temperature down to -35°C. Both 6292 and 5819 phototubes exhibit a small linear decrease in response with decreasing temperature. The light outputs o... View full abstract»

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  • High Energy Gamma Spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2676 KB)

    Gamma ray energies from 50 mev to 2 bev have been measured with a total absorption method. The gamma rays produce electron showers in a transparent, high Z material. A photomultiplier views the visible light produced, due either to Cerenkov radiation or scintillation. Limits on the energy resolution of this device are the loss of part of the shower from the sides and end, varying efficiency of lig... View full abstract»

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  • Low Energy Gamma Scintillation Spectrometry

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):71 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Techniques are reviewed which are used to: obtain good resolution with Scintillation Spectrometers; minimize pulses which fall outside of photo peaks; measure absolute gamma efficiencies of NaI crystals as a function of energy; and measure K/L capture ratios and gamma conversion coefficients. Some factors affecting energy resolution including associated electronic circuits are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron Scintillation Counters

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):77 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The various types of neutron scintillation detectors are examined with respect to efficiency, background sensitivity, pulse height and time response. Actual performance of certain counters under different source conditions are considered. These are given in Fig. 1, and include a few imaginary (3) cases. View full abstract»

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  • Response of "Total Absorption" Spectrometers to Gamma Rays

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):82 - 86
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    A single crystal of sodium iodide 9-1/4 inches in diameter and 9 inches high with the top bevelled at 450 was recently obtained from Harshaw Chemical Company. A half-inch hole was drilled in the bevelled end to the center of the crystal. Three 5-inch diameter Dumont 6364's were optically connected directly to the flat end of the crystal. Sources were placed inside the crystal and γ spectra... View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Characteristics of Light Pipers

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):87 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1508 KB)

    The transmission characteristics of light pipers used in scintillation counting are very important, especially in situations in which the light piper must be long and thin, as in medical probing counters. This paper discusses several of the important factors involved in the transmission of light through pipers. The superiority of specular reflectors as compared with diffuse reflectors, the superio... View full abstract»

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  • An Analysis of the Background Radiation Detected by Nal Crystals

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):90 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2032 KB)

    The 0.07-2 5 mev scintillation pulse height spectra of several NaI crystals, heavily shielded by Fe and Hg, have been analyzed in coincidence and anticoincidence with cosmic ray counters surrounding the crystals. The residual spectra have been analyzed further and the following sources have been identified: 1) Ra226 in Al casing, 2) K40 in phototube, crystal, and canning window, and 3) low pulse h... View full abstract»

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  • In vivo gamma measurements at very low levels with 4Π liquid scintillation detectors

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):96 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2572 KB)

    A large 4Π liquid scintillation counter for the rapid measurement of total internal gamma contamination of the human body at concentrations 1000 times less than the maximum permissible levels is described. A counting time of only 100 seconds per subject is required to obtain a sensitivity of 5 × 10-10 curies for 1.5 mev gamma rays. Because of the high counting efficiency and th... View full abstract»

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  • The Physics of Solid-State Light Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):102 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1500 KB)

    An essential component of present light amplifying screens is a layer of inorganic, luminescent material. The ability of this layer to derive energy from an electric field to which it is subjected and convert this energy into visible light (i.e., electroluminescence) is fundamental to, but not alone sufficient for the realization of solid-state light amplification. What must be included is some me... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science.

Full Aims & Scope