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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1979

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): c2
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  • Foreword-Thoughts on Assuming the Editorship

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Publication Policy of the Society on Instrumentation and Measurement

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 2 - 3
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  • A Noise Generator Using FM Techniques

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 3 - 5
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    The power spectra for FM signal modulated by the smoothed random telegraph signal are examined experimentally. These FM signals are the noises of variable bandwidth with power spectrum distributions in Gaussian, rectangular, or concave forms; these forms being determined by the values of the product of the mean number of zero-crossings per second of the random telegraph signal and the time constant of a low-pass RC filter driven by the random telegraph signal. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Dead-Time on the Estimation of the Two-Sample Variance

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 6 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (100)
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    Expressions for the averaged two-sample variance as well as expressions for the uncertainty on its estimation are given, in cases where dead time is present between measurements. The effect of this dead time on the precision of the time domain measure of frequency stability, in the presence of a limited number of data, is specified. The possibility to distinguish between white and flicker noises is pointed out. View full abstract»

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  • Precision Capacitor Ratio Measurement Technique for Integrated Circuit Capacitor Arrays

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 11 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1137 KB)  

    The recent development of integrated circuit capacitor arrays and the growth of their applications have resulted in a need to perform precision testing as an aid to future design improvements. For reasons discussed in this paper, laboratory instruments such as capacitance bridges are not well-suited to this need. In order to test capacitor arrays accurately, a novel technique has been developed. It is based on a special algorithm in which the capacitor array is used as a precision voltage divider. A capacitor array tester consisting of both hardware and software has been built which executes this algorithm. This system has been used to perform measurements upon a large number (thousands) of NMOS and CMOS capacitor arrays. The standard deviation of this tester's measurement error is approximately 0.0009 percent of full scale (0.0088 LSB referenced to 10 bits). In contrast with manual testing with a capacitance bridge (requiring 10 min per array), the tester requires less than 5 s to fully test an array, mark the circuit and move to the next die position. View full abstract»

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  • An Open Transmission Line UHF CW Phase Technique for Thickness/Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 18 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (3)
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    A description is given of a system which employs open-balanced transmission line structures and UHF CW phase measurement techniques to determine either the thickness or dielectric constant or moisture content of film or slab-like materials in the thickness range of 1 to 400 mil and the relative dielectric constant range of approximately 2 to 20. Both experimental and analytical results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Multiple-Frequency Phase Comparison Technique for the Determination of Remote Layer Thickness

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 26 - 31
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    A continuous-wave phase comparison technique which provides at least an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy over modulated carrier systems which operate in the same spectrum is described in this paper for the remote determination of the thickness of layered targets consisting of a known number of dielectric layers, each of a known maximum thickness. This system uses rationally related frequencies such as the fundamental and its harmonics to establish a multifrequency coherence relationship whereby a phase reference between frequencies can be conserved and information extracted from just the received and not the transmitted signals. Consequently, Doppler effects due to motion between the target layer and the apparatus, as well as local oscillator stability and drift limitations are avoided. Thus this system can measure the parameters of remote layered targets by interferometric techniques without the distance being a constraint. View full abstract»

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  • Application of FEI's in Temperature Compensation of DC Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 32 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Expressions for biasing ajunction FET at zero temperature coefficient are derived and checked experimentally. Heating over a wide range of temperature at a fixed bias in this region will show both positive and negative coefficients of a very small value. This property is utilized in the design of a simple dc amplifier in which good overall drift performance is obtained by using a FET biased for nearly zero drift in the first stage. The FET bias is adjusted to provide a drift in the proper direction to compensate for the drift in the main amplifier. An overall drift of less than 20 ¿V/C° has been obtained when the gain is about 100. The complete circuit is described and the adjustment procedure is outlined. View full abstract»

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  • Input Offset Voltage and Current in Varicap Diode Modulators

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 36 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An analytical study about the input offset voltage and current in varicap diode modulators is presented. Some relations for defining their value and their temperature drift are established. Diode selection to minimize the offset voltage and current is considered. Analytical results are proven in an electronic electrometer with a modulator using reverse polarized diodes. With this electrometer a 31 ¿V/°C input offset voltage, a 0.1-pA input offset current and a 0.016 pA/°°C temperature drift are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Ventilated Psychrometer

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 42 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    A digital ventilated psychrometer for direct reading of the relative humidity (RH) from the digital indicator by means of two identical type thermistors is described. The method is based on the temperature to linear voltage converter, the calculator of the dry and wet bulb temperature ratio, the converter from the ratio to the voltage proportional to RH, and the analog to digital (A/D) converter. The experimental result by the digital ventilated psychrometer shows that the apparatus makes the direct indication of RH possible. The accuracy of the apparatus is estimated to contain an RH error of less than 2 percent and it is almost the same as that of the Assmann psychrometer. The principal advantage of the apparatus is the direct indication of RH and the capability to use the data directly for the input of the digital data processor. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Scanning Radiometer Performance by Digital Reference Averaging

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Most radiometers utilize a calibration technique in which measurements of a known reference are subtracted from measurements of an unknown source so that common-mode bias errors are cancelled. When a radiometer is scanned over a varying scene, it produces a sequence of outputs, each being proportional to the difference between the reference and the corresponding input. The reference averaging technique presented herein employs a simple digital algorithm which exploits the asymmetry between the time-variable scene inputs and the nominally constant reference input by averaging many reference measurements to decrease the statistical uncertainty in the reference value. This algorithm is, therefore, optimized by an asymmetric chopping sequence in which the scene is viewed for more than one-half of the duty cycle (unlike the analog Dicke technique) Reference averaging algorithms are well within the capabilities of small microprocessors. Although this paper develops the technique for microwave radiometry, it may be beneficial for any system which measures a large number of unknowns relative to a known reference in the presence of slowly varying common-mode errors. View full abstract»

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  • A New Precision Voltage Control Scheme for the Amplitude of Oscillators

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 55 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A simple technique for precisely controlling the amplitude of oscillators is described. The control parameter is a voltage and the relationship between this voltage and the amplitude of oscillation is linear. Two applications of the scheme, namely, in amplitude stabilization of oscillators and in generation of stabilized amplitude modulated signals, are discussed. Experimental results agree closely with the expected performances. The scheme is versatile and suitable for mass production. View full abstract»

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  • Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 59 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from measurements of the much larger reflection parameters, hence commonly used nonprecision instruments can be used to determine the transmission errors with sufficient accuracy for the highest precision obtainable in standard laboratories. View full abstract»

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  • Explicit Formulas for Error Correction in Microwave Measuring Sets with Switching-Dependent Port Mismatches

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 67 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper addresses the problem of correction of systematic measurement errors in computer-operated microwave network analyzers whose measuring sets employ automated switches for establishing the various measurement modes. Two measuring sets with switching-dependent port mismatches are studied, and the associated error models are identified from the hardware configurations. Finally, explicit formulas are given for error correction in these sets. View full abstract»

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  • The Attenuation Rate in Fresh Water at VHF Frequencies

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 71 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The attenuation rate of the electromagnetic energy in samples of fresh water has been measured at frequencies between 33 and 363 MHz. The technique employed the HP 8410A network analyzer and a broad-band transmission resonance cavity and provided reliable results which agree well with theory. The results suggest that it should be possible to develop a VHF radar system capable of sensing the depth of shallow fresh water for remote sensing applications. View full abstract»

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  • Modern Numerical Analysis of Time-Division Multipliers

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 74 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
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    A numerical method for investigation of time-division multipliers was described. It was used for analysis of the Tomota-Sugiyama-Yamaguchi multiplier. Comprehensive results in forms of graphs and tables covering all essential characteristics of the multiplier are presented. The calculations were carried out by aid of Control Data computer Cyber 73. View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental Data Acquisition System for Ultrasound Imaging

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 79 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    An experimental digital data acquisition system for computerized ultrasound imaging studies is developed. The system requirements for the digital reconstruction of tomographic images from the envelope of ultrasound signals of several megahertz are described. To effectively digitize ultrasound signals, a new digital averager is implemented. Several consecutive ultrasound signals are averaged on a real-time base to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, to reduce the volume of the data, and to achieve a match of data flow rates between the ultrasound signals and the usual computer input devices. The positions of the ultrasound transducers and the target are controlled by a microprocessor controller. These positions are sensed and also digitized by the averager. The averager transfers the digitized data, both the ultrasound signals and position signals, to a general-purpose computer for further data processing. Experimental data on reconstructing the cross section of a simple target from the ultrasound signals acquired by this system will be presented as an illustration. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-slope integrating analog-to-digital converter with digital self-calibration

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 84 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB)  

    With dual-slope integrating analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, which are most frequently used for relatively slow speed conversion, any drift in the operational amplifiers is a very critical factor in limiting their performance. A method has been proposed to eliminate the drift problem completely [1]. This short paper describes a similar but different approach to solve the problem. Some of the advantages are: no necessity for manual adjustments, the use of inexpensive amplifiers instead of costly units with no performance degradation for the temperature range limited only by digital circuits. The old method is more adaptable to ratiometric conversion, while the new method is more adaptable to normal dual-slope integrating A/D conversion with a reference voltage of opposite polarity to input signals. As is the case with the basic dual-slope converters, no precision components are required. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Error-Compensation of a Voltage Transformer

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 86 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    It is shown with supporting experimental results that the error of a voltage transformer supplying a burden can be brought down to the value on open-circuit, using an amplifier whose output is approximately equal to the error voltage. The scheme permits the normal requirement that one end of the burden be earthed. View full abstract»

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  • A Matched-Load Type PVF2 Pyroelectric Detector for Millimeter Waves

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 88 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A practical pyroelectric detector for rectangular waveguide at 100 GHz has been constructed. This detector has the matched-load type structure and employs PVF2 as the pyroelectric material. The noise equivalent power of 8 nW/¿Hz has been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 90 - 93
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 95 - 95-c
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  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 95-b
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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703