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IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 1974

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 74
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):c1 - 9c
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  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s): c2
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  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):253 - 254
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  • Editorially Spealing

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s): 255
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  • A Low-Temperature Direct-Current Comparator Bridge

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):256 - 260
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2123 KB)

    The application of superconducting direct-current comparators to the measurement of resistance ratios is described. One comparator consists of a binary set of ratios between 1:1 and 160:1 providing for self-calibration by a buildup procedure. A second comparator exhibiting discrete ratios of 1:1, 10:1, and 100:1 is also described. Ratio uncertainty of less than 1 part in 109 is achieved by enclosi... View full abstract»

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  • Ironless Cryogenic Current Comparators for AC and DC Applications

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):261 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (734 KB)

    The ac and dc errors of cryogenic current comparators with toroidal-shield configurations are reported. Based on these experiments and on theoretical considerations, geometric parameters of the superconducting shields could be determined, which govern the errors. These results may be used for the construction of cryogenic current comparators with predictably low errors. It seems to be possible to ... View full abstract»

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  • Cryogenic Voltage Comparator System for 2e/h Measurements

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):264 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (927 KB)

    The design and operation of a cryogenic voltage comparator system for precision 2e/h measurements is described. Major improvements embodied in the new 2e/h system include the use of 1) a single microstripline-coupled Josephson tunnel junction to obtain usable step voltages up to 10 mV at 10.0 GHz, 2) a cryogenic voltage divider comprised of two resistors whose ratio is calibrated with a low-temper... View full abstract»

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  • Operational Experience with a Cryogenic Volt Monitoring System

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):267 - 271
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1191 KB)

    An experimental cryogenic measuring system, employing the dc and ac Josephson effects, which has been used to monitor the National Physical Laboratory maintained voltage standard is described in detail. Results obtained with this system over a period of 1 years are presented and compared with those from a system using room temperature potentiometry, which has already been described. Emphasis is la... View full abstract»

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  • Maintaining the Unit of Voltage at PTB via the Josephson Effect

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):271 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1878 KB)

    In Section I a report on high precision voltage comparisons between the mean EMF of the former PTB voltage standard (consisting of a group of 39 saturated Weston cells) and the Josephson reference voltage is presented. The experiments were carried out with a total uncertainty (1 ¿) of 4 parts in 108. The measured rate of change of the mean EMF during a 1¿year period was - 1.3 X 10-7 V per year. ... View full abstract»

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  • The AC Josephson Effect Monitoring of the Unit of EMF in Canada

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):275 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB)

    The experimental program outlined is directed toward the utilization of the ac Josephson effect to maintain surveillance of the unit of EMF in Canada. Preliminary results indicate a weighted mean value of 2e/h = 483 593.0 ± 0.2 (0.4 ppm) GHz/VNRc(73) which is, at present, not precise enough to detect the small drifts normally encountered in the mean value of the standard cell group upon which VNR... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Intercomparison of Standard Cells

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):278 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1341 KB)

    A system is described whereby precise intercomparisons of standard cells are accomplished under full computer control. The results obtained indicate accuracies (one standard deviation) of ±10 nV from which the individual values of the standard cells in a maintaining group of ten cells are estimated to be accurate to ±20 nV. The major source of indeterminacy continues to be the variation of stand... View full abstract»

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  • A High-Resolution Prototype System for Automatic Measurement of Standard Cell Voltage

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):282 - 286
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3136 KB)

    The conceptual requirements, the design, and the initial performance of the prototype switching for connecting standard cells to an automatic measurement system are described. Features of the design include random selection of two cells at a time, inversion of connection polarity on command, modular construction for expansion, and less than 10-nV residual uncompensated error voltage. Also describe... View full abstract»

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  • A Review of 12 Years of Performance of an Automatic Standard Cell Test Facility

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):286 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1691 KB)

    Operating experience and difficulties encountered in a 12-year use of the automatic standard cell test facility are reviewed. The facility was designed to acommodate 40 cells on test and to resolve the difference between the voltage of each test cell and that of a reference cell to 0.1 ¿V. The large amount of data obtained has led to a more complete characterization of cell performance and has id... View full abstract»

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  • Regional Maintenance of the Volt Using NBS Volt Transfer Techniques

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):290 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1082 KB)

    In cooperation with five industrial standards laboratories, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) studied the feasibility of establishing a regional volt maintenance and surveillance program in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., area. The objectives were to improve surveillance, to reduce dependence on NBS, and to have each laboratory maintain its unit of voltage to within 1 ppm of the U. S. legal ... View full abstract»

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  • Standard Cell Enclosure with 20-μK Stability

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):295 - 298
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1807 KB)

    Groups of standard cells are needed to maintain the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) volt between periodic reassignments via 2e/h. An enclosure to hold six standard cells has been designed and three enclosures have been assembled. The enclosures consist of four concentric aluminum cylinders separated by foamed polystyrene insulation. Two of the four cylinders are controlled, an outer one by a pl... View full abstract»

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  • Standard Cell Calibration via Current Transfer

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):299 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (989 KB)

    The EMF's of standard cells are now being transferred between laboratories over a 1¿-km cable with a precision of 4 parts in 108 to provide an instantaneous comparison of the 2e/h and ¿p¿ experiments being carried out at the two facilities. This is accomplished by transferring a constant current that produces a 1-V drop across standard resistors located at both ends of the cable. View full abstract»

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  • A more accurate determination of γ1p through improved dimensional measurement techniques

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):302 - 305
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB)

    An increase in the accuracy of the gyromagnetic ratio of the proton can be achieved by determining the magnitude of a calculable magnetic field to higher accuracy. Such an increase requires dimensional measurements of a physical object to an absolute accuracy of a few parts in ten million. A unique computer-controlled automated measurement system for carrying out such measurements has been develop... View full abstract»

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  • New NBS Measurements of the Absolute Farad and Ohm

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):305 - 309
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1516 KB)

    A recently completed calculable cross capacitor in conjunction with a previously described collection of ac and dc bridges has made possible a highly accurate measurement of the farad and the ohm. The cross capacitor and its auxiliary equipment, as well as those components of the measurement system which have not been covered in prior publications, are described in detail. The measurements indicat... View full abstract»

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  • Apparatus for Accurate DC Capacitance-Resistance Transfer

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):310 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1138 KB)

    An apparatus, based on the analog intergrator principle, is designed to effect a 1-nF-108-¿ transfer with reversed dc, by permitting a digital interval timer to measure the product RC, repeatedly if necessary. Both systematic and random errors have been significantly reduced, and correction to data is not required. The apparatus is simple to construct and operate, and its transfer standard error ... View full abstract»

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  • 10-kV High-Accuracy DC Voltage Divider

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):314 - 317
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1705 KB)

    A high-accuracy voltage divider based on the Hamon/Rayleigh ratio principle has been made for the absolute measurement of the volt and also for building up the voltage scale to 10 kV. It is composed of 100 equal resistors of nominal value 100 k¿ and an adjustable 100-k¿ resistor with taps at 10 and 1 k¿. By using appropriate connections, a total 10-M¿ divider with 1-k¿ output is constituted i... View full abstract»

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  • A Technique for Calibrating Power Frequency Wattmeters at Very Low Power Factors

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):318 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1063 KB)

    The application of a current comparator capacitance bridge to the measurement of the error of power frequency wattmeters at zero and very low power factors is described. The desired voltage, current, and power factor, leading or lagging, are established with a capacitive-type artificial load. The power factor is adjusted with reference to a loss-free gas-dielectric capacitor to within 1 × 10-5 or... View full abstract»

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  • An Automatic RMS/DC Comparator

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):322 - 325
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1787 KB)

    The design of an instrument for the automatic comparison of an ac voltage with a stable dc source is described. A differential multijunction thermal converter is used as an rms/dc converter with an FET-switched input amplifier for ac/dc substitution. The output voltages of the rms/dc converter with ac and dc input voltages are sampled and stored, and the difference amplified and displayed on a pan... View full abstract»

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  • AC/DC Thermal Converters of the ETL

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):326 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1717 KB)

    In order to establish alternating current and voltage standards, various types of thermal current and voltage converters have been constructed. From their detailed analysis, the specifications and characteristics have been determined. These converters have been used in a circular international comparison. A precise comparator of 0.1-ppm resolution has been also constructed. The estimated accuracy ... View full abstract»

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  • A High-Resolution Electrodynamic AC-to-DC Power Transfer Instrument

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):330 - 333
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB)

    The design of an electrodynamic instrument for measurement of ac power at line frequency is described. The deflection of its moving coil is kept at zero by passing alternating and direct currents simultaneously through both coils. An automatic control circuit generates the balancing direct current related to the ac power to be measured. The high resolution of the instrument, 2 × 10-7 of rated pow... View full abstract»

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  • A Current Comparator System to Establish the Unit of Electrical Energy at 60 Hz

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):334 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1121 KB)

    A compensated current comparator system to establish the United States legal unit of electrical energy at the National Bureau of Standards at energy levels of approximately 30 and 60 kJ is described. Analysis of the system uncertainties and experimental data indicates that the registrations of three standard type watthour meters were determined with total estimated uncertainties of about 30 ppm at... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703