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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 1972

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 89
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • History of Atomic and Molecular Standards of Frequency and Time

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 90 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6002 KB)  

    The history of atomic and molecular frequency control will be traced from the earliest molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments in 1938 through the present. View full abstract»

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  • Light and Buffer-Gas Frequency Shifts in the 85Rb-Maser Frequency Standard

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 99 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB)  

    Recently we reported the operation of an optically pumped 85Rb maser oscillating at 3.035734 GHz on the field-independent transition 52S1/2(F = 3, mF = 0 ¿ F = 2, mF = 0) [1]. Apart from cavity pulling, the two major sources of frequency shifts are those due to the buffer gas and the pumping light. The short-term phase stability of the standard is not appreciably affected by these shifts. The buffer-gas shift can be used to advantage to select an output frequency that is different from the ground-state hyperfine frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Hydrogen Density Measurements Using an Open-Ended Microwave Cavity

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 105 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3152 KB)  

    The density measurement of liquid hydrogen and two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous hydrogen is considered. This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses an open-ended microwave cavity for making dynamic density measurements of flowing hydrogen in a transfer line. The theory of operation along with test results for both the single- and two-phase cases are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The Behavior of a Modulated Electron Beam in a Drift Space and Its Application to Dimensional Measurements on Spacecraft

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 114 - 124
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    The behavior of an electron beam in a large drift space is analyzed. The distortion of a signal modulated on the beam is considered after drift through a space of the order of several meters in length. Distortion of pulse modulation and smear of sinusoidal modulation are examined. View full abstract»

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  • High-Sensitivity Underwater Acoustic Velocimeter

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 124 - 127
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    The analysis and design of an underwater acoustic velocimeter employing a high-frequency CW resonance technique is presented. It is shown that such an instrument achieves high sensitivity and resolution and is believed to be relatively immune to the effects of turbulence. The analysis is illustrated by a prototype design giving a sensitivity of 84 Hz/ft/s of sound velocity. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Domain Reflectometer Measurement of Random Discontinuity Effects on Cable Magnitude Response

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 128 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1713 KB)  

    Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is used to specify the structural return loss and structural transmission loss that are caused by the randomly spaced electrically short structural defects that are present in commercially available coaxial cables. The theory for the statistical prediction of these effects is presented and TDR methods for making measurements are described. The results should be of particular interest in telephony and CATV applications. View full abstract»

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  • A Generalized Performance Analysis of One-Port Measuring Instruments with Signal Generators

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 135 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1174 KB)  

    A generalized equation is derived that represents relations between properties of a device under test and an indication of a measuring instrument having signal generators and an input port. The equation can be applied to most narrow-band radiometers or reflection-measuring instruments. Considering only factors measured outside the instrument, the equation permits exact measurements of properties of the device under test or easier evaluation of errors in the measurements without any consideration of structures or inner properties of the instrument. In addition, according to this concept, a new method permitting direct measurements of mismatch factors or delivered powers and a possibility of a radiometer to be used for reflection measurements are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Area Measurement Using Random Image Perturbation with Discrete Arrays

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 140 - 144
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB)  

    The effect of random image perturbation on the measurement of line length and area using discrete photosensitive arrays is presented. It is shown that two-dimensional independent Gaussian perturbation can linearize the response of area measurement systems employing arrays with elements of small active area. View full abstract»

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  • High-Resolution Precision Digital Tachometer

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 144 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB)  

    A new approach to the digital measurement of angular velocity is presented. This new instrument performs the division by time that has been carefully avoided in the existing instruments. The accuracy and resolution of the transducer does not depend upon the number of quantizations/revolution. The measurements can be made in a very short time, leading to up to 14700 samples per second. An important feature of this instrument is that even at speeds close to zero (or at zero), the error is less than 0.02 percent and 1600 samples of the angular velocity can be obtained/second. This makes the instrument particularly suitable for the study and control of the transient behavior of motors and other rotating devices. View full abstract»

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  • Pulse Generator and Flip-Flops

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 148 - 153
    Cited by:  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1133 KB)  

    A simple pulse generator can be constructed using IC gates. Such a pulse generator is described and its use to construct edge-triggered flip-flops is demonstrated. A flip-flop for use in a phase comparator is described. Desirable and undesirable characteristics for this application are discussed and examples of R-S and J-K flip-flops given. View full abstract»

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  • Oscillator Circuit for a Vibrating Capacitor Driven by an RF Electric Field

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 153 - 161
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    The vibrating capacitor to be discussed consists of a metalized membrane, clamped at its edges, between two electrodes. The membrane is driven by an RF electric field (309 kHz), which is amplitude modulated at the natural frequency (6 kHz) of the membrane. This RF field is caused by a voltage applied to one of the electrodes, which, together with the membrane, forms the driving capacitor. The other electrode, and the membrane, constitute the vibrating capacitor. A special RF oscillator has been designed, of which an essential part is the driving capacitor. This capacitor causes the RF voltage to be amplitude modulated at the natural frequency of the membrane. The oscillation conditions of this electromechanical system are derived from the equation of motion of the membrane and the electrical properties of the driving circuit. An oscillator circuit with optimum performance is designed with the aid of a computer. Finally, the computed results are verified by measurements. View full abstract»

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  • The Development of a Narrow-Band Time-Domain Reflectometer

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 161 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3617 KB)  

    The capability of accurately determining the value of impedance discontinuities in transmission line systems is obtained by replacing the dc pulse with a gated RF source in a conventional time-domain reflectometer (TDR) system. Such a system allows complex impedance measurements to be made upon elements in a system that are physically inaccessible. Due to the sensitivity available in TDR systems, low orders of magnitude of return losses are easily detectable and measurable. In systems where multiple impedance discontinuities exist, each individual discontinuity may be isolated and hence analyzed separately. The modifications to a conventional TDR system are described in this paper. A method of using the modified narrow-band TDR system to measure complex impedance is presented. This method is complementary to that used by the Hewlett-Packard model 1580A narrow-band TDR and offers the avantages of both phase information and lower modulation frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Data Transformation in Time-Domain Spectrometry

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 166 - 168
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    In applications of time-domain spectrometry, in which frequency-domain information is obtained by means of Fourier transformation of time-domain excitation and response signals, results are often required at a number M of evenly spaced frequencies, where M is considerably smaller than N, the number of amplitude samples from which the discrete Fourier transform is formed. Under such conditions the modified form of fast Fourier transformation described offers markedly greater computing efficiency than the standard form. View full abstract»

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  • On the Feature Selection Problem of a Reading Machine for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 168 - 171
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    The feature selection problem associated with a reading machine for the blind is considered. A multistrategy concept is introduced to permit generalization of the feature set. An example is presented to illustrate the concept. View full abstract»

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  • A Symmetric Triangle-Square Waveform Generator Using a Single Constant Current Source

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 171 - 173
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    A symmetric and accurate triangular waveform generating circuit is described. A simple approach in maintaining the symmetry and linearity of triangular waveform is made by using a single constant current generator to alternately charge and discharge a capacitor in a linear manner. This features perfect symmetry of the waveform over a wide frequency range while maintaining amplitude constancy. The circuit also provides square waveforms of equal on and off periods with rise and fall times of the order of a few nanoseconds. Continuous variation of frequency of the waveform generated is possible by changing a single parameter and it is feasible to have linear, exponential, or logarithmic modulation of frequency. It can be used as a triangle-square waveform generator and as a triangle-to-sine converter with the addition of a few components. View full abstract»

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  • Response of Seismic Motion Transducers to Nonharmonic Input

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 173 - 177
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    The response of a seismic motion transducer to a nonharmonic input is studied by analog simulation. Criteria are found for the measurement of triangular, square-wave, and single-pulse inputs. It is shown that a slightly damped system yields better transient response than one with the commonly used damping ratio (0.6-0.7). Recommendations are given for transducers with optional frequency and transient response. View full abstract»

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  • Terminated Capacitor-Discharge Firing of Electroexplosive Devices

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 177 - 180
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    By terminating the discharge of energy into an insensitive electroexplosive device, firing-energy parameters can be determined. A simple capacitor-discharge system providing exponential pulses terminated at an adjustable width is described. Basic theory and application to testing are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Wide-Range Variable-Frequency Phase-Shift Oscillator

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 180 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2091 KB)  

    An RC phase-shift oscillator, whose frequency of oscillation can be varied from a minimum value to a value as high as desired, theoretically up to infinity, by varying a single resistor in the phase-shift network, is described. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 182 - 184
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 184-a
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Solicitation for Institutional Listings

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 184-b
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703