IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Issue 4 • Dec. 1966

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 47
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): 137
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  • Introduction

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): 138
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  • Opening Remarks

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s): 139
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  • The Work of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures concerning Electromagnetic Units and Measurements

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):140 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1489 KB)

    The purpose of this paper is to survey the basic background of electric measurements, including definition of the base units, and description of the base standards from which most electromagnetic measurements are derived. The international center which deals with these matters is the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with its Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) and it... View full abstract»

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  • Some Aspects of Fringe Counting in Laser Interferometers

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):146 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1868 KB)

    A number of arrangements are possible for deriving signals in phase quadrature from interferometers, so that bi-directional counting of the interference fringe movements can be carried out. Arrangements which avoid splitting the image field are preferred for laser light sources, and can give a better signal-to-noise ratio. In environments where the interferometer is subjected to vibration, the fri... View full abstract»

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  • Interferometric Measurements on Diffuse Surfaces by Holographic Techniques

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):149 - 161
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4349 KB)

    This paper presents a technique for the measurement of small translations and rotations undergone by any general three-dimensional object. This technique applies to those cases in which different portions of the object suffer displacements and rotations which are independent of the other parts of the object. Such a situation might exist when a complex object is stressed. In essence, the technique ... View full abstract»

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  • Calorimetric Measurement of Pulsed Laser Output Energy

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):161 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB)

    There are several methods by which one may measure the energy output of the pulsed laser. However, the technique which seems to be most promising as far as accuracy and precision are concerned is the calorimetric method. We have designed, built, and calibrated calorimeters for measuring the output energy of the pulsed ruby laser (6943Å). The heart of the calorimeter is a small absorption cell con... View full abstract»

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  • An Intercomparison of Hydrogen and Cesium Frequency Standards

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):165 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2979 KB)

    Intercomparisons of average frequency and of frequency stability were made among one Hewlett-Packard 5060A cesium beam, two Varian Associates H-10 atomic hydrogen masers, and the National Bureau of Standards NBS III cesium beam designated as the United States Frequency Standard. Each of the standards displayed a white noise frequency fluctuation behavior with a transition into an approximate flick... View full abstract»

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  • Clock Synchronization via Relay II Satellite

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):177 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3414 KB)

    Joint experiments were carried out February 15 to 20, 1965, by the U. S. Naval Observatory at the NASA tracking station, Mojave, and the Radio Research Laboratories at Kashima, Japan, to synchronize clocks via the communications satellite Relay II. During one part of a pass the pulses from Mojave were retransmitted by Kashima, which also injected its own pulses. A fourtrace oscilloscope at Mojave ... View full abstract»

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  • A Meteor Burst Clock Synchronization Experiment

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):184 - 189
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2132 KB)

    An experiment is described in which the frequency offset between two remotely located frequency standards was determined through an exchange of timing information over a meteor burst radio propagation channel. Instantaneous timing offset, δ, between the two terminal "clocks," each controlled by one of the frequency standards, was measured and plotted as a function of time. Since the slope ... View full abstract»

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  • A Dual Frequency VLF Timing System

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):190 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1584 KB)

    The use of high precision portable clocks and radio signals is discussed in relation to synchronization of remotely located clocks. The demonstrated inherent phase stability, approximately ten μs rms, of very-low-frequency (VLF) propagation and its low attenuation rate with distance, have led to various approaches to exploit these virtues in timing applications. The system considered here ... View full abstract»

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  • An Improved 5 MHz Reference Oscillator for Time and Frequency Standard Applications

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):196 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5812 KB)

    An improved 5 MHz reference oscillator for use in time and frequency standards has been developed. This oscillator, using an improved crystal unit, reaches a long term drift rate of less than 1×10-11 per day in a few days. The design includes precautions for reduction of effects of conducted electrical noise on the output frequency. Modular design of functional circuits provides ease of manufactu... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of FM Noise Spectra of Low-Noise VHF Crystal Controlled Oscillators

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):202 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3195 KB)

    The design and characterization of stable, low-noise crystal controlled VHF oscillators are described. Operating in the 60 MHz to 80 MHz frequency range, these oscillators have shown total rms frequency deviations of less than 4 parts per 1010 in a 5 kHz band. Noise characteristics have been determined from power spectra measurements, FM noise measurements, and phase noise measurements. The equiva... View full abstract»

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  • A Direct-Current-Comparator Ratio Bridge for Four-Terminal Resistance Measurements

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):212 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3982 KB)

    A ratio bridge has been built which compares four-terminal resistances by measuring the current ratio corresponding to voltage drop equality. A current ratio, corresponding to turns ratio, is automatically maintained by a self-balancing direct current comparator and is adjustable in part-per-million steps. The two current sources are isolated so that, at balance, there is no current in the potenti... View full abstract»

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  • Increased Accuracy for Resistance Measurements

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):220 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1526 KB)

    The effect of power dissipation on the performance of four-terminal standard resistors has been investigated, using the direct-current-comparator ratio bridge. A theoretical analysis of a typical standard resistor has also been made, which indicates that the average temperature increase of the resistance wire in an oil-filled resistor is approximated by T - T = RI2[6(1-e0.001t)+1] and that the Pel... View full abstract»

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  • Precision Measuring Equipment for Electrical Power in the Range of Audio Frequencies

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):227 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2261 KB)

    The design and construction of an electrodynamic wattmeter for precise measurement in the range of direct current to 20 kHz is discussed. The method of operation, construction, and compensation for effects and errors is described. Calculations, test results, and several test methods are described and show that the instrument is capable of high accuracy and resolution in the power and audio frequen... View full abstract»

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  • Stress Sensitivity of Manganin Resistor in High-Current Precision Coaxial Shunt

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):234 - 242
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3508 KB)

    The ring-magnet current of the 12.5 BeV Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) and the current of a magnet test fixture at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are monitored with precision, four-terminal resistors (shunts) of coaxial design. These shunts, designed and fabricated at ANL, have a frequency range from dc to over 100 kHz, and can continually dissipate up to 24 kW. They have been certified by the... View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Potentiometer of High Precision

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):242 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5224 KB)

    A magnetic potentiometer is described, the measuring error of which is in the order of 0.1 percent. The measuring winding is on polished straight ceramic rods, the joints of which are kept free from magnetic field by magnetic screening. Thus a measuring frame for heavy currents arises, the mutual inductance of which is independent of the primary circuit situation and of neighboring busbars. The ex... View full abstract»

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  • Precise Current Regulation with a Transductor

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):251 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB)

    It has been possible to achieve five parts per million current stability for at least 10 minutes in a 10 kW power supply by using a four-core transductor as a current-sensing device. This fourcore transductor circuit eliminates excitation and magnetization ripple from the output terminals and has a transfer function which is flat up to several kilocycles. The transductor has wide range and is able... View full abstract»

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  • A Direct-Reading Current-Comparator Bridge for Scaling Four-Terminal Impedances at Audio Frequencies

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):253 - 259
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1804 KB)

    A direct-reading current-comparator bridge circuit, for scaling four-terminal impedances which do not deviate from nominal by more than a few thousand parts per million, is described. The scaling is performed at constant voltage and the impedances are treated as true four-terminal devices in that, at balance, no current is drawn from the potential terminals. The principal feature of the circuit is... View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Converters for Audio-Frequency Voltage Measurements of High Accuracy

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):260 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3294 KB)

    The ac-dc differences of a reference group of thermoelements have been evaluated at audio frequencies to a few parts per million (ppm) at currents from 5 to 20 mA. A technique for comparing the ac-dc differences of two thermoelements with an uncertainty of about 2 ppm has been developed. Two 5 mA thermoelements are used with a plug-in set of resistors of computable reactances to form thermal volta... View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances in High-Frequency Performance of Feedback Amplifier-Transformer Combinations

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):269 - 276
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2817 KB)

    The high-frequency limitations inherent in systems dependent upon performance of amplifier-transformer combinations have often restricted ac calibration in the high audio range. Three recent advances in design of feedback amplifiers incorporating transformers make possible significant improvements in bandwidth, linearity, and computing accuracy in this range. The first method compensates for the l... View full abstract»

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  • A New and Unique Analog-to-Digital Conversion Technique

    Publication Year: 1966, Page(s):276 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2640 KB)

    The analog-to-digital conversion technique which is used in the more accurate digital voltmeters available today is either potentiometric or integrating in nature. Both of these techniques are described in some detail, and their advantages and limitations are pointed out. A new technique is described which combines these two techniques so that the benefits of both are retained while the limitation... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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