IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Issue 4 • Dec. 1964

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): 157
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  • The Significance of the CPEM

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s): 158
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  • A Digital Interpolation Technique in Time Measurement

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):159 - 163
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1007 KB)

    The problem of measuring a time interval using a crystal oscillator as a time base is discussed. A statistical analysis is made of the free-running oscillator and gated counter when the time interval to be measured is repetitive. Using the equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal, the difficulties involved in using a pulsed crystal oscillator as a time base are investigated. A method is described to... View full abstract»

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  • Telstar Time Synchronization

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):164 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2401 KB)

    A broad-band completely reciprocal transmission path across the Atlantic was made available for the first time by the Telstar I satellite. In August, 1962, the U. S. Naval Observatory (USNO) and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) cooperated in an experiment using the satellite to relate the master clocks at the USNO, and the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) at Herstmonceux, U. K. Pulsed signa... View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Stabilization of the He-Ne Maser

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):170 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1003 KB)

    A bright and monochromatic radiation from an optical maser can be used as a stable standard of wavelength, when plane mirrors in the maser are automatically controlled so that the oscillation frequency can be kept very close to the center of the atomic line. The separation of mirrors is modulated at a low frequency with a small amplitude. The fundamental-, the second-harmonic, and the third-harmon... View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-Impulse Modulation as a Means of Attaining Accuracy in Cesium Atomic Clocks

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):175 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1129 KB)

    An electronic system has been developed which corrects for cavity-detuning errors in cesium atomic-beam frequency standards. The RF signal applied to the beam tube is square-wave phase modulated, i.e., frequency-impulse modulated. The transient response of the beam tube to these phase steps is used as a control signal. When the positive and negative transients are both equal in area and identical ... View full abstract»

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  • The Statistical Construction of a Single Standard from Several Available Standards

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):180 - 185
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB)

    In the case of physical quantities for which no international standards exist, such as microwave power and microwave noise, it may be desirable to establish an international standard by combination of the data from several laboratory standards. Even if there is an international standard, it conceivably might be replaced by a new composite standard, for example the mean of several laboratory atomic... View full abstract»

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  • Exchange Collisions, Wall Interactions, and Resettability of the Hydrogen Maser

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):185 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1589 KB)

    Experiments were performed in order to verify the resettability of the hydrogen maser. The method consisted of measuring the output frequency of one maser against the hydrogen pressure. It was found that at a given tuning of the cavity no shift larger than 2.1 parts in 1013 was observed for a change of 4 to 1 in pressure. This experiment also showed that the pressure shift due to exchange collisio... View full abstract»

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  • AC Bridge Methods for the Measurement of Three-Terminal Amittances

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):189 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1571 KB)

    To avoid uncertainties due to finite lead impedances, a direct admittance is best defined as the transfer admittance of a two-terminal-pair network. The network may contain both voltage and current transformers. Unwanted loop currents may be suppressed by coaxial chokes and the equivalent circuit reduced to that of a three-terminal admittance. Two direct admittances may be compared with a voltage ... View full abstract»

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  • The Precise Measurement of Current Ratios

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):197 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4946 KB)

    The development of the current comparator, a three-winding current ratio transformer, is reviewed and its characteristics as an alternating current ratio standard are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the use of magnetic shielding and its effect on the accuracy and usefulness of the device. Some error characteristics of three types of audio-frequency current comparators are given and poss... View full abstract»

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  • Capacitive Error in Current Comparators

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):210 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB)

    The equations for the capacitive error of various constructions of audio-frequency current comparators are derived and discussed. The experimental procedure for trimming a comparator using an excitation winding is presented. The interrelationship between sensitivity and accuracy is indicated. An approximate diagram showing the size and error as a function of rated current for a matched sensitivity... View full abstract»

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  • A Self-Balancing High-Voltage Capacitance Bridge

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):216 - 224
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1553 KB)

    A self-balancing high-voltage capacitance ratio bridge, especially designed for continuous measurement of corona losses on experimental transmission lines, is described. The instrument is derived by combining a negative-feedback amplifier with a high-voltage capacitance bridge based on the current comparator principle. Manual control is provided for the four most significant decades of the bridge,... View full abstract»

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  • On the Maintenance of Saturated Standard Cells at 3??C through the Use of Thermoelectric Cooling

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):225 - 230
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2066 KB)

    Saturated standard cells at temperatures between 20??C and 40??C exhibit a high negative-voltage coefficient with respect to temperature and have required temperature stabilization within ??0.01??C over an extended period to achieve a voltage stability of ??1 ??V. Examination of standard cell data in the vicinity of 0??C, on the other hand, indicated higher voltages and a much lower temperature co... View full abstract»

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  • A Secondary Standard of Current Based on a Nuclear Resonance Spin Oscillator

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):231 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6300 KB)

    A description is given of the use of a nuclear spin oscillator as a transducer, connecting a magnetic field (10 g) to a frequency (42 kc/s). It is shown that for this function the spin oscillator is to be preferred to the nuclear maser. The system offers the advantage of permitting work in an ordinary laboratory with a background of parasitic field of some 1 mg; this insensibility to fluctuations ... View full abstract»

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  • The Calibration of DC Resistance Standards by an AC Method

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):239 - 243
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2113 KB)

    Techniques recently developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) have enabled the zero-frequency (or dc) value of 4-terminal Laboratory Standard Resistors readily to be determined to an accuracy of two parts in 107 from a few measurements made in the frequency band 40 c/s to 600 c/s. A Kelvin double-bridge network is used, the ratio arms consisting of inductively-coupled voltage dividers wi... View full abstract»

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  • Active and Passive Direct-Reading Ratio Sets for the Comparison of Audio-Frequency Admittances

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):243 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3538 KB)

    Design considerations and constructional details for two audio-frequency direct-reading ratio sets are presented. These devices allow the comparison of admittances with accuracies up to one part in 109. The first direct-reading ratio set (DRRS) is based upon operational amplifier circuitry, and utilizes a two-stage amplifier system. With this technique, only a moderate voltage amplification per st... View full abstract»

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  • Audio-Frequency Current Comparator for Instrument Transformer Calibration

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):251 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2444 KB)

    A special six-terminal ribbon resistor which makes it possible to measure accurately any current ratio from 1 to 1, up to 10 to 1, in the lower audio-frequency range, has been devised and constructed. Circuits have been designed and tested which permit the calibration of ratio and phase angle of current transformers without reference to a standard whose ratio and phase angle are known. In the expe... View full abstract»

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  • A New Philosophy of Performance Specification Applied to Coaxial Connectors

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):258 - 264
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1308 KB)

    Basic problems with design specifications for RF connectors are discussed. The work of the ASA Committee C83.2 and the Armed Services in introducing performance specifications is presented. These specifications leave the construction details to the ingenuity of the designer but denote the critical interface dimensions to assure nondestructive mating. It defines two classes of connectors in terms o... View full abstract»

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  • The Realization of High-Frequency Impedance Standards Using Air-Spaced Coaxial Lines

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):265 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1710 KB)

    Impedances of devices with coaxial inlets, having small reflection coefficients relative to a given characteristic resistance, can be determined accurately (?? 0.1 per cent) by comparison with the nominally calculable characteristic impedance of a quarter-wavelength, air-spaced coaxial line in which the inner conductor is supported by the inner conductors of the apparatus connected at each end. In... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Connectors and Aiapters on Accurate Attenuation Measurements at Microwave Frequencies

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):272 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2533 KB)

    A source of error in microwave attenuation measurements, not previously evaluated, is treated in an original analysis. The error is caused by effects of deviations of connectors or adapters from standard specifications. For example, if the coaxial connector at the insertion point in an attenuation measuring system deviates from standard specifications, the measured attenuation of a coaxial pad ins... View full abstract»

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  • Progress Report of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group Technical Subcommittee on Precision Coaxial Connectors

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):285 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1339 KB)

    The accuracy of RF and microwave measurements made in coaxial systems is often limited at higher frequencies by the mismatch errors from the connectors. The need for higher accuracies in coaxial impedance measurements and for improved coaxial transfer standards of attenuation and power has led to several independent designs of coaxial precision connectors within the United States and abroad. The C... View full abstract»

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  • Precision Coaxial VSWR Measurements by Coupled Sliding-Load Technique

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):292 - 300
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2615 KB)

    The method described employs a slotted line for VSWR measurement and a precision coaxial line as an impedance standard. A sliding load terminates the standard line during the process of transforming the impedance of the slotted line to that of the standard line. This load is coupled mechanically to the slotted-line probe so that the two move together. The VSWR seen by the probe is then, to first a... View full abstract»

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  • A Precision Noise-Power Comparator

    Publication Year: 1964, Page(s):301 - 305
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2800 KB)

    This paper describes a prototype noise-power comparator based upon a theory given by Allred. Operating at 3 MHz, it is a null-type instrument, the principal components of which are a hybrid four-port, a stable CW generator, a precision attenuator, a dual-channel amplifier and band-pass filter, and an analog multiplier. Unlike other radiometers, no rapid switching of the noise power or reference vo... View full abstract»

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Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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