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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1979

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • A Pattern Deformational Model and Bayes Error-Correcting Recognition System

    Page(s): 745 - 756
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    A pattern deformational model is proposed in this paper. Pattern deformations are categorized into two types: local deformation and structural deformation. A structure-preserving local deformation can be decomposed into a syntactic deformation followed by a semantic deformation, the former being induced on primitive structures and the latter on primitive properties. Bayes error-correcting parsing algorithms are proposed accordingly which not only can perform normal syntax analysis but also can make statistical decisions. An optimum Bayes error-correcting recognition system is then formulated for pattern classification. The system can be considered as a hybrid pattern classifier which uses both syntactic and statistical pattern recognition techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Error-Correcting Isomorphisms of Attributed Relational Graphs for Pattern Analysis

    Page(s): 757 - 768
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    The pattern deformational model proposed by Tsai and Fu [11] is extended so that numerical attributes and probability or density distributions can be introduced into primitives and relations in a nonhierarchical relational graph. Conventional graph isomorphisms are then generalized to include error-correcting capability for matching deformed patterns represented by such attributed relational graphs. An ordered-search algorithm is proposed for determining error-correcting isomorphisms. Finally, a pattern classification approach using graph isomorphisms is described, which can be considered as a combination of structural and statistical techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Allocation of Decisionmaking Responsibility between Human and Computer in Multitask Situations

    Page(s): 769 - 778
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    As human and computer come to have overlapping decisionmaking abilities, a dynamic or adaptive allocation of responsibilities may be the best mode of human-computer interaction. It is suggested that the computer serve as a backup decisionmaker, accepting responsibility when human workload becomes excessive and relinquishing responsibility when workload becomes acceptable. A queueing theory formulation of multitask decisionmaking is used and a threshold policy for turning the computer on/off is proposed. This policy minimizes event-waiting cost subject to human workload constraints. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs within a computer-aided multitask flight management situation with different task demand levels. It was found that computer aiding enhanced subsystem performance as well as subjective ratings. The queueing model appears to be an adequate representation of the multitask decisionmaking situation, and to be capable of predicting system performance in terms of average waiting time and server occupancy. Server occupancy was further found to correlate highly with the subjective effort ratings. View full abstract»

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  • Distortion Criteria of the Human Viewer

    Page(s): 778 - 793
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    The ultimate judges of the quality of reproduced pictures are human observers. In many practical situations it is desirable to have objective measures which closely mirror the performance of the human viewer; today we lack accurate measures. To study this problem, a set of five pictures was used in which distortions of different types were introduced. The resulting series of pictures was rated by viewers by means of an impairment rating test. These ratings were then compared with various objective measures of the error. The objective measure is sought which is most closely monotonically related in a smooth manner to the subjective measure. The average spread of the subjective deviations about a polynomial regression of the subjective measure onto the objective measure is used as the criterion. This technique is used to study both linearly filtered error measures and picture dependent nonlinear weightings of the error. The procedure has enabled a crude quantative model of the human viewer to be determined. View full abstract»

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  • A Methodology for Environmental Systems Management: Dynamic Application of the Nested Lagrangian Multiplier Method

    Page(s): 794 - 805
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    In this paper an alternative method for solving multiobjective optimization problems is presented. We are especially concerned with bridging a gap between procedures for obtaining the Pareto-optimal solutions and the "best compromised" preferred solution for the decisionmaker. First, the main concepts ofthe utility approach are briefly reviewed from the point of view of multiobjective systems analysis, and some shortages of this approach are examined. Second, a new method which we call the nested Lagrangian multiplier method (or NLM method) is introduced and compared with precedent devices for the utility approach The theoretical background is also scrutinized. Third, the use of the NLM method for environmental systems management in the greater Osaka area is demonstrated, providing an example ofdynamic application ofthis method. Finally, it is recalled that utilization of a mathematical optimization method for integrated plannings would simultaneously provide optimal solutions for allocation as well as evaluation problems, based on duality of mathematical programming. Astress is placed on the utilization of dual optimal solutions as a base of evaluation factors. View full abstract»

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  • Solving Complex Conflicts

    Page(s): 805 - 816
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    Many complex problems may be modeled as conflicts, but until now a comprehensive technique for analyzing real world conflicts has not been available. A method is presented which permits the rapid assessment of complex conflict situations for the purpose of finding resolutions to a conflict, determining correct strategies, and enhancing one's understanding of the problem. The new technique is presented through a step by step example, and following this the mathematical basis for the analysis algorithm is developed. Finally, extensions to the procedure are presented through the analysis of the fall of France in 1940, an international water allocation conflict, and the Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) irrigation project in North Dakota, U.S.A. View full abstract»

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  • Systems Planning for Environmental Education

    Page(s): 816 - 823
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    The development of citizen capacity to function from a systems perspective on major public issues is needed to combat the "politics of selfishness' as practiced through single-issue political action groups. Environmental education offers an opportunity to develop citizenship functions through the challenge set forth in the Environmental Education Act of 1970. Systems methodologies have been developed that offer the possibility of citizen learning and doing through participative effort. Examples of the use of various systems methodologies relate to defining environmental education, exploring core themes for use in environmental education, classroom learning, and acceptance in field testing of methodology. Design of a regional environmental learning system (RELS) offers another opportunity to apply systems methodology. A general methodology for conceptual design of systems can be readily applied to public design of environmental learning systems. View full abstract»

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  • On Competition, Regulation, and Market Structures

    Page(s): 824 - 828
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    Attention is focused on the theory concerning comparisons of single-firm market structures and certain multifirm alternatives to such structures. Firms are assumed to produce a single commodity with which is associated a price as well as a numerical index of quality. Considered first is the case in which the single firm is assumed to be profit-maximizing, and the price and quality of the commodity produced are compared with the corresponding quantities associated with a certain legislated-into-existence multifirm alternative consisting of a number of essentially identical profit-maximizing firms which produce the commodity at a uniform price and level of quality. Certain assumptions are introduced and it is proved, in a general and realistic setting concerning the number of possible solutions of the basic underlying optimization problems, that the single-firm structure outperforms the multifirm alternative in a significant sense having to do with prices and levels of quality. The remainder of the paper is concerned with the situation in which the alternative to the single-firm structure consists of a dominant firm (which sets the price and level of quality of the commodity) as well as a fringe of competitive firms whose combined total output capability is typically comparatively small. It is shown that if the single firm and dominant firm are profit-maximizing companies, and ifcertain other conditions are met, then the presence of the competitive fringe benefits the consumer in, for example, the following sense. View full abstract»

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  • The Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Diffusion of Technology

    Page(s): 829 - 839
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    The contemporary theorizing on the diffusion of technology in terms of innovation-imitation distinction is the point of departure of this paper. The alternative viewpoint that the diffusion of technology is intimately linked with its development is advanced. The process of diffusion is best conceived in terms of the actual substitution of a new technique for the old. This viewpoint is further developed and operationalized in the form of two testable models of technological substitution. Several alternative derivations of these models are presented. The models have been applied to ten cases of adoption of new techniques in electricity generation, farming, manufacturing, steel production, and textile industries. There generally tends to be significant interindustry differences in the rates of diffusion of technology. Further, substitution of a new technique for the old generally takes place in the form of a significantly disproportionate growth in the use of the former as compared to the latter. View full abstract»

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  • Linking MP Models in a Systems Framework

    Page(s): 840 - 849
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    The notion of "complex problems" is introduced with the help of a production planning problem in a Finnish pharmaceutical industry. It is demonstrated that a complex management problem may be based on two key elements¿the multigoal and the aggregation/disaggregation problems. Two approaches to tackling complex problems are introduced: the first is to determine composite optimal solutions by linking mathematical programming (MP) models, and the second is to experiment with solutions from MP models in the framework of a systems-simulating model. The properties of these two approaches are outlined and discussed, and their applicability for tackling complex problems is assessed. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Voluntary Hypnosis-Induced Motor Performance of Hemiparetic Patients

    Page(s): 850 - 855
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  • Digital Transfer Functions for Microcomputer Control

    Page(s): 856 - 860
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  • A Note on the Use of (Gray Level, Local Average Gray Level) Space as an Aid in Threshold Selection

    Page(s): 860 - 864
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  • Segmentation of Images with Incompletely Specified Regions

    Page(s): 864 - 868
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  • Discrete Relaxation for Matching Relational Structures

    Page(s): 869 - 874
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  • The Chinese and Japanese Abaci

    Page(s): 874 - 879
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  • Combinatorial Connectivities in Social Systems

    Page(s): 880
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 881 - 882
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  • 1979 Index IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Vol. SMC-9

    Page(s): 1 - 13
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  • An Invitation to Membership

    Page(s): 13a
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): 13-b
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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 13c
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