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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Multilevel Systems Control and Applications: A Survey

    Page(s): 125 - 143
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    There are four main objectives of this survey. First, the general theory of multilevel systems is outlined, and basic related issues are presented. Second, the literature on the research topics that utilize the fundamental concepts, structures, and methodologies of multilevel systems is classified and documented. Third, principal features, advantages, and limitations as pertinent to various practical applications are pointed out. Finally, extensions to other research areas as well as prospects for future investigations are delineated. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of Multilevel Control and Estimation Schemes for Large-Scale Systems: A Perturbational Approach

    Page(s): 144 - 152
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    A new approach to the development of multilevel control and estimation schemes for large-scale systems with a major emphasis on the reliability of performance under structural perturbations is described. The study is conducted within a decomposition-decentralization framework and leads to simple and noniterative control and estimation schemes. The solution to the control problem involves the design of a set of locally optimal controllers for the individual subsystems in a completely decentralized environment and a global controller on a higher hierarchical level that provides corrective signals to account for the interconnection effects. Similar principles are employed to develop an estimation scheme, which consists of a set of decentralized optimal estimators for the subsystems, together with certain compensating signals for measurements. The principal feature of the paper is a detailed study of the system structure and the consequent classification of interconnection patterns into several interesting categories (beneficial, nonbeneficial, and neutral) based on their effects on decentralized control and estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Determination of How a Human Has Allocated His Attention between Control and Monitoring Tasks

    Page(s): 153 - 161
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    A computer algorithm employing fading-memory system identification and linear discriminant analysis is proposed for real-time detection of human shifts of attention in a control and monitoring situation. Experimental results are presented that validate the usefulness of the method. Application of the method to computer-aided decisionmaking in multitask situations is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Nonlinear Model for the Spatial Characteristics of the Human Visual System

    Page(s): 161 - 170
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    Several recent papers have presented data from experimental investigations of the human ivsual system (HVS) which support the general hypothesis that the HVS is composed of spatial frequency channels. It has been pointed out, however, that a linear systems analysis of the entire system is not valid. Furthermore, a nonlinear model consisting of a log-bandpass filter produced some experimental results with deviations at high spatial frequencies. A new structure for a nonlinear mathematical model which is easily quantifiable, produces results which compare with experimental data, and has a physiological correlate is presented. The significance of this model is that the bandwidth of the visual system decreases as contrast increases. Thus the system appears to maximize the signal to noise ratio while attempting to maintain a constant " perceptual" spatial-frequency fidelity. View full abstract»

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  • Shape Discrimination Using Fourier Descriptors

    Page(s): 170 - 179
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    Description or discrimination of boundary curves (shapes) is an important problem in picture processing and pattern recognition. Fourier descriptors (FD's) have interesting properties in this respect. First, a critical review is given of two kinds of FD's. Some properties of the FD's are given and a distance measure is proposed, in terms of FD's, that measures the difference between two boundary curves. It is shown how FD's can be used for obtaining skeletons of objects. Finally, experimental results are given in character recognition and machine parts recognition. View full abstract»

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  • Subset Methods for Recognizing Distorted Patterns

    Page(s): 180 - 191
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    At an application-independent level of generality, the problem of recognizing noisy distorted patterns is discussed. Practical techniques for recognizing, for instance, speech, characters, vector-cardiograms, and fingerprints, are designed to tolerate minor distortions of patterns, but not to tolerate any distortion that changes any pattern into a further pattern that belongs to a different recognition class. In a given practical application, only a particular class of distortions, which we call admissible distortions, should be tolerated, and this class must somehow be defined. Different methods, in which definitions of sets of admissible distortions of parts of patterns are used for deciding whether distortions of entire patterns are or are not admissible, are compared. These methods are of interest because they are more economical than other known general methods. Theory suggests that lower recognition error rates should be obtained with an iterative, rather than with a structurally comparable noniterative, method of discriminating between admissible and nonadmissible distortions. To test this experimentally, at least in character recognition, the work has been taken through a phase of practical development, and computer simulation results are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Financial Considerations of Laboratory Management in an Inner City Hospital

    Page(s): 192 - 200
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    The financial aspects of hospital laboratory management are examined. The usual practice of setting prices a few percentage points above costs in order to make a profit or break even is shown to be inapplicable. This is due to the unusual strictures placed upon hospitals by a governmentally imposed system wherein reimbursement is, for many patients, based upon costs rather than upon charges. A model is then proposed which takes this factor into account. A linear equation is derived which, given the value of various statistical variables (such as the ratio of inpatient to outpatient workload, a definition of the mix of all patients based upon mode of reimbursement, and the extent to which bills submitted to various patient or third party payors are paid), determines the profit or loss of the laboratory. A function, designated as ßP=O, which is the ratio of total billings to total costs at profit equal to zero, is then defined using the same statistical variables. It is shown that ßP=O is dimensionless and therefore independent of cost or billings and applies to a hospital of any size. Analysis for optimization is carried out. Certain conclusions are drawn, after variations of the patient mix and collectibility coefficients concerning the fiscal hardships endured by inner city teaching hospitals versus community or proprietary hospitals. The model derived in this paper, with suitable modifications, should be applicable to other sections of hospital management in addition to the laboratories. View full abstract»

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  • Design Theory

    Page(s): 201 - 204
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  • Understanding Shape: II. Symmetry

    Page(s): 204 - 212
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  • Signature Verification Experiment Based on Nonlinear Time Alignment: A Feasibility Study

    Page(s): 212 - 216
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  • Fuzzy Set Theory versus Bayesian Statistics

    Page(s): 216 - 219
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 219 - 220
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): 220-a
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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 220b
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