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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Input-Output Analysis in Environmental Modeling

    Page(s): 537 - 538
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  • Input-Output Economic Analysis of Environmental Impact

    Page(s): 539 - 547
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    This is a semitutorial paper to explain, from the systems engineering viewpoint, the basic principles of Leontief's input-output economic analysis and its extension to study environmental repercussions in the economy. An advantage of the systems engineering interpretation is that it makes the input-output analysis intuitively clear and suggests or facilitates certain extensions of Leontief's results. View full abstract»

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  • Mass-Energy Based Economic Models

    Page(s): 548 - 555
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    In this semitutorial paper, economic models based on fundamental principles of conservation of mass and energy are developed. These models consider labor as a cost rather than a flow as in classical input-output analysis. This minor shift in concept makes it possible to include technical economies of scale in production and transportation as an additive nonlinearity to the cost equation. These economies of scale are shown to be of central concern in evaluating the tradeoffs between production "efficiency" and environmental and social costs incurred by excessive spatial concentration and regional specialization of production and consumption processes. Well-known concepts in engineering are used to develop mass-energy economic models of production systems that have all the basic characteristics of classical economic input-output models and more. The theories and concepts are illustrated by example. View full abstract»

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  • Pollution Affecting Producers in an Input Output Context

    Page(s): 555 - 561
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    Input-output models are attractive for the study of pollution problems because they can trace pollutant flows through the whole economy. The purpose of this paper is to show how input-output models, while easily adaptable for the case of pollution generated by producers and falling on consumers, are unable to handle pollution affecting producers and then to show how an essentially neoclassical model of pollution falling on producers can be put into an input-output context. In the neoclassical model pollution affecting producers has a dual effect on commodity prices and resource endowments. The dual effects of pollution are then interpreted by appealing to two theorems of international trade. View full abstract»

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  • An Interindustry Approach to Modeling Economic-Environmental Systems

    Page(s): 562 - 567
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    This paper reports upon a project intended to hypothesize and implement with data methods for linking input-output structures and environmental emissions in order to provide suitable means for modeling and analyzing the emissions process. The first step in the effort was to devise a materials balance accounting structure in order to provide a coherent and complete format for emissions. This accounting structure was incorporated in a set of worksheets and instructions and distributed among relevant government agencies. The data collected from this effort, with substantial internally developed data, have been used to create a simple two-stage model of the emissions process. It is recommended that this approach be enhanced through more detailed study of treatment processes in terms of materials flows and economic costs. Integration of superior treatment process data into the existing structure would permit a much more flexible, detailed, and accurate model for projection and policy analysis purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Environmental Implications of Economic Growth in the United States, 1970 to 2000: An Input - Output Analysis

    Page(s): 568 - 574
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    Some results on the environmental implications of economic growth in the United States from 1970 to 2000, obtained using conventional input-output analysis, are presented. The input-output model, as constructed, allows various projections, each associated with specific policy assumptions, to be pursued. Chosen here were two population assumptions (U.S. Census Series B, and Census Series E) coupled with two economic growth assumptions both pegged to labor productivity of different levels. This yielded four basic scenarios: high population and high economic growth, low population and low growth, and two intermediary cases. The environmental implications were entered in the form of two policy assumptions-continuation of the 1970 environmental policy and strict enforcement of all current environmental legislation. Several conclusions may be drawn from this analysis: if waste treatment is not intensified, even the low-population low-growth rate scenario yields significant increases in current pollution levels by the year 2000; increases in population level bears less influence upon environmental quality than the increases in the standard of living; capital investments in state-of-the-art production technologies are necessary if waste treatment costs are to be held to a low level; the treatment cost/GNP ratio will increase by a factor of 2.1 to 3.7 in the next decade, dependent upon abatement policy pursued, and increase by a factor of 2.8 to 4.8 in the next 30 years; and the economy can absorb this increase in treatment costs without major social cost, particularly with early capital investment by industry in production technology. View full abstract»

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  • A Regional Input - Output Pollution Abatement Model

    Page(s): 575 - 577
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    The technical and capital coefficients of a dynamic regional input-output model are being revised to include the costs of installing and operating air pollution abatement equipment. The total cost of air pollution abatement in the region will be estimated by comparing the value of direct and indirect inputs required to produce a fixed bill of goods before and after the installation of abatement equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Interindustrial Material Reclamation Effects on Regional Economies

    Page(s): 578 - 583
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    An approach to the construction of a regional input-output model for the analysis of solid waste problems is outlined. Building upon an available conventional static regional input-output model, three models are presented; each is nested inside the other and leading to the proposed model. These models are a) a simple model of production and waste generation; b) a production and waste disposition model; and c) a production, disposition, and reclamation model. An approach to the assessment of the role of the material reclamation industries in a regional economy is thereby suggested. It centers on the contribution material reclamation industries make to total output of conventional producing industries. The analysis suggests the way to the evaluation of material reclamation industries (which tends also to reclaim unutilized labor) in terms of a broad regional development policy related to solid-waste management. View full abstract»

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  • A Multistage Input-Output Model for Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Energy Systems

    Page(s): 583 - 587
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    A systems model to describe the production of energy is developed. The model considers the efficiency and environmental impact of each stage (extraction, storage, conversion, transmission, etc.) of alternative energy-producing chains (e.g., electric power from coal, oil, etc.). The analytical form of the model is identical to an input-output scheme with technological coefficients that depend upon the specific inputs and efficiencies of each of the stages. An example is presented to show the application of the model to analyze the relationships between energy systems' efficiency and environmental impact. View full abstract»

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  • Tax Strategies for Industrial Pollution Abatement

    Page(s): 588 - 603
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    Governments have at their disposal a growing arsenal of measures, such as taxes, incentives, regulations, and effluent charges, for limiting harmful industrial emissions at the source, over a region, or at the national level. Such measures may have far-reaching implications for consumers, the economy, the quality of the environment, the structure of industry, and the development of resources and technology. The nature of these implications should be assessed before specific measures are implemented. We have constructed and computerized a static model designed to assess some of the steady-state consequences of various pollution abatement strategies on an industry. This model, called "Process-Chain Evaluation Model" (PCEM), estimates the cumulative costs of various processes or steps that form "chains" leading from a set of raw material inputs to a marketable output such as semi-finished or consumer products. It then evaluates the added cost of sales due to specific environmental control measures. Often several alternate processes or chains of processes are feasible, leading to the same end product. In that case, the model helps identify those chains which are most economical and environmentally least harmful under various assumed policies. Presumably the most economical chains will, with time, come to dominate the industry making the end product in question, unless the imposed policies put this industry at a competitive disadvantage with respect to others. In that case, the end product may, in time, be displaced by substitutes. The dynamic effects of process or product substitution are quite important and can also be modeled. View full abstract»

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  • Enforcement Policies for Parking Regulations

    Page(s): 604 - 610
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    Effective enforcement of no-parking regulations is essential in urban areas. A probabilistic finite-state machine model that relates enforcement to expected levels of compliance is developed, and its simulation results are shown to agree with experimental data. The effects of deterministic and random enforcement policies are described, and a class of implementable policies that yield satisfactory results is analyzed. Finally, these results are used to determine schedules and routes for enforcement officers that increase their effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • Textural Features for Image Classification

    Page(s): 610 - 621
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    Texture is one of the important characteristics used in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image, whether the image be a photomicrograph, an aerial photograph, or a satellite image. This paper describes some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependancies, and illustrates their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data: photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20 000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispecial imagery containing seven land-use categories. We use two kinds of decision rules: one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89 percent for the photomicrographs, 82 percent for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83 percent for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Pattern Recognition to Steady-State Security Evaluation in a Power System

    Page(s): 622 - 631
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    Power system operation is outlined and system security is defined. The need for security evaluation in power system operation is discussed, and the evaluation is presented as a pattern recognition problem. A suitable straightforward and quick procedure is used to select a small number of variables as features from a large set of variables which are normally available in power systems. Comparison is made on the security classification performances of a number of different types ot classifiers. The training of classifiers is carried out by a search algorithm which seeks to minimize the number of classification errors. The procedure to determine the security functions (classifiers) is illustrated by an example, and simulation results on the steady-state security of the CIGRE 225-kV system show that the pattern recognition approach to security evaluation is encouraging. Some uses of security functions in the control and operation of power systems are outlined. The effect of many of these uses cannot be achieved as easily by other existing methods. Finally, some of the problems associated with the application of pattern recognition to power system security evaluation are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An Evaluation of Forrester-Type Growth Models

    Page(s): 631 - 632
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  • Modeling Error Compensation in Nonlinear Estimation Problems

    Page(s): 632 - 636
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  • Uniform Asymptotic Stability of Discrete Large-Scale Systems

    Page(s): 636 - 643
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  • A Note on the Learning Behavior of Variable-Structure Stochastic Automata

    Page(s): 644 - 647
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  • Perturbation Methods in Applied Mathematics

    Page(s): 647 - 648
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  • Digital Computer Process Control

    Page(s): 648
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  • Probabilistic Programming

    Page(s): 648 - 649
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  • Introductory Systems Engineering

    Page(s): 649
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