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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Sept. 1972

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Principles of Ecosystem Design and Management

    Page(s): 449 - 459
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    Basic principles of engineering, ecology, and economics are synthesized into logically consistent theoretical and computational procedures for a coordinated multilevel analysis of the tradeoffs in the static mass-energy and economic characteristics of alternate ecosystems (life support systems) and subsystems. Ecologically consistent pricing mechanisms are discussed as a means for regulating physical and technological succession. View full abstract»

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  • Parameter Identification and Dynamic Models of Socioeconomic Phenomena

    Page(s): 460 - 467
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    A methodology is presented for developing socioeconomic models of the type formalized by Forrester. A means of including socioeconomic experts into the modeling process is suggested, and it is emphasized that such models are not scientific models but merely assemblages of expert opinion. An iterative numerical scheme based on the technique of "quasi-linearization" is described which can be used to adjust model parameters so that the model closely agrees with real data. The methodology is illustrated using a model of the socio economic system of the Lake Tahoe basin in northern California. Such a model may eventually be useful for purposes of environmental planning. View full abstract»

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  • A Simplification of Forrester's Model of an Urban Area

    Page(s): 468 - 472
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    A greatly simplified version of Forrester's model of an urban area is described. Whereas Forrester's original model contained 20 states and 150 equations, the revised one contains 9 states and 81 equations. This revised model converges to a close approximation to Forrester's equilibrium through similar temporal behavior and produces comparable results when Forrester's 11 urban programs are applied. View full abstract»

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  • A Development Planning-Oriented Simulation Model of the Agricultural Economy of Southern Nigeria

    Page(s): 472 - 486
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    The problems of planning for economic development in the new states of Africa and Asia as well as in the more established countries of Latin America arise from the interplay of the political, social, and economic subsystems of a developing country. In this paper a system simulation model of a developing agricultural economy is presented as one approach to the planning problem. A preliminary model of the agricultural economy of southern Nigeria is described. This model simulates, over time, the impacts of alternative public policies affecting the development of the economy and computes a number of criteria which can aid decision makers in evaluating alternative policies. The model includes five major production enterprises: cocoa, palm products, and rubber (the three important Nigerian perennial, or "tree," crops), annual nonfood crops, and staple foods. The broad organization of the model comprising five basic components is discussed. One of these, the land allocation and modernization component, is described to illustrate specifically: 1) the distributed parameter model of the perennial production processes which simulates the growth and output of "populations" of trees under alternative development strategies, and 2) the land use transition decision mechanism. Sensitivity analyses and time series tracking against real world data are conducted to tune the model as part of the validation process. Then, with this coarsely validated but still preliminary model, policy runs are made to test the simulated consequences and real world implications for the economy (e.g., gross domestic product, per capita incomes, nutrition, foreign exchange earnings, etc. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Production Scheduling of Multicommodity in Flow Line

    Page(s): 486 - 493
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    The applications of computer control in production factories have been extended from the control of mass and energy to the production control. The control at this level comprises the formulation and alteration of work schedules in accordance with the progress of work, and it may be called the control of information. This paper deals with the flow line which is the most fundamental production line in the factory and proposes and verifies the optimal scheduling method. In the case of producing multicommodities by a flow line, the optimum schedule is the one which satisfies the demand for the respective products and minimizes the changeover loss. The branch-and-bound method is used to obtain an optimum schedule. The geometrical characteristics of the region in which the feasible schedules exist are used for calculating the lower bound of the objective function for the subset of feasible schedules. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Optimization of a Nonlinear Multiparameter Human Operator Model

    Page(s): 494 - 504
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    A systematic method is proposed for the development, optimization, and comparison of human controller models. The method is suitable for any model, including multiparameter systems. The evaluation criteria for assessing model quality are based on three separate components: 1) the cost or criterion function, 2) the comparison between the input/output functions of the human operator and those of the model, and 3) characteristic values and functions of statistical signal theory (mean values, auto- and crosscorrelation functions, power spectral density functions, and histograms of time function data). A nonlinear multiparameter human operator model is presented which considers the complex input information rate in a single display. The nonlinear features of the model are brought about by a modified threshold element and a decision algorithm. A random search technique is used for parameter optimization. Different display content arrangements as well as various transfer functions of the controlled element are explained by different optimized parameter combinations. The comparison with the well-known quasi-linear describing function for the human operator shows a marked superiority of the nonlinear model. View full abstract»

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  • Human Operator Dynamics for Aural Compensatory Tracking

    Page(s): 504 - 512
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    The effects of aural and combined aural and visual displays of tracking error on human operator dynamics were investigated using a compensatory tracking task. The aural displays indicated error magnitude with tone pitch and error polarity by either modulating the tone or by switching it between the ears. Describing functions, remnants, and rms tracking performance were measured with test conditions which were similar to those for previous studies of visual tracking performance. Human operator control characteristics measured for aural displays agree closely with those which result for visual displays. Also, operators could control equally well with either one- or two-ear displays. However, the reduction in operator time delays, expected because of the generally faster human response to aural stimuli, was not clearly evident in the results. Results also indicate that the combined aural and visual presentation of tracking error improved operator performance slightly. View full abstract»

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  • Leukocyte Pattern Recognition

    Page(s): 513 - 526
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    The results of an automated classification of the peripheral blood leukocytes into eight categories are presented. The classification was achieved by means of digital image processing. The categories were: small lymphocytes, medium lymphocytes, large lymphocytes, band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes. An eight-dimensional multivariate Gaussian classifier was used. The features were extracted from a 50 × 50 point digital image. These features were measures of such visual concepts as nuclear size, nuclear shape, nuclear and cytoplasmic texture, cytoplasm color, and cytoplasm colored texture. The data set consisted of 1041 blood cell images and were divided into a training set of 523 cells and an independent testing set of 518 cells. These cells were digitized directly from the blood smear, which was stained with Wright's stain. Twenty different blood smears were used and were collected over a three-year period from 20 people. The "true" classification of the data set was obtained from four experienced hematology technicians. Their performance was compared to the automated classifier both in terms of an absolute classification of cells and in terms of estimating the percentage composition of the population (or the blood cell differential count). The measure of performance used was the percentage error for each class. The mean percentage error for the eight classes in terms of an absolute classification was 8 and 29 percent for the human observers and the automated classiffier, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Simplification of Sequences of Operators

    Page(s): 526 - 533
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    The output of a system is often expressed as a sequence of unary and/or binary operations on the input. Analysis or design considerations may require manipulation of the sequence of operators to obtain an equivalent sequence either mathematically simpler or easier to design. For this purpose, available operator algebra must be considerably expanded. Several new operators are introduced: the multiple operator which is a combination of unary operators, and the zero-convolution and zero-correlation operators. Three commutation tables are developed, one for unary and transform operators, one for binary operators, and one for binary operators operating on two functions already transformed by unary or transform operators. The commutation tables can be used to manipulate and simplify a sequence of operators. They should be useful in the analysis and design of complex systems. This becomes quite clear when one tries to repeat the examples of this paper without using the commutation tables. The simplification of sequence of operators procedure not only permits a faster simplification of multiple integral transformations, but it also provides such a clear picture of the operations to perform that the manipulations become obvious. This contrasts with the conventional technique of rearranging the integrals and performing changes of variables somewhat blindly. Since the purpose of this paper is to make available a practical tool, most of the derivations of the formulas were left out for conciseness. View full abstract»

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  • Training a One-Dimensional Classifier to Minimize the Probability of Error

    Page(s): 533 - 541
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    Some of the results of a study of asymptotically optimum nonparametric training procedures for two-category pattern classifiers are reported. The decision surfaces yielded by earlier forms of nonparametric training procedures generally do not minimize the probability of error. We derive a modification of the Robbins-Monro method of stochastic approximation, and show how this modification leads to training procedures that minimize the probability of error of a one-dimensional two-category pattern classifier. The class of probability density functions admitted by these training procedures is quite broad. We show that the sequence of decision points generated by any of these training procedures converges with probability one to the minimum-probability-of-error decision point. View full abstract»

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  • 1971 Workshop on Pattern Recognition Introduction

    Page(s): 541 - 548
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  • Scientific versus Judicial Fact Finding in the United States

    Page(s): 548 - 550
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  • Detecting Subsystems of a Complex System

    Page(s): 550 - 553
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  • A Stopping Rule for Trainable One-Dimensional Threshold Learning

    Page(s): 553 - 557
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  • World Dynamics

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  • Linear Optimal Control

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  • The Analysis of Feedback Systems

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  • Nonlinear System Theory-A Functional Analysis Approach

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  • The Social Organization of Electric Power Supply in Modern Societies

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  • Modern Control System Theory and Application

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 562 - 564
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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 564a
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): 564-b
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