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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 1982

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • Acknowledgment

    Page(s): 101
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  • Human Factors and User Assistance in Interactive Computing Systems: An Introduction

    Page(s): 102 - 107
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    The need to improve and simplify interactive computing svstems has led to the study of the human factors of these systems. Out of these studies and a general interest in ease of use has come a variety of guidelines and techniques for improving human-machine interfaces. Some of the most important. techniques allow a user to obtain assistance automatically while using a computer svstem. An introduction to the problems, methods, and results in human factors and user assistance for interactive computer systems are provided in this paper and this issue. View full abstract»

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  • Metaphor and the Cognitive Representation of Computing Systems

    Page(s): 107 - 116
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    In learning, people develop new cognitive structures by metaphorically extending old ones. The metaphors spontaneously generated by new users will predict the ease with which they can master a computer system. Systems which through their interface suggest inefficacious metaphors will accordingly be more difficult to learn and to that extent unacceptable. View full abstract»

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  • User Assistance in Bibliographic Retrieval Networks through a Computer Intermediary

    Page(s): 116 - 133
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    Users of interactive bibliographic retrieval systems are hampered by the problems of system complexity and heterogeneity. To alleviate these problems-especially for computer-inexperienced end users-the concept of a translating computer intermediary has been investigated. The intermediary simplifies system operation by conversing with users in an easy-to-use, common language; user requests are translated into the language of the appropriate retrieval system, and after suitable network connections have been established, sent to that system. System responses are then forwarded to the user after conversion to a more uniform format. The design principles for such an intermediary system include a modularized command/argument language augmented by considerable on-line instruction emphasizing basic functions for neophyte users and including tutorial and automated aids to search-strategy formulation. An experimental intermediary system named CONrr (connector for networked information transfer) was constructed and tested with bona fide users. Results indicate that the proposed techniques have a high potential for improving retrieval system utility, especially for inexperienced users. Analysis of the experiments also suggests that the appropriateness of different assistance techniques is dependent on context-e.g., type of application and user. View full abstract»

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  • Tools for the Development of Systems for Human Factors Experiments: An Example for the SSA

    Page(s): 133 - 148
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    For a period of two years, Bolt Beranek ar Newman Inc. (BBN) worked with the Social Security Administration (SSA) to develop tools to enable exploration of human factors issues in the on-line collection and manipulation of data which are collected during interviews with clients applying for social security benefits. As part of this project, BBN developed a Human Factors Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF), wrote several systems with which human factors experiments were performed in that facility, and also produced a set of on-line tools. These tools allowed SSA personnel to specify parts of the system such as definitions of the data to be collected (complex data types and structures), simple constraints which the data must satisfy, and presentation mechanisms (e.g., two-dimensional forms). The experiments that were conducted, the features of the on-line tools which allowed relatively naive users to specify the complex behavior of the systems used for the experiments, and certain features of those systems that were developed with human factors considerations in mind are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Multiparty Grammars and Related Features for Defining Interactive Systems

    Page(s): 148 - 154
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    Multiparty grammars are introduced which contain labeled nonterminals to indicate the party that produces the terminal string. For interactive person-computer systems, both the user commands and system responses can be described by the linked BNF grammars. Multiparty grammars may also be used to describe communication among several people (by way of computers or in normal dialogue), network protocols among several machines, or complex interactions involving several people and machines. Visual features such as underlining, reversal, blinking, and color, window declarations, and dynamic operations dependent on cursor movement are also covered. View full abstract»

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  • Thumb: An Interactive Tool for Accessing and Maintaining Text

    Page(s): 155 - 161
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    The problem of finding information in on-line technical documentation is addressed by an interactive computer system called Thumb. Users access information free from the strictures of linear text, simple indices, and page numbers. Retrieval is based on a data structure roughly analogous to a detailed table of contents and a heavily cross-referenced index. The model is created and revised by an expert (such as the author) thoroughly familiar with the represented material. The expert's tasks are made easy by supportive utilities. A prototype implementation of Thumb is described and examples of dialogues with the system are given. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Descrbing Systems Using Integral Help

    Page(s): 162 - 167
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    Some designers of software systems have recognized the need for providing interactive assistance to the users of their systems. A variety of ad hoc approaches have been used to associate assistance with various aspects of these systems. Common problems with such approaches are inconsistent availability of assistance and inaccurate assistance. A technique is presented for integrating assistance information into the design and implementation of a software system. This technique guarantees consistency and accuracy of syntactic assistance and provides a framework for integral semantic assistance information. The technique for developing self-describing systems centers around a specification of the language with which a user interacts with the system. The language is processed to produce a parser as well as on-line assistance information, error messages, and hard copy user manuals. A method for presenting this user assistance is discussed, and examples of an implemented system are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Explanations as a Component of a Computer-Aided Design System

    Page(s): 168 - 181
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    The ability to explain something, e.g., the operation of a complex machine or program, is an important, but poorly understood, component of intelligent behavior. We discuss an artificial intelligence approach to the modeling of the explanation process within the framework of a graphics-based CAD system currently under development, which can describe its own use, including the common ways to make and recover from errors. With a coordinated textual and pictorial display, the system, CADHELP, simulates an expert demonstrating the operation of the graphical features of the CAD subsystem. It consults a knowledge base of feature scripts to explain a feature, generate prompts as the feature is being operated, and to give certain types of help when a feature is misused. CADHELP provides these services by summarizing a feature script in different ways depending upon what it has told the user previously. The summarization process is based upon a theory of natural-language generation, in which a concept to be expressed is replaced in a short-term memory by words spanning part of its meaning interspersed with subconcepts still to be expressed. The generation process is mediated by a series of "sketchification" strategies, which prescribe which parts of a knowledge structure, a causal chain, or a single concept need not be expressed, since the listener should be able to infer them. View full abstract»

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  • A Model of Human Decisionmaking in Multiple Process Monitoring Situations

    Page(s): 182 - 193
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    It is proposed that human decisionmaking performance in multiple process monitoring situations can be modeled in terms of the detection of process related events and the allocation of attention among processes once events are felt to have occurred. An elementary pattern recognition technique, discriminant analysis, is used to generate estimates of event occurrence probability. A queueing theory framework is then utilized to incorporate these probabilities as well as other task characteristics into the solution of the attention allocation problem. The performance of the model is compared with that of subjects in two experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Topological Fuzzy Sets as a Quantitative Description of Analogical Inference and Its Application to Question-Answering Systems for Information Retrieval

    Page(s): 193 - 204
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    In human communication, analogical inference plays an important role in forming useful judgements from uncertain and incomplete information. Implementation of such ability of inference in computers is significant to increase the efficiency of the question-answering process in information retrieval systems. A new notion of topological fuzzy sets is introduced to describe analogical inference based on association between concepts quantitatively. Based on the above idea, a question-answering system for information retrieval is proposed where a computer learns users' subjects of interest. In the learning process the computer puts questions so as to reduce the fuzziness of its recognition on the users' subjects. Finally, we implemented the system and, using it, the effect of the analogical inference on the efficiency of the learning is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • A Robot System Which Acquires Cylindrical Workpieces from Bins

    Page(s): 204 - 213
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    The feasibility of robots employing vision to acquire randomly oriented cylinders has been demonstrated for the first time. An experimental robot system using vision and a parallel jaw gripper was able to acquire randomly oriented cylindrical workpieces piled in bins. Binary image analysis was adequate to guide the gripper into the multilayered, piles. Complementary information was provided by simple sensors on the gripper. Experiments were performed using titanium cylinders 6 cm × 15 cm diameter and 7.6 cm × 3 cm diameter. Cycle times to acquire a cylinder and deliver it to a receiving chute ranged from 8 to 10 s when a single supply of one-size cylinders was used. By using a dual supply bin configuration with one bin of each size and overlapping arm motion and image analysis tasks, the cycle times for one cylinder from alternate bins ranged from 5.5 to 7.5 s per piece. In the future robots with such capabilities can be applied to enhance automation applications, especially in small batch production. View full abstract»

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  • Scheduling of Parallel Computation for a Computer-Controlled Mechanical Manipulator

    Page(s): 214 - 234
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    The physical compactness of the microcomputer has made it feasible to mount the controller and the mechanical manipulator together as a single unit. By using a computer with multiple central processing units (CPU's), parallel computations may be executed to achieve a minimum computing time so that a real-time control is possible. The parallel processing system utilizes one CPU for each link of the manipulator. Because of the dynamic coupling between adjacent links, precedence relations appear among the subtasks to be executed in CPU's. Under the series-parallel precedence constraints a method of "variable" branch-and-bound has been developed which determines an optimum ordered schedule for each of the CPU's. It consists of, alternatively, forward and backward search procedures with an aid of pushdown-stacks. In each forward search procedure, it seeks the currently feasible schedule with shorter computing time which updates the upper bound of the optimum schedule, while in each backward search procedure it discards those schedule-branches that will not provide improvements. A Fortran program has been written for a manipulator based on the Newton-Euler formulation of dynamic equations and is applied to the Stanford manipulator as an illustration. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Filtering

    Page(s): 235 - 236
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 237 - 240
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society

    Page(s): 240-a
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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 240b
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