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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c1 - 576b
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • FIECAG-A User Oriented Utility Program for Ampacity Calculation of Power Cables on a Desktop Computer

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 289 - 295
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    Power cable ampacities for a wide range of conditions can be calculated with a minimum of data Input, using a library-supported desk-top computer program aimed at regular as well as casual users. The program, based on the Neher-McGrath/IEC method, Is further enhanced by Its ability to retain reference files of previous calculations and compare alternative solutions. The Initial library of 47 distribution cables, included in the data base, eliminates the need for time consuming input procedures. The computerized algorithms of the program contain several enhancements to the IEC method which allow it to deal effectively with the special nature of modern distribution cables and permit the study of a wider range of cable systems. An application of the program for ampacity calculatlons of six cables in a duct bank is shown for the purpose of Illustration. View full abstract»

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  • Prefabricated Transition Joints for Medium Voltage Power Distribution Cables

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 296 - 302
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Software for Raceway Design and Calculation of Cable Installation Forces

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 303 - 307
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    The pull tension and sidewall bearing pressure experienced by cables during installation determine the lengths of cable installed and splices needed, if any, and influence the cost of installation. For the first time, personal computer software exists which not only estimates these forces, but enhances confidence in the results by showing the user his raceway on the CRT in any of the four (4) standard views. Typically, the installer /estimator uses the estimated forces to determine what kind of pull he can expect - easy or hard - and to consequently exercise any options he may have in the design/bid/installation of the system. He can then quickly input alternate raceways or cable changes, and rerun the program. Twenty-five (25) help screens and ten (10) data libraries aid the user. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Design for Medium Voltage (15-35kV) URD Cable Joints

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 308 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A new concept in heat-shrinkable technology has been developed into a range of medium voltage URD cable joints. The new thermo-elastomeric tubing has been used in a range of cable joints for concentric and jacketed concentric neutral distribution cables for 15 to 35kV voltage classes. These joints were designed with the aid of a computer modeling and finite element analysis technique which predicted the electrical stress and assisted in design optimization. The joints were tested to IEEE 404-1986 and ANSI C119.1-1974. The typical stress plots of the joints and those data relevent to performance are also reported. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Thermal Overload on the Voltage Breakdown Strength of Service-Aged URD Cables

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 315 - 320
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    Present industry specifications allow thermoset insulated polymeric cables to be subjected to emergency conductor temperatures of up to 130°C. The effect of the high temperatures on cable integrity has been questioned. This study shows that cyclic, long-term or fast-rise application of 130°C to service-aged, water treed underground residential distribution (URD), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables, result in an increase in dielectric strength. Contrary to what happens in new cables, an increase in temperature from ambient to 130°C also results in an increase in voltage breakdown strength. It appears that at high temperature, moisture and some remnant by-products of the crosslinking reaction such as volatiles, diffuse from the insulation, contributing to the higher levels of dielectric strength. It is shown that thermoplastic insulation shields on XLPE service-aged cables are adversely affected by emergency temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution Line Carrier Communications - An Historical Perspective

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 321 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    In this paper, the design migration since 1972 of the General Electric distribution line carrier systems is described, including such areas as coupling modes, frequency, harmonic noise, receiver filter design, standing waves, burst noise, error detection and correction. The research efforts of Rockwell International, beginning in 1977, are described, showing similarities and differences of that distribution line carrier system as compared to the General Electric systems. Communications success rates are described for the several system designs. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Performance Review of Optical Static Wire "a Second Generation"

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 330 - 336
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    Optical Static Wire has become a widely-used means of providing optical communication links along utility right-of-ways. Our initial concept consisted of a welded aluminum pipe, which provided physical and environmental protection for the optical fibers contained therein. This paper presents the results of the development of a helically channelled solid aluminum core construction for the positioning of loose buffered optical fibers. This second generation cable design eliminates many of the disadvantages encountered with the first generation design. The technical features of the loose buffer tube design and performance characteristics of the completed cable are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Method of Deriving Overall Accuracy for Single Phase Watthour Meters

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 337 - 341
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    The ANSI Standard equation for overall accuracy places a small amount of emphasis on light load accuracy for watthour meters. Results from a recent load research study indicated a significant amount of energy is accumulated at lighter loads where watthour meter accuracy is poorer. Perhaps the standard equation for overall accuracy is a consensus of opinions prior to utilities performing load research studies. Although small inaccuracies of watthour meters at lighter loads may seem insignificant, they become large when applied to an entire meter population. ANSI C12.1-1982 may be interpreted to mean that 20% of all energy registration occurs at light load. The results of a load research study show that watthour meters spend a great deal of time at light loads. A method was developed to establish at which loads watthour meters register energy consumption. Watthour meters spent 85% of the time and registered more than 40% of the total energy for a one year period at light loads. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Distribution High Impedance Faults Using Burst Noise Signals near 60 HZ

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 342 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (9)
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    Previous papers have described a method for the detection of arcing fallen distribution primiary conductor faults using the electrical noise in feeder current above 2kHz. While this method provided improved detection of such faults, this high frequency signal often would not propagate past capacitor banks. In the present paper, we describe a technique for the identification of arcing high impedance faults using burst noise signals at frequencies near the power system fundamental and low order harmonics. Arcing generates non-synchronous burst noise signals which approximate white noise, providing a signal which can be differentiated from synchronous power system signals in the frequency bands of interest. The primary advantage of monitoring frequencies near the fundamental is that this arcing fault signal at low frequencies will exhibit little attenuation from capacitor banks or other sources. This paper provides preliminary results that arcing faults can be detected effectively using frequency components below 60 Hz or between low order harmonics of 60 Hz. The technique is demonstrated through analysis of analog signals recorded during numerouis staged utility downed conductor tests. View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography of Relay Literature, 1984-1985

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 349 - 358
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    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relay references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is a continuation of similar bibliographies of relay literature which have been published previously and are contained in the following volumes of this Transaction: 1927-1939, Vol. 60, 1941; pp. 1435-1447 1940-1943, Vol. 63, 1944; pp. 705-709 1944-1946, Vol. 67, pt. I, 1948; pp. 24-27 1947-1949, Vol. 70, pt. I, 1951; pp. 247-250 1950-1952, Vol. 74, pt. III, 1955; pp. 45-48 1953-1954, Vol. 76, pt. III, 1957; pp. 126-129 1955-1956, Vol. 78, pt. III, 1959; pp. 78-81 1957-1958, Vol. 79, pt. III, 1960; pp. 39-42 1959-1960, Vol. 81, pt. III, 1962; pp. 109-112 1961-1964, Vol. PAS-85, No. 10; 1966; pp. 1044-1053 1965-1966, Vol. PAS-88, No. 3; 1969; pp. 244-250 1967-1969, Vol. PAS-90, No. 5; 1971; pp. 1982-1988 1970-1971, Vol. PAS-92, No. 3; 1973; pp. 1132-1140 1972-1973, Vol. PAS-94, No. 6; 1975; pp. 2033-3041 1974-1975, Vol. PAS-97, No. 3; 1978; pp. 789-801 1976-1977, Vol. PAS-99, No. 1; 1980; pp. 99-107 1978-1979, Vol. PAS-100, No. 5; 1981; pp. 2407-2415 1980-1981, Vol. PAS-102, No. 4; 1983; pp. 1014-1024 1982-1983, Vol. PAS-104, No. 5; 1985; pp. 1189-1197 The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing, and methods of calculation, as well as to the field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign publications are included. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric Performance of Improved Gas Insulated Bushing for UHV Gis

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 359 - 366
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    This paper describes a improved gas insulated bushing for ultra high voltage (UHV) SF6 gas insulated switchgear (GIS) which contains a simple capacitor core inside a porcelain housing. The effects of arrangement and capacitance of the capacitor core on the voltage distribution along the external porcelain surface were analyzed, and a 2/3 scale model of a prototype UHV gas insulated bushing (6.7m porcelain housing) was developed. Characteristics tests of the voltage distribution and dielectric withstand voltage indicated that the voltage distribution was greatly improved and the dielectric withstand voltage of the switching impulse under wet conditions was enhanced about 30% compared with a conventional gas insulated bushing. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Short Circuit Electromagnetic Forces in Three Phase Enclosure Type Gas Insulated Bus

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 367 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The effects of the enclosure material to the electromagnetic force and the dynamic performances of the force have been measured in case of 3¿ fault and ¿-¿ fault, using three phase enclosure type gas insulated bus (GIB) models. The analysis for the electromagnetic force has been performed and compared with the experimental results. Mild steel and stainless steel enclosure have little influence to the electromagnetic forces between the phase conductors, whereas the forces are fully reduced by the existence of aluminum alloy enclosure. View full abstract»

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  • Development of 1200-kV Compressed-Gas-Insulated Transmission and Substation Equipment in the United States

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 374 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Major research and development (R&D) programs for the development of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) compressed-gas-insulated (CGI) equipment for ultrahigh-voltage (UHV) application at 1100-1200 kV have been under way independently in both the United States and Japan. The CGI transmission and substation equipment under study and development in these countries has included the surge arrester, circuit breaker, CGI transmission bus, disconnect and ground switches, and an air-SF6 termination. The U.S. CGI program has also included development of a power transformer, shunt reactor, voltageand current-sensing instrumentation, and a line trap, all for 1200-kV application. This paper presents the overall status of development of CGI substation equipment for UHV application in the United States. It describes the major CGI components developed, highlights their key design aspects, indicates the present status of development and testing, and addresses the work remaining to establish final design concepts. The paper also includes 23 references, a number of which have not been widely distributed or included in any of the recently published bibliographies of UHV substation equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Breaking Ability and Interrupting Phenomena of a Circuit Breaker Equipped with a Parallel Resistor or Capacitor

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 384 - 392
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    This paper discusses the breaking ability of an air blast circuit breaker (ABB) or SF6 gas circuit breaker (GCB), and the interrupting phenomena around current zero in the case where a resistor or capacitor is connected in parallel with its interrupter to improve the breaking ability. It has been clarified that the use of a parallel resistor for ABB, and that of a parallel capacitor for GCB are the most effective methods to improve the breaking abilities; the parallel resistor not only serves to reduce the rate of rise of the transient recovery voltage (rrrV), but also shifts the current from the interrupter to itself around the current zero, thus reducing the stress for interruption. The improvement of the breaking ability is achieved by reducing the initial average rrrV between zero and 1 microseconds (inherent value), when the parallel capacitor is used with the GCB. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Approach to the Design of Metal-Clad Switchgear for a Distribution Substation, Using Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 393 - 397
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    Modern metal-clad switchgear using vacuum circuit breakers allows design flexibility not available in previous designs of metal-clad switchgear. A distribution substation using the breaker-and-a-half scheme in metal-clad construction is described, and the physical requirements of an eight-circuit substation are traced through three different generations of metal-clad switchgear design. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Winding Losses in Shell-Form Transformers for Improved Accuracy and Reliability Part-1: Calculation Procedure and Program Description

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 398 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    This paper presents a 3D program developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for accurate calculation of eddy and circulating current losses in windings of shell-form power transformers. Comparisons made between the 3D results, test results, and other analytical results on a number of commercial transformers prove the validity-of the program and the superior accuracy it provides. As described in the paper, the 3D program calculates, in addition, the relative contributions of the individual coils to the total winding losses. Such information is used to arrive at effective winding design methods for reducing load losses. The program also calculates magnitudes of the highest circulating currents and locations of the most heavily loaded strands. Such information is very important in designing reliable transformers by avoiding winding hot spots. This paper is divided into two parts. In this part of the paper the 3D loss program is described. First, the front-end of the program and the computer communication system used to submit, execute, and returns the results of, the program are described. This is followed by a concise description of the calculation procedure used in the program and the output of the program. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Winding Losses in Shell-Form Transformers for Improved Accuracy and Reliability Part-2: Results and Program Verification

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 404 - 410
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    This part of the paper presents calculated results of the program for eddy current losses and circulating currents and losses of several large power transformers. In order to demonstrate the improved accuracy and the new and valuable information provided by the program, the 3D results are compared to 2D results, results of approximate classical formulas of losses, and finally test results on several commercial transformers. The results of a study on the effect of braze splitting and transposition on circulating currents using the 3D loss program are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Cost of Load Losses in Distribution Transformers by the Method of Average Loading

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 411 - 413
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    The cost of load losses for distribution transformers may be solved by using the average loading on the transformer. The main calculation is the division of the system-wide average load on distribution transformers by the connected MVA of distribution transformers. This method provides for simple calculations with a minimal amount of data. View full abstract»

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  • Round-Robin Testing of Three Phase Padmount Transformers

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 414 - 419
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    This paper addresses the accuracy of 3-phase transformer loss testing with particular attention to the reliability of manufacturers' certified loss test results. Seven three-phase padmounts, one from each of seven different manufacturers, were used in a round-robin test program. In addition to their original production tests, each of the seven manufacturers performed loss tests on the entire group of transformers. The results of the program indicate an uncomfortably wide range of results. View full abstract»

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  • Amorphous Alloys for Distribution Transformers: Design Considerations and Economic Impact

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 420 - 424
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    The use of amorphous ferromagnetic materials for the magnetic circuits of distribution transformers could reduce the losses associated with iron cores and result in substantial economic savings to utilities. The value of such savings obviously depends on the loss evaluation. Optimization calculations show that this value varies according to the transformer design. A comparative performance evaluation revealed the advantages and shortcomings of four different transformer designs and of different types of steel used to build the magnetic circuits. The paper finally gives a few design details of a pre-prototype distribution transformer, developed at IREQ, which has an amorphous-alloy magnetic circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Longitudinal Dynamic Loading of a Steel Pole Transmission Line

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 425 - 436
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    Model test results have demonstrated that it is possible to simulate a number of dynamic loading conditions on a scale model of an actual transmission line system, taking into account a large number of variables, and producing results having direct interpretation at full scale. The method appears to be particularly useful in identifying any potential "trouble areas" in an existing design such as the use of horizontal struts on light angle structures, and/or adequacy of fatigue strength under galloping conditions. A sample of the principal findings of this investigation are: 1) A method for rapidly calculating the flexibility (stiffness) of steel pole transmission structures has been developed. The method relies on computer print-out data supplied by pole manufactures at the time of bid evaluation. 2) Results of broken static wire tests show that structure flexibility reduces both the dynamic load and the residual load below the load calculated for a rigid structure. 3) The maximum loads occur for broken static wire on the most flexible structure, and for ice unload of static wire on the most stiff structure. The latter result is subject to the further restraint of a horizontal strut at a light angle. 4) Unexpectedly high loads were found on the stiffer structure with long insulators (including the horizontal strut) for galloping conductor and galloping static wire tests. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity of Electrical Appliances to Harmonics and Fractional Harmonics of the Power SYSTEM's Voltage. Part I: Transformers and Induction Machines

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 437 - 444
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1939 KB)  

    The work described in Part I deals with analytical as well as experimental investigations of the effects of harmonics on singleand three-phase transformers including singleand three-phase induction machines as they occur in electrical appliances. The systematic treatment shows that single-phase and three-phase induction machines are more prone to temperature rises due to voltage harmonics than transformers. The work described has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity of Electrical Appliances to Harmonics and Fractional Harmonics of the Power System's Voltage. Part II: Television Sets, Induction Watthour Meters and Universal Machines

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 445 - 453
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    The sensitivity of television sets, induction watthour meters and universal motors to harmonics and fractional harmonics, as they occur in home appliances, is derived analytically and experimentally. This study shows that television sets are very sensitive to fractional harmonics. Calculations and measurements performed with single-phase watthour meters show that the harmonic torques within the aluminum disk are always positive and accelerate the disk. Universal machines are not as sensitive to voltage harmonics as compared with induction machines. The work described has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811