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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-oct. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - 1129
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Numerical Modeling of Conductive Particle Trajectories in Roll-Type Corona-Electrostatic Separators

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1130 - 1136
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several attempts have already been made to simulate particle trajectories in roll-type electrostatic separators. However, the predictive value of the results is limited by an excessive number of simplifying assumptions regarding the electric field distribution, as well as particle charging and discharging mechanisms. The present work is aimed at improving the existing models by taking into account: (1) the non-uniformity of the electric field in the active zone of the separator and (2) the effect of spark discharges occurring between the electrodes. Based on previous observations, the conductive particles were assumed to lift-off when no longer exposed to corona discharge. The numerical simulations were performed for particles of various sizes. The electric field was computed in each point of the trajectory using a finite element program. It was found that: (1) some of the smaller particles impact the static electrode and are deviated to the middling compartment of the collector and (2) field annealing which accompanies spark discharges significantly affects the trajectories of conductive particles. The results of this study could guide the design of new electrostatic separation applications. View full abstract»

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  • Separation of Fine Granular Mixtures in S-Plate-Type Electrostatic Separators

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1137 - 1143
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plate-type electrostatic separators are commonly used for the selective sorting of conductive from nonconductive constituents of a granular mixture. This paper addresses the more delicate issue of granular materials that are characterized by finite nonzero resistivities. The study was conducted with three materials having similar granule size range and specific weight but slightly different electrical properties. Two sets of experiments were performed for evaluating the effect of electrode geometry on the behavior of each of the materials. These results were then employed for predicting the outcome of the electrostatic separation of binary mixtures of good and poor conductors. A third set of experiments validated the predictions and pointed out a couple of nonelectric factors that might deteriorate the performance of a plate-type electrostatic separator in an industrial environment. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Electrostatic Discharge Affecting GMR Heads

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1144 - 1148
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage to giant magnetoresistive (GMR) heads is investigated using a charged device model tester. The sensor of a GMR head is easily affected by ESD during handling in production. Simulation of the picking procedure reveals that elevating such a small-capacitance device above the work surface increases the potential by up to ten times and the discharge current by up to five times. With 20-V initial potential, which could be applied by the picking tool, the elevation of a 5-pF capacitance by just 10 mm increases the potential to 200 V and the peak discharge current to 578 mA. In the case of a 1-pF capacitor, however, the potential and peak current remained low due to the effect of stray capacitance. In the case of a GMR head with 3.7-pF capacitance, a 5-mm lift reduced the initial potential causing ESD damage from 60 V to less than 40 V. Waveforms of discharge reveal that the GMR head can be designed to reduce the ESD risk. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Charge and Potential Control of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) in Microdevices

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1149 - 1158
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (195 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Various models have evolved to test the sensitivity of electronic devices to electrostatic discharge (ESD), which include the human body model, machine model, and field-induced charged device model. The objective of this paper is to review both the static and dynamic aspects of these models and to analyze the charge and potential control of ESD events. Charge and geometry sensitivity factors are defined for a general two-body problem. The results should provide a better understanding of models that are used to simulate the direct effect of ESD and to provide methods to evaluate the effectiveness of ESD control processes. In particular, the electrostatic implications of small-gap geometries with application to microelectromechanical systems are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Inactivation of Escherichia Coli by a Coaxial Microwave Plasma Flow

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1159 - 1163
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An atmospheric low-temperature plasma flow generated by a microwave discharge utilizing a coaxial cable for microwave transmission was utilized for the inactivation of a bacteria. The employed device consists of a cavity, a quartz discharge tube, a coaxial cable, a microwave power source, and a gas supply system. Using this argon plasma source, we attempted to clarify the effects of exposure temperature, exposure time, exposure distance, input power, and gas flow rate on the number of surviving cells of Escherichia coli. A log reduction number of E. coli of at least 2 (10-2) was obtained at an exposure temperature of 353 K when the exposure time was 600 s with a gas flow rate of 5 Sl/min and an input power of 400 W. The number of surviving cells decreased with an increase of exposure time under any sterilization condition. View full abstract»

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  • Rating of Pipe-Type Cables With Slow Circulation of Dielectric Fluid

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1164 - 1171
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new rigorous approach to the calculation of current ratings in pipe-type cables with slow circulation of the fluid. Detailed mathematical analysis is presented for the calculation of the hot-spot fluid temperature as a function of the cable geometry and the fluid inlet temperature. The emphasis is placed on real-time applications, in which the pipe-surface temperature is measured. A numerical example from an actual cable installation is presented. A comparison with the commonly applied method based on Buller's model is offered. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Control Scheme for a Microgrid With PFC Capacitor Connected

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1172 - 1182
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1491 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Capacitors are widely used for power-factor correction (PFC) in power systems. When a PFC capacitor is installed with a certain load in a microgrid, it may be in parallel with the filter capacitor of the inverter interfacing the utility grid and the local distributed-generation unit and, thus, change the effective filter capacitance. Another complication is the possibility of occurrence of resonance in the microgrid. This paper conducts an in-depth investigation of the effective shunt-filter-capacitance variation and resonance phenomena in a microgrid due to a connection of a PFC capacitor. To compensate the capacitance-parameter variation, an Hinfin controller is designed for the voltage-source- inverter voltage control. By properly choosing the weighting functions, the synthesized Hinfin controller would exhibit high gains at the vicinity of the line frequency, similar to traditional high- performance P+ resonant controller and, thus, would possess nearly zero steady-state error. However, with the robust Hinfin controller, it will be possible to explicitly specify the degree of robustness in face of parameter variations. Furthermore, a thorough investigation is carried out to study the performance of inner current-loop feedback variables under resonance conditions. It reveals that filter-inductor current feedback is more effective in damping the resonance. This resonance can be further attenuated by employing the dual-inverter microgrid conditioner and controlling the series inverter as a virtual resistor affecting only harmonic components without interference with the fundamental power flow. And finally, the study in this paper has been tested experimentally using an experimental microgrid prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Using a Surge Tester to Detect Rotor Eccentricity Faults in Induction Motors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1183 - 1190
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses a new method to detect rotor eccentricity faults in induction motors using a so-called surge test that is applied to the stator windings. Rotor eccentricity faults cause an asymmetrical air gap in induction motors, which makes the surge waveform shape depend on rotor position. The change of surge waveform per revolution can be used to indicate any abnormal air gap problem clearly. The feasibility of this detection scheme is verified by experiments. The surge test is a nonintrusive, cost-efficient, and reliable offline method that is particularly useful for routine and predictive maintenance. View full abstract»

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  • An Acoustic Resonance Band Detection Workbench for HID Lamps

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1191 - 1198
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an automatic computer-controlled acoustic resonance detection workbench for high-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps. The detection method is based on optical measurements of the discharge arc path. With the aid of a dual lens projection system, relative light intensity measurements at different points of the arc are guided by fiber optic to a photodiode array. These measurements are statistically analyzed to identify when acoustic resonance occurs. Experimental results confirm this method to be a valuable tool to automatically obtain an acoustic-resonance-frequency map for HID lamps. View full abstract»

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  • Sound Emissions From Pulse Operated High-Pressure-Sodium Lamps

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1199 - 1206
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current-pulse-fed high-pressure-sodium lamps generate audible noise even if lamp power frequency does not excite longitudinal acoustic resonance modes inside the arc tube. This noise is caused by magnetostriction in conductive parts of the arc tube-supporting frame and in the wires passing through the seal of the outer glass envelope. Conductor dimensional changes effectively couple mechanical energy to the jacket. Photoacoustic effects also cause noise due to pressure waves in a thin air layer surrounding the lamp. This paper investigates experimentally both phenomena and quantifies their contribution in order to minimize acoustic emissions. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Axial Segmentation of Permanent Magnets on Rotor Loss in Modular Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1207 - 1213
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a computationally efficient technique in determining the influence of the finite axial length of the permanent magnets on the rotor eddy-current loss in modular brushless ac machines. The technique is employed to quantify the effectiveness of axially segmenting the permanent magnets of four-phase, eight-slot, ten-pole and five-phase, ten-slot, 12-pole brushless machines, which have been designed to meet the performance requirements of an electromechanical flight control surface actuator for a "more-electric" aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Endwinding Cooling Effects in TEFC Induction Motors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1214 - 1222
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the endwinding cooling problems of totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) induction motors. In order to obtain information about the phenomena involved in the motor end space, three "ad hoc" prototypes have been built. The complete test-bench setup, together with the followed test procedures, is reported in detail. The measurement results have shown that all the motor-part overtemperatures (winding, endwindings, stator lamination, and external motor frame) decreasing, with the inner air speed increasing. The measured motor overtemperatures and losses allow the thermal-resistance identification of a simplified thermal model suitable to describe the thermal behaviors of the prototypes. By the endwinding-to-motor frame thermal resistance, the related heat-exchange coefficients have been evaluated as a function of the rotor speed. The proposed procedure allows separating the forced-convection contribution by the other thermal-exchange phenomena that occur in the end-space regions. The obtained heat-transfer coefficients are in agreement with the results reported in the past literature. View full abstract»

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  • Parasitic Effects in PM Machines With Concentrated Windings

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1223 - 1232
    Cited by:  Papers (64)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Permanent-magnet machines using concentrated windings are gaining popularity at the expense of distributed windings in various applications, mainly due to cost savings. The result is often an increased amount of parasitic effects like ripple torque, alternating magnetic fields in the rotor, unbalanced radial forces, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the reasons for the parasitic effects, in which machine topologies are particularly sensitive, and suggests measures in order to reduce their importance. Both traditional and modular concentrated windings are analyzed, as well as double-layer and single-layer windings. Measurements on a prototype motor and three commercial servomotors have demonstrated that modular motors are favorable regarding ripple torque minimization. View full abstract»

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  • Universal Induction Motor Model With Low-to-High Frequency-Response Characteristics

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1233 - 1246
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1052 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three-phase induction motor model that depicts the motor behavior over a wide range of frequencies from 10 Hz to 10 MHz is presented in this paper. The model is universal in the sense that common-mode, differential-mode, and bearing circuit models are combined into one three-phase equivalent circuit model. The proposed model is basically an extension of the low-frequency IEEE Standard 112 circuit model. The proposed model was experimentally simulated and verified with results presented. View full abstract»

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  • Two-Phase SRM With Flux-Reversal-Free Stator: Concept, Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1247 - 1257
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (669 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The demand for high-efficiency electric motor drives at low cost is increasing, particularly, in high-volume applications, such as household appliances. Single- and two-phase machines are viable under such constraints. Between them, two-phase switched reluctance motor drives are preferred from the viewpoint of performance. This paper presents a novel two-phase switched reluctance machine (TPSRM) that is conceived for high-efficiency operation and full-load starting performance for any initial rotor position. The principle of operation of the proposed TPSRM and its unique features such as the flux-reversal-free stator for reducing core losses, the utilization of only two thirds of the stator core for each phase operation, and the resulting low noise are presented. The machine is analyzed with the 2-D finite-element analysis method. Self-starting in the proposed machine is developed with rotor pole shaping, and a unique technique to provide the desired torque characteristics is described. The effect of varying pole arcs, the number of turns per pole, asymmetric pole placement, and rotor pole shaping on torque and phase inductance is evaluated to find the best machine dimensions for a required performance as well as to understand qualitatively the influence of each variable on the machine performance. Experimental results from a 2.2-hp laboratory prototype correlate the performance predictions and validate the claims for this novel TPSRM. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation of Zero-Current Clamping Effects in High-Frequency-Signal-Injection-Based Sensorless PM Motor Drives

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1258 - 1265
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an online compensation strategy for the unwanted disturbance voltage resulting from the zero- current clamping effect for high-frequency-signal-injection-based sensorless control schemes. We derive an analytical model that reveals intrinsic characteristics of the zero clamping effect for high- frequency signal injection. The model in this form is subsequently incorporated into the development of a specialized offline commissioning test to find motor inductances and a voltage distortion factor. From the sensitivity analysis of the effect on magnetic saturation, we confirm that the compensation error due to saturation has little negative impact on the proposed compensation method. The compensation result leads to an accurate position estimate in the zero-current clamping region. The proposed scheme does not rely on a complicated lookup table. Experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in suppressing the voltage distortions caused by the zero-current clamping effect. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless Rotor Position Estimation in Synchronous Reluctance Motors Exploiting a Flux Deviation Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1266 - 1273
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the rotor position of a synchronous reluctance motor is estimated exploiting the natural saliency of the machine through an addition of a small high-frequency sinusoidal voltage to the stator voltage reference. Due to rotor saliency, a stator voltage component is generated orthogonal to the added signal, whose amplitude depends on the phase displacement between the d-axis and the direction of the injected signal. A robust rotor position tracking can be accomplished by adjusting the direction of the carrier voltage in order to minimize the amplitude of the generated orthogonal voltage. The proposed technique allows zero-speed operation, does not require additional voltage or current sensors, and can easily correct the influence of the armature reaction. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed sensorless technique. View full abstract»

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  • Techniques for Measurement of Parameters Related to Inverter-Induced Bearing Currents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1274 - 1283
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inverter-induced high-frequency bearing currents are a parasitic effect that can occur in variable-speed drive systems. While the physical cause-and-effect chains are understood, little has been known on appropriate quantitative assessment of the phenomena. This paper discusses reliable techniques for the measurement of different parameters of importance for the bearing damage assessment, including their effects on the phenomena and measured quantities. A good understanding of these correlations allows custom-design cost-effective handling of the matter. View full abstract»

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  • Mitigating Circulating Common-Mode Currents Between Parallel Soft-Switched Drive Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1284 - 1294
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mathematical model that Is developed for a generalized drive system, including common-mode passive and active elements, is used to explore the issues of paralleling soft-switched resonant dc-link drive systems. Differences between the modulation pattern for each drive system cause common voltage disturbances, which lead to significant circulating currents between the drive systems. Control methods for actively compensating for common-mode circulating currents or reducing the common- mode voltage disturbances are investigated. Practical modifications to the drive system controls are implemented to reduce the circulating currents between paralleled systems. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsewidth-Modulated Z-Source Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1295 - 1308
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2666 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the careful integration of a newly proposed Z-source topological concept to the basic neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter topology for designing a three-level inverter with both voltage-buck and voltage-boost capabilities. The designed Z-source NPC inverter uses two unique X-shaped inductance-capacitance (LC) impedance networks that are connected between two isolated dc input power sources and its inverter circuitry for boosting its AC output voltage. Through the design of an appropriate pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) algorithm, the two impedance networks can be short-circuited sequentially (without shooting through the inverter full DC link) for implementing the ldquonearest-three-vectorrdquo modulation principle with minimized harmonic distortion and device commutations per half carrier cycle while performing voltage boosting. With only a slight modification to the inverter PWM algorithm and by short-circuiting the two impedance networks simultaneously, the designed NPC inverter, with no requirement for deadtime delay, can also be operated with a completely eliminated common-mode voltage. Implementation wise, a detailed vectorial analysis interestingly shows that the same generic set of carrier-based modulation expressions can be used for controlling the -source two-level inverter and NPC inverter with and without reduced common-mode switching. All findings presented in this paper have been confirmed in simulation and experimentally using an implemented laboratory prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation and Improvement of Transient Response of DVR at Medium Voltage Level

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1309 - 1319
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An area of interest for dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) research is the damping of transient oscillations initiated at the start and at the recovery instant from a voltage sag. Nonlinear loads, with harmonic currents close to the DVR filter resonance frequency, can also excite the resonance oscillations. To compensate voltage sags and dampen high-frequency oscillations simultaneously, an investigation of the transient response of DVR is first carried out. Possible control schemes and their effects on the oscillation attenuation are also studied. Such studied control schemes include the commonly used single voltage loop control, voltage feedback plus reference feedforward control, and double-loop control with an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop. Subsequently, an effective and simple resonance damping method is proposed by employing a closed-loop control with an embedded two-step Posicast controller. The proposed control methods have been extensively tested on a 10-kV DVR system. It is shown that the proposed damping methods improve both the transient and steady-state performance of the DVR. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Power Losses in a Boost PFC Unit by Temperature Measurements

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1320 - 1328
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High power conversion efficiency is an important requirement of the front-end power-factor-corrected (PFC) boost rectifier that is used in shaping the ac input current in a typical modern switch-mode power supply. A reasonably accurate estimate of the power losses in individual components is essential in order to improve the efficiency of the PFC rectifier. In this paper, difficulties in the measurement of individual component power losses with particular reference to an ac-dc converter are brought out. A method of loss evaluation by measurement of temperatures of individual components and surrounding ambient is presented. Experimental results that are carried out on the front-end boost PFC rectifier of a commercial ac-dc converter are presented to validate the loss estimation method. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel-Inverter System With Failure Isolation and Hot-Swap Features

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1329 - 1340
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and implementation of a parallel-inverter system with failure isolation and hot-swap features. The system is controlled with a system control unit to achieve output voltage regulation, inverter synchronization, and the aforementioned features. By incorporating a current- weighting-distribution control, the system allows inverters with identical or different power ratings. The failure isolation feature is achieved with a scanning circuit, a resistor-capacitor filter, and transistors, which are also used in achieving the hot-swap one. In the proposed system, power capacity can be readily expanded, and inverter-failure disturbance can be correspondingly reduced. Experimental results that are obtained from a six-inverter system have illustrated the discussed features and significantly demonstrated its feasibility, improving system reliability, and stability. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

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Carlton E. Speck