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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2007

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 465
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 466
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  • Characterization of GSM Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation Channels Generated in a Reverberating Chamber by Using Bit Error Rates

    Page(s): 467 - 473
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, it is shown how a large mode-stirred reverberating chamber can be used to physically generate a set of non-line-of-sight propagation channels, which are naturally and objectively classified by means of the bit error rate (BER) norm. The experiments are accomplished at the mode-stirred reverberating chamber of the Universita di Napoli Parthenope (formerly Istituto Universitario Navale), and the electromagnetic input signal is a global system for mobile communications, one at 1.8 GHz. It is shown that it is possible to change the BER by means of the stirring process and/or the chamber loading. The proposed technique calls for fast measurements, and therefore, it is amenable to industrial use. The methodology is general and suitable to any digital electromagnetic signal, provided no distortion of modulation occurs. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of the Currents Induced on an EUT in a TEM Cell to Those Induced in a Free-Space Environment

    Page(s): 474 - 484
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    The finite-difference time-domain method is used to investigate whether the currents induced on equipment under test (EUT) in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell are similar to those induced in a free-space environment. The approach is to simulate an identical EUT in both environments and determine a correlation based on the respective current distributions. The effect of the ratio of EUT to TEM cell sizes on the correlation to free space is also investigated. This paper introduces a metric that quantifies the change in the surface current induced on the EUT in these different environments. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of the Near-Field Techniques in EMC Investigations

    Page(s): 485 - 493
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    A completely automatic near-field mapping system has been developed within the Research Institute for Electronic Embedded Systems (IRSEEM) in order to determine the electromagnetic field created by electronic systems and components. This test bench uses a 3-D positioning system of the probe to make accurate measurements. This paper presents some applications of the near-field techniques in EMC investigations. In the first part, near-field measurements are used to locate precisely the electromagnetic sources of a limiter device. In the second part, we present an equivalent model of the radiated emission of an integrated circuit. In the last part, the near-field test bench is used to characterize faults in a cable. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Prediction and Measurement of ESD Radiated Fields by Free-Space Field Sensors

    Page(s): 494 - 503
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    This paper describes the evaluation of electric and magnetic fields due to electrostatic discharges (ESDs) using an efficient numerical prediction model and measurements obtained with simple field sensors. The numerical prediction model is implemented using software based on the finite integration technique (FIT). The ESD generator is efficiently modeled, and the contact-mode discharge current is well reproduced taking into account the loading effect of the generator. Simple free-space field sensors are effectively used to measure the fields from an ESD event. Suitable numerical and theoretical characterizations of these sensors are proposed to derive a sensor transfer function that permits the fields to be reconstructed from the measured voltage. The numerical characterization is performed by Microwave Studio (MWS), while the theoretical characterization is based on lumped element circuit models of the sensors. The validation of both the proposed procedures indicates good accuracy up to 2 GHz as required by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard for ESD measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-Domain Measurement Method for the Analysis of ESD Generators and Coupling

    Page(s): 504 - 511
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    A method for analyzing electrostatic discharge (ESD) generators and coupling to equipment under test in the frequency domain is proposed. In ESD generators, the pulses are excited by the voltage collapse across relay contacts. The voltage collapse is replaced by one port of a vector network analyer (VNA). All the discrete and structural elements that form the ESD current pulse and the transient fields are excited by the VNA as if they were excited by the voltage collapse. In such a way, the method allows analyzing the current and field-driven linear coupling without having to discharge an ESD generator, eliminating the risk to the circuit and allowing the use of the wider dynamic range of a network analyzer relative to a real-time oscilloscope. The method is applicable to other voltage-collapse-driven tests, such as electrical fast transient, ultrawideband susceptibility testing but requires a linear coupling path. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Ear Shape and Head Size on Simulated Head Exposure to a Cellular Phone

    Page(s): 512 - 518
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    The dependence of the specific absorption rate (SAR) on ear shape and head size have been investigated using human-head and cellular-phone models. Cubical and realistic head models were used. Various ear shapes were used with the cubical head model whereas a low-loss thin ear or a lossy realistic ear was used with the realistic head models. The SAR distribution depends significantly on the shape of the ear, regardless of the head model. The effects of the head size have been investigated using a 90th-percentile head model and a Japanese-average head model. The head size has considerably less effect than the ear shape. The measurement results have been validated by numerical calculation, and support the use of the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) standard head model. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment Methods for Demonstrating Compliance With Safety Limits of Wireless Devices Used in Home and Office Environments

    Page(s): 519 - 525
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    Short-range wireless radio-frequency devices are rapidly pervading home and office environments. Nevertheless, their contribution to the electromagnetic field exposure of humans has not yet been systematically assessed, nor have the procedures for testing compliance been developed. In this paper, we have assessed the range of exposure in terms of the dosimetric and incident field quantities for devices of the most common technologies, i.e., digital enhanced cordless telecommunications, wireless local area networks and Bluetooth, as well as wireless communication devices based on proprietary standards in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 6 GHz. Well-defined procedures to obtain the worst case operational modes are presented. Since operation in the near-field of these devices cannot be excluded, dosimetric evaluation is the most straightforward technique for testing compliance when low-power exclusions are not applicable. The suitability of the suggested methods is demonstrated through the examination of five classes of short-range transmitters. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Switching Frequency Modulation on the Differential-Mode Conducted Interference of the Boost Power-Factor Correction Converter

    Page(s): 526 - 536
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    This paper investigates the use of switching frequency modulation in the reduction of the differential-mode conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the offline boost power-factor correction converter. In particular, the EMI benefits obtained with modulation frequencies at and in excess of twice the line frequency are considered, incorporating the influence of average and quasi-peak (QP) detectors into the analysis and measurements. It is concluded that there is no significant change in the QP measurement unless the modulation frequency exceeds half the resolution bandwidth; however, up to 8-dB reduction in the average measurement, with no change in the QP measurement, can be obtained with modulation at twice the line frequency, for a switching frequency deviation of 20%. A digital modulation algorithm was devised and implemented using a digital-signal-processor-controlled converter. The reduction in the average detector measurement obtained for the digital modulation was comparable to that predicted for the linear modulation, but it delivers a more well-defined and predictable conducted EMI spectrum. View full abstract»

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  • Common-Mode Noise Reduction for Power Factor Correction Circuit With Parasitic Capacitance Cancellation

    Page(s): 537 - 542
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    In this paper, a method using negative capacitance to cancel the common-mode (CM) parasitic capacitance of boost power factor correction (PFC) converters is proposed. Both the theoretical analysis and experiments show that the proposed method is very easy to implement and very efficient to reduce CM noise. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Complex Radiated EMC Problems Involving Slotted Enclosures Using a 2-D Generalized Circuital Approach

    Page(s): 543 - 552
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 2D version of the generalized circuital analysis (GCA) has been used along with the finite element method (FEM) to estimate both the radiated perturbation produced by an arbitrary current distribution (represented by a set of linear current sources) covered by a slotted enclosure, and the field coupled to a slotted screen due to a radiated perturbation. The effect of a given enclosure is modeled by means of a scattering matrix (which depends only on its geometry) obtained by the FEM. On the other hand, any arbitrary perturbating field can be expanded in a series of cylindrical harmonics, and then, the total field is computed everywhere using the scattering matrices. This method has the advantage over conventional FEM approaches that FEM is applied only once, and then a wide range of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems can be solved with almost no extra computational effort. Two-dimensional models of relevant EMC problems involving both emission and immunity have been studied in order to extract useful information for actual 3D systems. In spite of the 2D approach, very interesting conclusions can be derived from the examples presented in this paper (like the effect of slot resonances in the field distribution within slotted enclosures or the coupling between two connected cavities). View full abstract»

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  • Electric Field Under an MV Line Supported by Concrete Poles

    Page(s): 553 - 562
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    This paper presents a study of the electric field under a three-phase medium voltage (MV) power line supported by concrete poles. The analyzed configuration is a pole-top-pin construction. An analytical model has been developed for the three-phase wires assuming three straight cylindrical conductors whose axes have been put parallel to each other and to the ground, and for the concrete pole a cylindrical conductor placed in a vertical position. Simple analytical formulas have been obtained for the three components of the electric field in the vertical plane containing the axis of the conductor representing the central top wire. The validity range of the model is from the ground to one quarter of the height of the concrete pole. The analytical expressions have been checked against the numerical data obtained by a 3-D numerical analysis performed by using the charge simulation method. Finally, the results have been experimentally validated. The analytical model reported here is a new easy tool for the evaluation of the electric field for the analyzed geometry. View full abstract»

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  • Circuit Modeling of Injection Probes for Bulk Current Injection

    Page(s): 563 - 576
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, two procedures are developed for lumped-parameter circuit modeling of injection probes for bulk current injection (BCI). Both procedures are based on frequency-domain scattering-parameter measurements, and refer to a clamped wiring composed of a single-ended interconnection. One procedure exploits a black-box approach, requires a calibration fixture, and is suited for practical implementation. The other is based on circuit interpretation of coupling and propagation effects, and is aimed at a theoretical analysis of injection. The former procedure requires an accurate deembedding of fixture-related effects, and the latter requires a detailed knowledge of the geometry of the probe interior parts. The two procedures lead to probe circuit models topologically equivalent, with lumped-Pi structure, performing well in the frequency band of interest for BCI. In the derivation, it is shown that the probe input impedance is the central quantity for the characterization of the frequency-dependent properties of the ferrite core, and for the modeling of inductive coupling (dominant effect). The probe circuit models developed in this paper go over the frequency limitations of previous models, and allow for accurate description of the frequency-dependent voltage transfer ratio and series impedance of the probe. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation on the Frequency Range of Validity of Electroquasistatic RC Models for Semiconductor Substrate Coupling Modeling

    Page(s): 577 - 584
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    Electroquasistatic analysis is currently the dominant approach for the modeling of semiconductor substrate noise coupling. The electroquasistatic (EQS) approximation is considered acceptable for frequencies such that the distances over which substrate interactions are considered are a small fraction of the wavelength. Yet, with clock bandwidths in state-of-the-art and future designs extending to multiple tens of gigahertz, it is necessary to accurately investigate and quantify the range of validity of the EQS approximation. This investigation is carried out in this paper by means of a rigorous electrodynamic model for the induced surface voltage due to an elementary dipole source in various types of commonly used semiconductor substrates for digital and radio-frequency integrated circuits. In addition to enabling a quantitative assessment of the frequency range of the validity of the electroquasistatic approximation and, hence, the RC models used commonly in computer-aided design tools for substrate noise coupling, the proposed electrodynamic model is used to investigate the prominence of inductive-like characteristics in noise propagation through the substrate. Through these investigations, it is demonstrated that the electrodynamic model used in this paper provides for a unified rigorous electromagnetic analysis of substrate noise coupling over the entire frequency bandwidth of interests to practical applications, from DC to multiple tens of gigahertz. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation of UWB Transients in Low-Voltage Installation Power Cables

    Page(s): 585 - 592
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    This paper investigates the propagation of subnanosecond rise time (ultra wideband) voltage transients in low-voltage installation power cables. Experimental results are compared to simulations. It is concluded that the main mode of propagation of differentially injected transients in low-voltage installation power cables is transverse electromagnetic mode. Also, such transients would spread relatively unattenuated to any load or junction in the power system, received power primarily only limited by the impedance mismatches causing reflections. The effects of different types of bends in the cable have been studied. The study was conducted as a part of an assessment of the susceptibility of civilian facilities to intentional electromagnetic interference. View full abstract»

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  • An Approximate Time-Domain Formula for the Calculation of the Horizontal Electric Field from Lightning

    Page(s): 593 - 601
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    This paper presents an approximate formula to calculate the horizontal electric field from lightning, considering finitely conducting earth. The formula is represented by an analytical expression in the time domain, which is useful for the calculation of lightning-induced voltages on power and telecommunication lines, without the need of domain transformations. The paper also compares the results of the formula with the results obtained from frequency-domain techniques, namely the numerical calculation of Sommerfeld's integrals and the Cooray-Rubinstein's formula. The comparison is favorable for a wide range of distances from the lightning channel and values of earth's conductivity. The horizontal electric field calculated by the formula is composed of two components of opposed polarities, one due to the return stroke charge and the other due to the return stroke current, resulting in an electric field with a bipolar wave shape. The charge component prevails in the region close to the lightning channel, while the current component prevails in the region far from it. View full abstract»

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  • Computation of Transient Overvoltages in Low-Voltage Installations During Direct Strikes to Different Lightning Protection Systems

    Page(s): 602 - 613
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    This paper presents a numerical electromagnetic analysis of loop-termination voltages inside an outer lightning protection system (LPS) resulting from direct lightning strikes. The method of moments is combined with the transmission line model, and employed to model the whole structure in three dimensions and the lightning channel, respectively. Three distinct standard LPS classes and a nonstandard LPS are modeled, namely, LPS1, LPS2, and LPS4, and LPS0, respectively. All cases are simulated using the negative subsequent stroke current at lightning protection level II according to IEC 62305-1. Three distinct current waveforms are selected in order to simulate the variety of different current rises. Three single-phase parallel vertical loops are simulated inside the struck LPS. The results reveal that reducing the LPS mesh width improves its shielding performance, where this may be a basic method to damp the lightning-induced voltages with little dependency on the strike location, and without any appreciable effect of the LPS material. The variation of the lightning-current front shows that the loop-termination voltages are altered within a factor of about 2. Existence and interconnection of extra protective earthing, e.g., via information technology cables, and the value and type of the loop-termination impedance also have significant influence on such voltages. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Simulation Model for a Lightning Protection System Using the Approach of a Coupled Transmission Line Network

    Page(s): 614 - 622
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    In this paper, a simulation model is proposed to evaluate the electromagnetic transient surge current distribution in a lightning protection system (LPS) due to a direct lightning stroke. The model is based on the coupled transmission line network in the frequency domain combined with the Fourier transform technique. The conductor of the LPS is described using the coupled transmission line model, and can be reduced to an active two-port equivalent circuit. The unknown quantities are the node voltages of the LPS at the physical junction, which leads to a fast solver at each frequency. The validation of the proposed approach is performed by comparing the results with those in the technical literature. The numerical examples show the flexibility, efficiency, and accuracy of the model in the range of practical application of LPS. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of Time-Domain Numerical Electromagnetic Code to Lightning Surge Analysis

    Page(s): 623 - 631
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, applications of 3-D numerical electromagnetic analysis have been increasing either for lightning electromagnetic impulse (LEMP) studies or lightning surge analyses on transmission and distribution lines. This paper is mainly concerned with the use of time- and frequency-domain codes for electromagnetic analysis of lightning surges. The thin-wire in time-domain (TWTD) code and numerical electromagnetic code (NEC-2) in the frequency domain based on the method of moments are chosen for comparative studies. The accuracy of TWTD code in the analysis of lightning surge characteristics of a double-circuit transmission tower is first investigated by comparing the computed results with the measured results on a reduced-scale tower model, computed results by NEC-2 on a full-scale tower model, and those computed by electromagnetic transients program. In the latter part of the paper, a switch model is combined with the TWTD code, and its applicability in analyzing the lightning surge characteristics of a transmission tower equipped with a surge arrester or in analyzing lightning-induced voltage on an overhead line is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Fields at the Top of a Tall Building Associated With Nearby Lightning Return Strokes

    Page(s): 632 - 643
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    We have calculated, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving Maxwell's equations, the vertical electric field Ez and azimuthal magnetic field Hphi due to lightning return strokes in the presence and in the absence of a building at the field point. Strikes to both flat ground and tall objects of height h = 100, 200, or 500 m are considered. The magnitude of Hphi is not much influenced by the presence of either building at the field point or strike object, while the magnitude of Ez is significantly influenced by either of them. In the case of a lightning strike to flat ground, the magnitude of Ez at the top of the building (at the center point of its flat roof) of plan area Sb = 40 times 40 m2 and height hb = 20, 50, or 100 m located at horizontal distance ranging from 100 to 500 m from the lightning channel is about 1.5, 2, or 3 times, respectively, greater than that at the same horizontal distance on the ground surface in the absence of the building. The enhancement factor for lightning (transient) Ez due to the presence of the building at the field point is essentially not influenced by the presence of the strike object (up to 500 m in height) and is similar to the static electric field enhancement factor due to the presence of the same building in a uniform vertical electric field. The magnitude of the electric field at the corner of the building is about two to three times larger than that at the center point of its flat roof. The magnitude of Ez at the ground level in the immediate vicinity of the building is reduced relative to the case of no building, with this shielding effect becoming negligible at horizontal distances from the building exceeding twice the height of the building. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Electric Field Integral Equation (IEFIE) for Analysis of Scattering From 3-D Conducting Structures

    Page(s): 644 - 648
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel improved electric field integral equation (IEFIE) is developed to achieve fast and accurate solution of electromagnetic scattering from 3-D conducting structures. By adding the principle value term of the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) operator into the EFIE operator, a well-conditioned improved EFIE operator is constructed. To achieve a reasonable accuracy, several update steps for the current vector are required. A multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is also applied to accelerate the computation of matrix-vector multiplications in the iteration. The present method attains much faster convergence of iterations than traditional EFIE and much better accuracy of the solution than the traditional combined field integral equation, particularly for 3-D structures with open or sharp surfaces. Numerical results show the validity and efficiency of the present method. View full abstract»

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  • FDTD-PLRC Technique for Modeling of Anisotropic-Dispersive Media and Metamaterial Devices

    Page(s): 649 - 660
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    The goal of this paper is to develop a versatile computational engine based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique to comprehensively demonstrate the broadband behaviors of devices designed utilizing anisotropic-dispersive metamaterials. In this regard, the frequency-dependent behavior of dispersive materials is incorporated into the FDTD equations with the use of a piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC) approach. The FDTD domain is effectively terminated utilizing convolutional perfectly matched layered (CPML) absorbing walls, which are derived from the complex frequency-shifted (CFS) formulation. The CPML has the advantage that it operates only on the filed intensities and has nothing to do with the and constitutive relationships. The CPML is also highly absorptive to both propagating and evanescent waves. Therefore, it would be of great interest for terminating metamaterials having complex constitutive parameters. The developed method is also capable of characterizing periodic configurations illuminated by normal incident plane waves. The FDTD engine is successfully validated through the analyses of several complex metamaterials. The design and characterization of novel devices such as a patch antenna printed on metasubstrate with anisotropic epsiv (omega) - mu (omega)parameters, an electrically small antenna embedded in negative permittivity resonator, and an anisotropic-dispersive self-biased hexagonal ferrite-coupled line (FCL) circulator are highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Planar Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures for Mitigation of Switching Noise and EMI Reduction in High-Speed Circuits

    Page(s): 661 - 669
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planar electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures with novel meandered lines and super cell configuration are proposed for mitigating simultaneous switching noise propagation in high-speed printed circuit boards. An ultrawide bandgap extending from 250 MHz to 12 GHz and beyond is demonstrated by both simulation and measurement, and a good agreement is observed. These perforated EBG-based power planes may cause spurious and unwanted radiation. In this paper, leakage radiation through these imperfect planes is carefully investigated. It is found that the leakage field from these planar EBG structures is highly concentrated around the feed point, and the field intensity is attenuated dramatically when passing across several periods of patches. A novel concept of using these EBG structures for electromagnetic interference reduction is also introduced. Finally, the impact of power plane with EBG-patterned structures on signal integrity is studied. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch