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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - 1033
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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  • Shockwave Acceleration and Attenuation in Glow Discharge Argon Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1034 - 1040
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental investigations of the shockwave propagation in the direction parallel to the electric field in low-pressure longitudinal glow discharge argon plasmas are performed by the simultaneous multipoint laser deflection technique. In the newly developed shock tube at Troy University, Mach 1.5-2.2 shockwaves are produced by a fast capacitor discharge (quarter period tau1/4 = 1.4 mus ). In this paper, the shock propagation measurements are extended to the low pressure limit down to 3.6 torr while confirming the earlier measurements performed at gas pressures 15 torr and above. The shockwaves are launched through a plasma medium inside the shock tube, where the deflections of the laser beams are recorded on a fast oscilloscope. An average shockwave velocity in the plasma is determined from the time history of the laser deflection signals. The shockwave speed and the broadening of the laser deflection signals in the plasma are found to be dependent on the plasma discharge current. Shockwave speeds increase by 18% for the plasma at 3.6 torr over a range of plasma discharge current I = 0-150 mA and by 46% for the plasma at 15 torr over I = 7-150 mA. In addition, shockwave amplitudes are attenuated in the plasma and show linear dependence on the shockwave speed or Mach number. View full abstract»

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  • The Third Harmonic Generation of Traveling and Stationary Wave Modes in a Suddenly Created Nonlinear Cold Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1041 - 1045
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Nonlinear transformation of the linearly polarized plane electromagnetic source wave (with wavenumber and angular frequency omega0) in suddenly created cold plasma is considered using the third-order perturbation technique. The efficiency of the generation of stationary magnetic field mode (k=3k0, omega=0) and traveling transverse wave modes (k=3k0, omega=3omega1=3radic(omega0 2+omegap 2)) is compared with the corresponding modes (k=k0, omega=omega1 and k=k0, omega=0) obtained in linear theory. It is shown that the third-harmonic field components could have respectable values for the specific values of source wave frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Reflection of an Ion-Acoustic Soliton in a Finite Ion Temperature Magnetized Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1046 - 1055
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    We consider an inhomogeneous finite ion temperature magnetized plasma and derive relevant modified Korteweg- deVries equations for uphill and downhill propagating solitons. Then, we couple these equations and solve for the expressions of amplitudes and widths of the solitons, together with the reflection coefficient (at the point of reflection), under the combined effect of magnetic field B0, wave propagation angle thetas, and ion temperature Ti (or temperature ratio sigma = Ti/Te). With the help of various figures, we analyze the effect of field B0, temperature Ti, angle thetas, plasma density n0, and the density gradient on the propagation and reflection of the solitons. The solitons are found to reflect strongly for the larger values of angle thetas, ion drift velocity v0, and the density gradient. Although the reflected soliton amplitude increases in the plasma that have higher temperature ions, it shows weak dependence on the ion temperature. Moreover, the magnetic field weakens the soliton reflection. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Features for Design of Traveling Wave Tubes Using CHRISTINE-1D

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1056 - 1064
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traveling wave tubes (TWTs) are vacuum devices invented in the early 1940s for amplification of radio frequency power. These devices are critical for radar, communications, and electronic warfare missions in the military, as well as in commercial applications. The physics-based design and simulation code CHRISTINE-1D was used in the past to explore different TWT circuit designs and to automate the process of parameter estimation. However, the current capability of CHRISTINE-1D allows optimization of only helix TWT designs and includes a limited number of optimization goal functions. In addition, the current optimizer in CHRISTINE-1D employs a modified steepest descent method to carry out the optimization process. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to investigate optimization techniques that may be better suited for this problem (for example, simplex type methods such as Nelder-Mead and Dividing Rectangles); (2) to allow optimization of nonhelix TWTs; and (3) to implement new optimization goal functions. Finally, to show the feasibility of our approach, we apply our optimization algorithms to the problem of designing a folded waveguide slow-wave circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of a Ku-Band Gyrotron Backward-Wave Oscillator With a Single Stage Depressed Collector

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1065 - 1069
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The experiment on a Ku-band gyrotron backward- wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) with a single depressed collector and linear polarization mode output has been performed successfully. Stable magnetic tuning bandwidth of 5% and maximum power of 48 kW under a 40-kV 11.5-A electron beam were achieved. The overall efficiency of the gyro-BWO with a single stage depressed collector has been enhanced from 10.5% to 21%. The measured performance has demonstrated a strong potential of the gyro-BWO for new application requiring high-power tunable wave source. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Dispersion Characteristics in Coaxial Disk-Loaded Slow-Wave Structures With Both Symmetric and Asymmetric Modes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1070 - 1074
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Coaxial disk-loaded waveguide has been widely used in magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators. Although the TM00 mode is its main mode, the asymmetric mode might be excited by a slight asymmetry of the structure, asymmetric emission of the beam, or both. Therefore, research on the asymmetric mode in coaxial disk-loaded waveguide is necessary. The general dispersion equation of the coaxial disk-loaded slow-wave structures is obtained using the field match theory for the first time. Numerical calculation is carried out based on the dispersion function. The theoretical calculated results agreed well with the simulated results of the MAFIA code and experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of an Improved MILO

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1075 - 1080
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) is an attractive high-power microwave source. It is a compact lightweight gigawatt-class coaxial crossed field device that needs no externally applied magnetic field to insulate electron flow in a slow-wave structure. An improved MILO model has been presented by Fan, Yuan and Zhong. A novel beam dump, a one-cavity RF choke section, and a novel mode-transducing antenna are introduced into the improved MILO. In simulation, high-power microwave of TEM mode is generated with peak power of 4.2 GW, frequency of 1.76 GHz, and peak power conversion efficiency of 12% when the voltage is 600 kV and the current is 52 kA. The TEM mode from the extractor gap is converted into a coaxial TE11 mode and radiated directly by the mode-transducing antenna. The direction of the radiated microwave agrees with the axis of the MILO. The antenna gain is 17.6 dBi at 1.76 GHz in simulation. The experiments have been carried out on the improved MILO device, which had been fabricated in accordance with the optimized configuration. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this paper. The improved MILO is driven by a self-built 600-kV, 10-Omega, 50-ns pulser: SPARK-04, a capacitor- and transformer-driven coaxial-water-line machine in our laboratory. The radiated microwave was detected with crystal detectors in the far-field region. The improved MILO has been extensively investigated by experiments. In the experiments, the measured microwave frequency ranges from 1.74 to 1.78 GHz, with a peak power level of above 2.4 GW, when the diode voltage is 550 kV and the current is 57 kA. The pulse duration (full-width at half-maximum) of the radiated microwave is 22 ns. The cold test and hot test results of the mode-transducing antenna are in good agreement with the simulational results. The mode of the radiated microwave is TE11 mode, and the direction of the radiated microwave overlaps with the axis of the MILO device. The - antenna gain is about 17.4 dBi at 1.76 GHz. The 3-dB beam widths are 21.2deg in E-plane and 26.3deg in H-plane, respectively. No obvious breakdown appeared in the region of the mode-transducing antenna and the region of the interface of the vacuum-air in the experiments. The experimental results confirm the ones predicted by simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Domain Simulation of Inductive Output Tubes

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1081 - 1088
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    In this paper, we discuss the development of a 3-D time-domain formulation and simulation code for modeling inductive output tubes (IOTs). This formulation relies on the integration of equivalent circuit equations in time coupled with the Lorentz force equations for particle trajectories. In the case of IOTs and klystrons, the equivalent circuit is a simple inductance-resistance-capacitance model. The same formulation using the equivalent circuit equations for Curnow cavities has been used to simulate coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes. The connection between the equivalent circuit equations and the forces on the electrons used in the Lorentz force equations is through a scaling of a radio-frequency (RF) field model in which the amplitude is proportional to the cavity voltage. The RF field model can be obtained analytically [as derived in two dimensions by Kosmahl and Branch] or by means of a field map generated by electromagnetic structure simulators. The electron trajectories are integrated in these RF fields as well as using magnetostatic focusing fields and the space-charge fields. The space-charge fields are obtained by mapping the charge to a grid and then solving Poisson's equation. The new code is called NEMESIS, and we discuss the presently implemented IOT model and future development plans. Data on an IOT under development at Communications and Power Industries (CPI; K5H90W-2) have been provided for benchmarking the simulation. Comparison of NEMESIS with both anticipated performance predictions developed using scaling laws developed in-house at CPI and with actual tube performance has been good, and these comparisons are discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Laser Self-Focusing and Nonlinear Absorption in Expanding Clusters

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1089 - 1097
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An intense short-pulse laser, propagating through a clustered gas, converts the clusters into hot plasma balls on subpicosecond time scale. The polarizability of a ball scales as (omegape 2/3 - omega2)-2, where omegape is the plasma frequency inside it and omega is the laser frequency. Initially, omegape 2/3 > omega2; however, as the clusters expand under hydrodynamic pressure, decreases, causing resonant enhancement in permittivity, first near the laser axis and later away from it. The nonuniform refractive index profile thus created leads to self-focusing of the laser. It also leads to enhanced absorption in its neighborhood that counters the self-focusing effect substantially. View full abstract»

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  • Positive- and Negative-Pulsed Streamer Discharges Generated by a 100-ns Pulsed-Power in Atmospheric Air

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1098 - 1103
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Blumlein generator that has a pulsewidth of 100 ns was used to investigate the process of streamer discharge propagation in a coaxial cylindrical reactor using a streak camera. Both positive and negative polarities of the streamer discharges were performed in air at atmospheric pressure. The results showed that the primary and secondary streamers propagated with increasing velocity from the central rod to the outer cylinder electrode in both positive and negative polarities of applied voltages to the rod electrode. The propagation velocity of the streamer heads was in the range of 0.8-1.2 mm/ns for a positive peak applied voltage in the range of 43-60 kV and 0.6 mm/ns for a negative peak applied voltage of -93 kV, respectively. The electric field at streamer onset was calculated to be 12 and 20 MV/m for positive and negative applied voltages, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Voltage Drop Across the Cathode Sheath in HPS

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1104 - 1110
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An electrical cathode model (ECM) of a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp based on physical laws has been developed. The proposed ECM calculates the instantaneous voltage drop in a cathode sheath and the temperature distribution inside the cathode using as input parameter the cathode geometry and the positive column current. The model is based on the electrode heat transport equation, which is solved using the finite-element method. So, since it stems from the physics describing the cathode behavior, it is found that the ECM predicts in a satisfactory way the cathode voltage drop over a wide range of work conditions. The obtained results were compared with those reported in the current literature. It can be concluded that the ECM is a useful tool in understanding the interaction between the positive column and the cathode in order to improve, for instance, HPS lamp ballast designs, as measuring the potential drop across the cathode sheath using a commercial lamp is particularly difficult. The model takes into account the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, the electrical cathode resistivity, and the total emissivity. View full abstract»

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  • Electric Discharges and the Prolonged Microbial Resistance of Water

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1111 - 1118
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of alternative methods of water disinfection is its treatment by pulsed electric discharges (PEDs). In this case, during the discharges, bacteria are destroyed by UV radiation with a significant share of energy in waves of 200-400 nm and by shock waves, which are formed at the initial stage of the discharge-column widening. This paper describes the electrophysical properties of PED in water, presents the results of an investigation of the physical, chemical, bactericidal, and fungicidal properties of treated water, and explains the prolonged microbial resistance of water (PMRW) - the phenomenon when bacteria continue to be destroyed for a long time (several months) after treatment by PED. The results of investigations make it possible to conclude that the PMRW is caused by the cooperative bactericidal action on microorganisms of both oxide nanoparticles of electrodes metal and positive ions emitted by the nanoparticles. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Auxiliary Address Pulses on the Luminous Efficacy in AC Plasma Display Panel With Grooved Dielectric Layer

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1119 - 1125
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (906 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the effect of applying auxiliary short pulses to an address electrode with varying Xe contents on the improvement of luminous efficacy. The luminous efficacy increases with the application of auxiliary pulse; however, as the Xe content increases in the Ne-Xe mixture discharge gas, the efficacy improvement effect by auxiliary address pulse discharge decreases. The surface discharge was hardly affected by the face ignition discharge between the address and sustain electrodes, and thus, the high-driving-voltage problem still remains when the high-Xe-content gas is used to get the high luminous efficacy. To decrease the sustain voltages of the high-Xe-content gas, we adopted locally thin dielectric layer structure near the electrode gap. The panel with the suggested grooved dielectric layer structure showed decreased driving voltage margin and improved luminous efficacy even for high-Xe-content gases. We obtained 5 lm/W and 3700 cd/m2 at 220-V, 50-kHz continuous sustaining condition from a monochrome green test panel with the Ne-Xe (16%) mixture, which was about two-and-a-half times improved luminous efficacy as compared to that of the reference structure with Ne-Xe (4%). Full driving feasibility was also checked by applying the auxiliary address pulses to the grooved structure panel. The misaddressing could occur when the auxiliary pulses are applied continuously to the address electrodes in the sustain period, which decreased the driving voltage margin. However, this demerit can be compensated by lowering the driving voltage margin with the adoption of the grooved structure. Also, the address discharge delay decreased by about 48% in the panel with the grooved structure. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of Discharge Instability Induced by Shockwave in Self-Sustained High-Pressure Pulsed Glow Discharge

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1126 - 1134
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    Self-sustained high-pressure pulsed glow discharge is applied to excitation discharge on transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) gas lasers. Influence of shockwaves with Mach number MS of 1.1 and 1.35 on the discharge has been investigated. The normal Shockwave, which is normal to gas flow direction in TEA gas lasers, is produced by a shock tube with gas mixture of helium and argon to simulate reflected shockwave in discharge cavity. Discharge instability depends on both the shock Mach number and the position of shockwave in the cavity. The discharge does not collapse by gas density disturbance caused by the shockwave with MS = 1.1, where the gas densities in front of and behind the shockwave are rho1 = 0.52 kg/m3 and rho2 = 0.60 kg/m3, respectively. In the two shockwaves with identical MS = 1.35 having rho2/rho1 = 0.83/0.55 or 0.67 kg/m3/0.45 kg/m3, the recovery of discharge depends on rho2, and the gas density disturbance caused by oblique shockwave destroys the discharge even if the cavity is occupied by the gas having suitable density in still gas. The discharge may not be disturbed with spatial distribution of preionization electron density due to the shockwave. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge in Helium Using Langmuir Probe, Emission Spectroscopy, and Discharge Resistivity

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1135 - 1142
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The experimental work reported here is a validation of Langmuir probe measurements against emission spectroscopic and discharge resistivity measurements of atmospheric glow discharge plasma parameters. The probe measurements of plasma density are close to that obtained by spectroscopy and discharge resistivity measurement. However, it is found that the electron temperature measurement by the probe is higher than that obtained by the spectroscopic technique. Variation of plasma parameters with operating voltage and frequency, which are estimated by the three techniques, shows a similar trend. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Long-Lived Electrons Around CO2-Laser-Produced Plasma in Atmospheric Gases Using Symmetric Double-Probe System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1143 - 1148
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    We have studied the behavior of charged particles around a CO2-laser-produced plasma in atmospheric air using a symmetric double-probe system. It is important and useful to verify the existence of long-lived electrons in applications such as laser-induced electrical discharge, laser-triggered gap switching, and laser ablation. Experimental results showed that 1) electrons and plasma can be discriminated based on their time of arrival by applying intermittent pulses with biases less than the electron affinities of negative ions (O- or O2 - ); 2) the electron signal responded for more than 100 , even though the electrons were influenced by a strong attachment effect that is induced by oxygen and water molecules that are present in room air at 1 atm; and 3) the total density of free and detached electrons around the laser-produced plasma was estimated to be 1016 m-3 based on the pulse signal response that is detected by double-probe electrodes. View full abstract»

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  • Expanding Plasma Region of an Inductively Driven Hydrogen Discharge

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1149 - 1155
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The spatial distribution of the plasma parameters - electron density and temperature as well as plasma and floating potentials - in the region of plasma expansion of an inductively driven low-pressure discharge in hydrogen is studied by probe diagnostics. Electron cooling and a decrease of the electron density with formation of regions with different axial gradients are outlined as basic features of the expanding plasmas. Thermal conductivity and electron energy flux from the driver are considered to be responsible for the plasma behavior at its expansion. The role of the thermal diffusion in the formation of the axial profile of the plasma density is also shown. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Electrode Bias Effect on the \hbox {H}^{-} Negative-Ion Density in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Volume Source

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1156 - 1162
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (295 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The role of the plasma electrode (PE) bias in the extraction process in a large-volume hybrid multicusp negative-ion source, which is driven by 2.45-GHz microwaves, is studied. Spatially resolved negative-ion and electron density measurements close to the extractor aperture were performed under various pressures (1-4 mtorr) by means of the electrostatic probe and photodetachment technique. As the low positive voltage applied to the PE is slightly increased (from 4 to 7 V), the electron temperature passes through a minimum (0.2-0.6 eV), while simultaneously, both the negative-ion density and the H extracted current reach a maximum (~1-2 times 109 cm-3 and ~0.5 mA/cm2, respectively). Optimum pressure values for the extracted negative-ion current and the negative-ion density are found between ~1.5 and 3 mtorr. It is deduced that the negative-ion density measured in the center of the source cannot be directly correlated with the ion extracted current. The electron density and the associated extracted electron current linearly decrease as a function of the PE bias. The physical mechanisms explaining the experimental results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Analysis of Pulsed Volume Breakdown in SF6 at High Pressures

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1163 - 1169
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Z-machine, which is located at Sandia National Laboratories, is currently undergoing refurbishment to increase the output drive current. Due to increased switching voltage requirements, some switch failure modes have been identified with the laser-triggered gas switch design, including envelope surface flashover. In order to improve the performance and lifetime of these switches, a basic understanding of the underlying physics of the failure mechanisms is required. A small-scale experimental setup has been constructed to approximate conditions within the switch. The possible impact of the SF6 volume spark between the switch electrodes on the envelope surface flashover is investigated. Measured optical spectra of the SF6 volume spark over a wide pressure range, from rough vacuum to 40 psig overpressure, are analyzed regarding their potential to contribute to switch failure. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of the Dynamics of Large- and Small-Scale Structures in the Plasma Column of Wire Array Z-Pinches

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1170 - 1177
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The dynamics of large- and small-scale plasma structures is investigated in the precursor of 1-MA wire array Z-pinches by laser probing diagnostics. It is found that plasma streams from the wires induce density perturbations in the precursor. Small-scale perturbations and large-scale cells arise in the nonlinear stage before implosion. The spatial and temporal scales of the observed structures are in agreement with the theoretical investigation for current-driven excitation of electromagnetic flute modes. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Calculation on a Top-Hat Plasma Particle Analyzer Using a Boundary-Fitted Coordinate System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1178 - 1183
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    A boundary-fitted coordinate system is applied to numerical calculation on a top-hat plasma particle analyzer to include the effect of tiny serrations on toroidal plates. The calculation of electrostatic potential inside the analyzer showed the validity of replacement of the serrated toroidal plates to virtual flat toroidal plates, since the potential between the serrated toroidal plates was almost flat except for the area near both the serrated plates. Virtual flat toroidal plates equivalent to serrated plates were obtained from the results of an electric field between the serrated toroidal plates whose position was consistent with an ordinary empirical model. However, calculation of the trajectories of numerous protons revealed sensitivity difference between analyzers with serrated toroidal plates and flat toroidal plates. Such difference was reduced by introducing a path of protons whose boundary is identical to the envelopes of serration tips. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on Invited and Plenary Talks of PPPS 2007

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1184
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  • Announcing the Twelfth Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science on High-Power Microwave Generation, June 2008

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1185
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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