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Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial Special Issue on Neural Networks for Feedback Control Systems

    Page(s): 969 - 972
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    The twenty-two papers in this special issue are devoted to neural networks for feedback control systems. Covers some of the following topics: reinforcement learning; applications; neurocontrol systems; discrete time systems; and network architectures and training methods. View full abstract»

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  • Kernel-Based Least Squares Policy Iteration for Reinforcement Learning

    Page(s): 973 - 992
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    In this paper, we present a kernel-based least squares policy iteration (KLSPI) algorithm for reinforcement learning (RL) in large or continuous state spaces, which can be used to realize adaptive feedback control of uncertain dynamic systems. By using KLSPI, near-optimal control policies can be obtained without much a priori knowledge on dynamic models of control plants. In KLSPI, Mercer kernels are used in the policy evaluation of a policy iteration process, where a new kernel-based least squares temporal-difference algorithm called KLSTD-Q is proposed for efficient policy evaluation. To keep the sparsity and improve the generalization ability of KLSTD-Q solutions, a kernel sparsification procedure based on approximate linear dependency (ALD) is performed. Compared to the previous works on approximate RL methods, KLSPI makes two progresses to eliminate the main difficulties of existing results. One is the better convergence and (near) optimality guarantee by using the KLSTD-Q algorithm for policy evaluation with high precision. The other is the automatic feature selection using the ALD-based kernel sparsification. Therefore, the KLSPI algorithm provides a general RL method with generalization performance and convergence guarantee for large-scale Markov decision problems (MDPs). Experimental results on a typical RL task for a stochastic chain problem demonstrate that KLSPI can consistently achieve better learning efficiency and policy quality than the previous least squares policy iteration (LSPI) algorithm. Furthermore, the KLSPI method was also evaluated on two nonlinear feedback control problems, including a ship heading control problem and the swing up control of a double-link underactuated pendulum called acrobot. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed method can optimize controller performance using little a priori information of uncertain dynamic systems. It is also demonstrated that KLSPI can be applied to online learning control by incorporating a- - n initial controller to ensure online performance. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Reinforcement Learning Control Using Integral Quadratic Constraints for Recurrent Neural Networks

    Page(s): 993 - 1002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The applicability of machine learning techniques for feedback control systems is limited by a lack of stability guarantees. Robust control theory offers a framework for analyzing the stability of feedback control loops, but for the integral quadratic constraint (IQC) framework used here, all components are required to be represented as linear, time-invariant systems plus uncertainties with, for IQCs used here, bounded gain. In this paper, the stability of a control loop including a recurrent neural network (NN) is analyzed by replacing the nonlinear and time-varying components of the NN with IQCs on their gain. As a result, a range of the NN's weights is found within which stability is guaranteed. An algorithm is demonstrated for training the recurrent NN using reinforcement learning and guaranteeing stability while learning. View full abstract»

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  • Training Recurrent Neurocontrollers for Real-Time Applications

    Page(s): 1003 - 1015
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    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to train recurrent neurocontrollers for real-time applications. We begin with training a recurrent neurocontroller for robustness on high-fidelity models of physical systems. For training, we use a recently developed derivative-free Kalman filter method which we enhance for controller training. After training, we fix weights of our recurrent neurocontroller and deploy it in an embedded environment. Then, we carry out additional training of the neurocontroller by adapting in real time its internal state (short-term memory), rather than its weights (long-term memory). Such real-time training is done with a new combination of simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) and adaptive critic. Our critic is also a recurrent neural network (RNN), and it is trained by stochastic meta-descent (SMD) for increased efficiency. Our approach is applied to two important practical problems, electronic throttle control and hybrid electric vehicle control, with apparent performance improvement. View full abstract»

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  • SVM-Based Tree-Type Neural Networks as a Critic in Adaptive Critic Designs for Control

    Page(s): 1016 - 1030
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    In this paper, we use the approach of adaptive critic design (ACD) for control, specifically, the action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) method. A least squares support vector machine (SVM) regressor has been used for generating the control actions, while an SVM-based tree-type neural network (NN) is used as the critic. After a failure occurs, the critic and action are retrained in tandem using the failure data. Failure data is binary classification data, where the number of failure states are very few as compared to the number of no-failure states. The difficulty of conventional multilayer feedforward NNs in learning this type of classification data has been overcome by using the SVM-based tree-type NN, which due to its feature to add neurons to learn misclassified data, has the capability to learn any binary classification data without a priori choice of the number of neurons or the structure of the network. The capability of the trained controller to handle unforeseen situations is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Least Squares Solutions of the HJB Equation With Neural Network Value-Function Approximators

    Page(s): 1031 - 1041
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    In this paper, we present an empirical study of iterative least squares minimization of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) residual with a neural network (NN) approximation of the value function. Although the nonlinearities in the optimal control problem and NN approximator preclude theoretical guarantees and raise concerns of numerical instabilities, we present two simple methods for promoting convergence, the effectiveness of which is presented in a series of experiments. The first method involves the gradual increase of the horizon time scale, with a corresponding gradual increase in value function complexity. The second method involves the assumption of stochastic dynamics which introduces a regularizing second derivative term to the HJB equation. A gradual reduction of this term provides further stabilization of the convergence. We demonstrate the solution of several problems, including the 4D inverted-pendulum system with bounded control. Our approach requires no initial stabilizing policy or any restrictive assumptions on the plant or cost function, only knowledge of the plant dynamics. In the appendix, we provide the equations for first- and second-order differential backpropagation. View full abstract»

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  • Neural Network Control for Position Tracking of a Two-Axis Inverted Pendulum System: Experimental Studies

    Page(s): 1042 - 1048
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    In this paper, experimental studies of a decentralized neural network control scheme of the reference compensation technique applied to control a 2-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) inverted pendulum on an x-y plane are presented. Each axis is controlled by two separate neural network controllers to have a decoupled control structure. Neural network controllers are applied not only to balance the angle of pendulum, but also to control the position tracking of the cart. The decoupled control structure can compensate for uncertainties and cancel coupling effects. Especially, a circular trajectory tracking task is tested for position tracking control of the cart while maintaining the angle of the pendulum. Experimental result shows that position control of the inverted pendulum and cart is successful. View full abstract»

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  • Neural Network Adaptive Output Feedback Control for Intensive Care Unit Sedation and Intraoperative Anesthesia

    Page(s): 1049 - 1066
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The potential applications of neural adaptive control for pharmacology, in general, and anesthesia and critical care unit medicine, in particular, are clearly apparent. Specifically, monitoring and controlling the depth of anesthesia in surgery is of particular importance. Nonnegative and compartmental models provide a broad framework for biological and physiological systems, including clinical pharmacology, and are well suited for developing models for closed-loop control of drug administration. In this paper, we develop a neural adaptive output feedback control framework for nonlinear uncertain nonnegative and compartmental systems with nonnegative control inputs. The proposed framework is Lyapunov-based and guarantees ultimate boundedness of the error signals. In addition, the neural adaptive controller guarantees that the physical system states remain in the nonnegative orthant of the state space. Finally, the proposed approach is used to control the infusion of the anesthetic drug propofol for maintaining a desired constant level of depth of anesthesia for noncardiac surgery. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Detection in Mechanical Systems With Friction Phenomena: An Online Neural Approximation Approach

    Page(s): 1067 - 1082
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the problem of fault detection in mechanical systems performing linear motion, under the action of friction phenomena is addressed. The friction effects are modeled through the dynamic LuGre model. The proposed architecture is built upon an online neural network (NN) approximator, which requires only system's position and velocity. The friction internal state is not assumed to be available for measurement. The neural fault detection methodology is analyzed with respect to its robustness and sensitivity properties. Rigorous fault detectability conditions and upper bounds for the detection time are also derived. Extensive simulation results showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology are provided, including a real case study on an industrial actuator. View full abstract»

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  • Neural Network Controller Development and Implementation for Spark Ignition Engines With High EGR Levels

    Page(s): 1083 - 1100
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    Past research has shown substantial reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) concentrations by using 10% -25% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition (SI) engines (see Dudek and Sain, 1989). However, under high EGR levels, the engine exhibits strong cyclic dispersion in heat release which may lead to instability and unsatisfactory performance preventing commercial engines to operate with high EGR levels. A neural network (NN)-based output feedback controller is developed to reduce cyclic variation in the heat release under high levels of EGR even when the engine dynamics are unknown by using fuel as the control input. A separate control loop was designed for controlling EGR levels. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is given and the boundedness of the control input is demonstrated by relaxing separation principle, persistency of excitation condition, certainty equivalence principle, and linear in the unknown parameter assumptions. Online training is used for the adaptive NN and no offline training phase is needed. This online learning feature and model-free approach is used to demonstrate the applicability of the controller on a different engine with minimal effort. Simulation results demonstrate that the cyclic dispersion is reduced significantly using the proposed controller when implemented on an engine model that has been validated experimentally. For a single cylinder research engine fitted with a modern four-valve head (Ricardo engine), experimental results at 15% EGR indicate that cyclic dispersion was reduced 33% by the controller, an improvement of fuel efficiency by 2%, and a 90% drop in NOx from stoichiometric operation without EGR was observed. Moreover, unburned hydrocarbons (uHC) drop by 6% due to NN control as compared to the uncontrolled scenario due to the drop in cyclic dispersion. Similar performance was observed with the controller on a different engine. View full abstract»

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  • Neural Control of Fast Nonlinear Systems— Application to a Turbocharged SI Engine With VCT

    Page(s): 1101 - 1114
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    Today, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators [throttle, turbo wastegate, and variable camshaft timing (VCT)] is needed for engine torque control. This paper proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: internal model control (IMC), model predictive control (MPC), and optimal control. It is shown how neural models can be used at different levels and included in the control modules to replace physical models, which are too complex to be online embedded, or to estimate nonmeasured variables. The results obtained from two different test benches show the real-time applicability and good control performance of the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control of a High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks

    Page(s): 1115 - 1128
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    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. ldquoSnapshotrdquo solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the ldquoproper orthogonal decompositionrdquo (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems. View full abstract»

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  • Semiglobal ISpS Disturbance Attenuation With Output Tracking via Direct Adaptive Design

    Page(s): 1129 - 1148
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    Direct adaptive partial state feedback control is presented to achieve semiglobally input-to-state practically stable (ISpS) disturbance attenuation with output tracking for a class of uncertain time-varying nonlinear systems in which the unmeasured dynamics do not possess a constant disturbance attenuation level (CDAL). Identifying a necessary condition for the existence of a CDAL, direct adaptive neural networks (NNs) control is developed, where the universal approximation property of NNs and the domination design are employed together to overcome the difficulties due to the lack of state information, unknown system nonlinearities, and unknown state-dependent disturbance attenuation gain. The proposed method is coherent in the sense that it is applicable to the case in which a CDAL exists. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control of a Class of Nonaffine Systems Using Neural Networks

    Page(s): 1149 - 1159
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    A neural control synthesis method is considered for a class of nonaffine uncertain single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. The method eliminates a fixed-point assumption and does not assume boundedness on the time derivative of a control effectiveness term. One or the other of these assumptions exist in earlier papers on this subject. Using Lyapunov's direct method, it is shown that all the signals of the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and that the tracking error converges to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. Simulation with a Van Der Pol equation with nonaffine control terms illustrates the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Novel {cal L}_{1} Neural Network Adaptive Control Architecture With Guaranteed Transient Performance

    Page(s): 1160 - 1171
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    In this paper, we present a novel neural network (NN) adaptive control architecture with guaranteed transient performance. With this new architecture, both input and output signals of an uncertain nonlinear system follow a desired linear system during the transient phase, in addition to stable tracking. This new architecture uses a low-pass filter in the feedback loop, which consequently enables to enforce the desired transient performance by increasing the adaptation gain. For the guaranteed transient performance of both input and output signals of the uncertain nonlinear system, the L1 gain of a cascaded system, comprised of the low-pass filter and the closed-loop desired reference model, is required to be less than the inverse of the Lipschitz constant of the unknown nonlinearities in the system. The tools from this paper can be used to develop a theoretically justified verification and validation framework for NN adaptive controllers. Simulation results illustrate the theoretical findings. View full abstract»

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  • Active State Estimation for Nonlinear Systems: A Neural Approximation Approach

    Page(s): 1172 - 1184
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    In this paper, we consider the problem of actively providing an estimate of the state of a stochastic dynamic system over a (possibly long) finite time horizon. The active estimation problem (AEP) is formulated as a stochastic optimal control one, in which the minimization of a suitable uncertainty measure is carried out. Toward this end, the use of the Renyi entropy as an information measure is proposed and motivated. A neural control scheme, based on the application of the extended Ritz method (ERIM) and on the use of a Gaussian sum filter (GSF), is then presented. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Discrete-Time Adaptive Backstepping Nonlinear Control via High-Order Neural Networks

    Page(s): 1185 - 1195
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    This paper deals with adaptive tracking for discrete-time multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems in presence of bounded disturbances. In this paper, a high-order neural network (HONN) structure is used to approximate a control law designed by the backstepping technique, applied to a block strict feedback form (BSFF). This paper also includes the respective stability analysis, on the basis of the Lyapunov approach, for the whole controlled system, including the extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based NN learning algorithm. Applicability of the scheme is illustrated via simulation for a discrete-time nonlinear model of an electric induction motor. View full abstract»

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  • Neural-Network-Based Approximate Output Regulation of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems

    Page(s): 1196 - 1208
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    The existing approaches to the discrete-time nonlinear output regulation problem rely on the offline solution of a set of mixed nonlinear functional equations known as discrete regulator equations. For complex nonlinear systems, it is difficult to solve the discrete regulator equations even approximately. Moreover, for systems with uncertainty, these approaches cannot offer a reliable solution. By combining the approximation capability of the feedforward neural networks (NNs) with an online parameter optimization mechanism, we develop an approach to solving the discrete nonlinear output regulation problem without solving the discrete regulator equations explicitly. The approach of this paper can be viewed as a discrete counterpart of our previous paper on approximately solving the continuous-time nonlinear output regulation problem. View full abstract»

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  • Support Vector Networks in Adaptive Friction Compensation

    Page(s): 1209 - 1219
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents our research on how support vector regression (SVR) and parametric adaptive learning, which are normally used independently, can be exploited together to benefit adaptive neural control. In the context of friction compensation for servo-motion control systems, we present the notion of support vector networks which play an essential role in combining SVR and adaptive neural network (NN) in cooperation for friction estimation. The analysis shows that the proposed support vector network contributes not only to the performance improvement but also to the practical usefulness in adaptive friction compensation. Experimental results are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Organizing Approximation-Based Control for Higher Order Systems

    Page(s): 1220 - 1231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (819 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adaptive approximation-based control typically uses approximators with a predefined set of basis functions. Recently, spatially dependent methods have defined self-organizing approximators where new locally supported basis elements were incorporated when existing basis elements were insufficiently excited. In this paper, performance-dependent self-organizing approximators will be defined. The designer specifies a positive tracking error criteria. The self-organizing approximation-based controller then monitors the tracking performance and adds basis elements only as needed to achieve the tracking specification. The method of this paper is applicable to general th-order input-state feedback linearizable systems. This paper includes a complete stability analysis and a detailed simulation example. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Organizing Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems

    Page(s): 1232 - 1241
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a self-organizing adaptive fuzzy neural control (SAFNC) via sliding-mode approach for a class of nonlinear systems. The proposed SAFNC system is comprised of a computation controller and a supervisory controller. The computation controller including a self-organizing fuzzy neural network (SOFNN) identifier is the principal controller. The SOFNN identifier is used to online estimate the controlled system dynamics with the structure and parameter learning phases of fuzzy neural network (FNN), simultaneously. The structure learning phase possesses the ability of online generation and elimination of fuzzy rules to achieve optimal neural structure, and the parameter learning phase adjusts the interconnection weights of neural network to achieve favorable approximation performance. The supervisory controller is used to achieve the L2-norm bound tracking performance with a desired attenuation level. Moreover, all the parameter learning algorithms are derived based on Lyapunov function candidate, thus the system stability can be guaranteed. Finally, simulation results show that the SAFNC can achieve favorable tracking performances. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Analog Local Cluster Neural Network Hardware for Control

    Page(s): 1242 - 1253
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The local cluster neural network (LCNN) was designed for analog realization especially suited to applications in control systems. It uses clusters of sigmoidal neurons to generate basis functions that are localized in multidimensional input space. Sigmoidal neurons are well suited to analog electronic realization. In this paper, we report the results of extensive measurements that characterize the computational capabilities of the first analog very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of the LCNN. Despite manufacturing fluctuations and the inherent low precision of analog electronics, the test results suggest that it may be suitable for use in feedback control systems. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Neural Network to Hybrid Systems With Binary Inputs

    Page(s): 1254 - 1261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB)  

    Boolean input systems are in common used in the electric industry. Power supplies include such systems and the power converter represents these. For instance, in power electronics, the control variable are the switching on and off of components as thyristors or transistors. The purpose of this paper is to use neural network (NN) to control continuous systems with Boolean inputs. This method is based on classification of system variations associated with input configurations. The classical supervised backpropagation algorithm is used to train the networks. The training of the artificial neural network and the control of Boolean input systems are presented. The design procedure of control systems is implemented on a nonlinear system. We apply those results to control an electrical system composed of an induction machine and its power converter. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks is devoted to the science and technology of neural networks, which disclose significant technical knowledge, exploratory developments, and applications of neural networks from biology to software to hardware.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2011. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems.

Full Aims & Scope