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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Study on Acquiring Underlying Behavioral Criteria for Manipulator Motion by Focusing on Learning Efficiency

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 445 - 455
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1045 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional humanoid robotic behaviors are directly programmed depending on the programmer's personal experience. With this method, the behaviors usually appear unnatural. It is believed that a humanoid robot can acquire new adaptive behaviors from a human, if the robot has the criteria underlying such behaviors. The aim of this paper is to establish a method of acquiring human behavioral criteria. The advantage of acquiring behavioral criteria is that the humanoid robots can then autonomously produce behaviors for similar tasks with the same behavioral criteria but without transforming data obtained from morphologically different humans every time for every task. In this paper, a manipulator robot learns a model behavior, and another robot is created to perform the model behavior instead of being performed by a person. The model robot is presented some behavioral criteria, but the learning manipulator robot does not know them and tries to infer them. In addition, because of the difference between human and robot bodies, the body sizes of the learning robot and the model robot are also made different. The method of obtaining behavioral criteria is realized by comparing the efficiencies with which the learning robot learns the model behaviors. Results from the simulation have demonstrated that the proposed method is effective for obtaining behavioral criteria. The proposed method, the details regarding the simulation, and the results are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Policy Equilibrium and Generalized Metarationalities for Multiple Decision-Maker Conflicts

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 456 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A policy equilibrium is defined, and its properties investigated, for conflicts with more than two decision makers (DMs). A fundamental construction is the metarational tree, which expresses DMs' interactions as sequences of rounds, each consisting of an initial move by the focal DM followed by countermoves by the opponents. Using the metarational tree, the stability definitions of the graph model for conflict resolution can be adapted to apply to policies. These generalized metarational stabilities are shown to generalize Nash, general metarational, and symmetric metarational stabilities. Relationships among generalized metarationalities are derived, as are their connections with policy equilibria. Finally, the refinement that allows only credible moves (moves that are in the immediate interest of the mover) produces a new family of credible generalized metarational stabilities that generalizes the concept of sequential stability in the graph model. View full abstract»

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  • An XML-Based Multiagent System for Supporting Online Recruitment Services

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 464 - 480
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based multiagent recommender system for supporting online recruitment services. Our system is characterized by the following features: 1) it handles user profiles for personalizing the job search over the Internet; 2) it is based on the intelligent agent technology; and 3) it uses XML for guaranteeing a light, versatile, and standard mechanism for information representation, storing, and exchange. This paper discusses the basic features of the proposed system, presents the results of an experimental study we have carried out for evaluating its performance, and makes a comparison between the proposed system and other e-recruitment systems already presented in the past. View full abstract»

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  • Managing Clinical Use of High-Alert Drugs: A Supervised Learning Approach to Pharmacokinetic Data Analysis

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 481 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Drug-related problems, particularly those that result from sub- or overtherapeutic doses of high-alert medications, have become a growing concern in clinical medicine. In this paper, we use a model-tree-based regression technique (namely, M5) and support vector machine (SVM) for regression to develop learning-based systems for predicting the adequacy of a vancomycin regimen. We empirically evaluate each system's accuracy in predicting patients' peak and trough concentrations in different clinical scenarios characterized by renal functions and regimen types. Our data consist of 1099 clinical cases that were collected from a major tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan. We also examine the use of bagging for enhancing the prediction power of the respective systems and include in our evaluation a salient one-compartment model for performance benchmark purposes. Overall, our evaluation results suggest that both M5 and SVM are significantly more accurate than the benchmark one-compartment model in predicting patients' peak and trough concentrations across all investigated clinical scenarios. M5 appears to benefit considerably from bagging, which has a positive but seemingly smaller effect on SVM. Taken together, our findings indicate supervised learning techniques that are capable of effectively supporting clinicians' use of vancomycin or similar high-alert drugs in their patient care and management. View full abstract»

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  • Human Face Image Searching System Using Sketches

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 493 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a human face image searching system using sketches. A two-phase method, namely, sketch-to-mug-shot matching and human face image searching using relevance feedback, is designed and developed. In the sketch-to-mug-shot matching phase, we have developed a facial feature matching algorithm using local and global features. A point distribution model is employed to represent local facial features while the global feature consists of a set of the geometrical relationship between facial features. It is found that the performance of the sketch-to-mug-shot matching is good if the sketch image looks like the mug shot image in the database. However, in some situations, it is hard to construct a sketch that looks like the photograph. To overcome this limitation, this paper makes use of the concept of ldquohuman-in-the-looprdquo and proposes a human face image searching algorithm using relevance feedback in the second phase. Positive and negative samples will be collected from the user. A feedback algorithm that employs subspace linear discriminant analysis for online learning of the optimal projection for face representation is then designed and developed. The proposed system has been evaluated using the FERET database and a Japanese database with hundreds of individuals. The results are encouraging. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Sensitivity of Decision Analysis Results to Errors and Simplifications in Problem Structure: Application to Lake Erie Ecosystem Management

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 505 - 518
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In practical decision analyses, the ldquocurse of dimensionalityrdquo compels one to make simplifying assumptions that can introduce errors into estimates of various indexes that interest decision-makers. These indexes include the expected performance of optimal and suboptimal strategies, the benefit of explicitly considering uncertainty, and the benefit of additional information. This paper quantifies the effects on these indexes of simplifying assumptions, including discretization of the decision space, omission of some decision variables and uncertainties from the decision tree, and disregarding of risk aversion. To reduce errors arising from discretization of the decision space, we use a multidimensional cubic spline to interpolate the performance of alternatives between a few simulated points. A case study analyzes decisions concerning phosphorus loading, fisheries management, and lower trophic research projects in Lake Erie under multiple criteria and ecological uncertainties. Results show that spline-based solutions often yield potentially superior decisions from those based on discretized decision spaces, but that omitting important uncertainties makes more of a difference in this case study's decisions and indexes than simplifying the decision space. On the other hand, incorrect multicriteria weights affect the case study's outcomes more than incorrect probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Enterprise Collaboration: On-Demand Information Exchange Using Enterprise Databases, Wireless Sensor Networks, and RFID Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 519 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New extended enterprise models such as supply chain integration and demand chain management require a new method of on-demand information exchange that extends the traditional results of a global database query. The new requirements stem from, first, the fact that the information exchange involves large numbers of enterprise databases that belong to a large number of independent organizations, and second, these databases are increasingly overlapping with real-time data sources such as wireless sensor networks and radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems. One example is the industrial push to install RFID- augmented systems to integrate enterprise information along the life cycle of a product. The new effort demands openness and scalability, and leads to a new paradigm of collaboration using all these data sources. The collaboration requires a metadata technology (for reconciling different data semantics) that works on thin computing environments (e.g., emerging sensor nodes and RFID chips) as well as on traditional databases. It also needs a new extended global query model that supports participants to offer/publish information as they see fit, not just request/subscribe what they want. This paper develops new results toward meeting these requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Tongue-Movement Communication and Control Concept for Hands-Free Human–Machine Interfaces

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 533 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new communication and control concept using tongue movements is introduced to generate, detect, and classify signals that can be used in novel hands-free human-machine interface applications such as communicating with a computer and controlling devices. The signals that are caused by tongue movements are the changes in the airflow pressure that occur in the ear canal. The goal is to demonstrate that the ear pressure signals that are acquired using a microphone that is inserted into the ear canal, due to specific tongue movements, are distinct and that the signals can be detected and classified very accurately. The strategy that is developed for demonstrating the concept includes energy-based signal detection and segmentation to extract ear pressure signals due to tongue movements, signal normalization to decrease the trial-to-trial variations in the signals, and pairwise cross-correlation signal averaging to obtain accurate estimates from ensembles of pressure signals. A new decision fusion classification algorithm is formulated to assign the pressure signals to their respective tongue-movement classes. The complete strategy of signal detection and segmentation, estimation, and classification is tested on four tongue movements of eight subjects. Through extensive experiments, it is demonstrated that the ear pressure signals due to the tongue movements are distinct and that the four pressure signals can be classified with an accuracy of more than 97% averaged across the eight subjects using the decision fusion classification algorithm. Thus, it is concluded that, through the unique concept that is introduced in this paper, human-computer interfaces that use tongue movements can be designed for hands-free communication and control applications. View full abstract»

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  • A Cognitive Model of Improvisation in Emergency Management

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 547 - 561
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enduring characteristic of emergencies is the need for near-simultaneous development and deployment of new management procedures. This need can arise with the onset of highly novel problems and the need to act quickly-factors that reduce opportunities for extensive planning in managing the emergency. As a result, decision makers in emergencies must be prepared to improvise. By understanding the cognitive processes in improvisation, organizations can better learn how to plan for, manage, and learn from improvised action. To help create this understanding, this paper reviews and synthesizes prior results on improvisation in the art of jazz, exploring how these results may be applied to improvisation in emergency management. A theory of improvisation in emergency management is then developed and expressed as a cognitive model. The modelpsilas implementation in computer-executable code is then reviewed, along with an illustration of how the model improvises in an emergency situation. Finally, implications of this model and opportunities for future research are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Two Mitigation Strategies for Motion System Limits in Driving and Flight Simulators

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 562 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Limited workspace is a challenge for all motion-based simulators, whether they are large excursion systems like the National Advanced Driving Simulator or smaller simulators utilizing only Stewart Platforms. Two approaches for addressing this challenge are nonlinear washout scaling and software displacement limiting. This paper presents new algorithms developed for these approaches. The nonlinear scaling method uses the cubic Hermite interpolation polynomial to smooth the corner in the scaled output at the limit. A software displacement limiting method that generates control signals in the table frame of reference is introduced. As a result, unwanted acceleration artifacts caused by unbalanced limiting of actuators are avoided. The methods are described, and offline simulation results using the new displacement limiting method are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization Models for Training Belief-Rule-Based Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 569 - 585
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A belief rule-base inference methodology using the evidential reasoning approach (RIMER) has been developed recently, where a new belief rule representation scheme is proposed to extend traditional IF-THEN rules. The belief rule expression matrix in RIMER provides a compact framework for representing expert knowledge. However, it is difficult to accurately determine the parameters of a belief rule base (BRB) entirely subjectively, particularly, for a large-scale BRB with hundreds or even thousands of rules. In addition, a change in rule weight or attribute weight may lead to changes in the performance of a BRB. As such, there is a need to develop a supporting mechanism that can be used to train, in a locally optimal way, a BRB that is initially built using expert knowledge. In this paper, several new optimization models for locally training a BRB are developed. The new models are either single- or multiple-objective nonlinear optimization problems. The main feature of these new models is that only partial input and output information is required, which can be either incomplete or vague, either numerical or judgmental, or mixed. The models can be used to fine tune a BRB whose internal structure is initially decided by experts' domain-specific knowledge or common sense judgments. As such, a wide range of knowledge representation schemes can be handled, thereby facilitating the construction of various types of BRB systems. Conclusions drawn from such a trained BRB with partially built-in expert knowledge can simulate real situations in a meaningful, consistent, and locally optimal way. A numerical study for a hierarchical rule base is examined to demonstrate how the new models can be implemented as well as their potential applications. View full abstract»

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  • On the Process of Automation Transition in Multitask Human–Machine Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 586 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examined the effects of different forms of automation invocation, the reconfiguration of the task display when automated, and the influence of the specific modality that warned of the manual/automation transition on operator performance. Thirty-two experienced pilots engaged in a multiple-task situation consisting of tracking, monitoring, and fuel management subtasks, representative of typical aviation demands. Automation of the tracking task could be invoked in four different ways: 1) system-initiated automation (SIA); 2) pilot command by negation (PCN); 3) pilot command by initiation (PCI); and 4) pilot-initiated automation (PIA). Pilots were warned of the mode change between manual and automated controls by either a visual, an aural, or a combined visual and aural cue. The display of the subtask while in automation was reduced in size and placed either in a central or peripheral location. Results indicated that SIA had a differential effect on tracking performance as compared to all other forms of automation invocation. The respective location of the automated display had it effects in the fuel management subtask, whereas monitoring capability remained stable across manipulations. A significant three-way interaction between invocation procedure, display location, and warning modality illustrated the selective disadvantage of the visual warning combined with the central location under the PCI procedure on tracking response. Measures of subjective response suggested that visual warning modality was slightly more taxing than either an auditory or a combined auditory and visual warning. Pilots also experienced elevated fatigue when the system initiated the automation. These results confirm that both performance and subjective perception of multitask demand are greater when the system controls the option to automate. A qualitative model is presented, which provides an approach for the integrated assessment of human performance with adaptive systems. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual Objects in Electronic Catalogs: A Human–Computer Interface Issue

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 599 - 608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Web interface design is an important aspect of electronic commerce (EC). However, apart from design frameworks and guidelines for web-based EC, not much has been done by researchers or practitioners on how electronic catalogs (e-catalogs) influence the users' desirability and satisfaction as purchasers. In this correspondence, we investigate the form of media that represented the most efficient mode to present products to web users by summarizing and evaluating various existing forms of e-catalogs and their respective responses from web users. We conclude that a 3-D virtual object (VO) is the most efficient mode of electronic cataloging for Web interface due to a better sense of presence of users, a more attractive and enjoyable media of delivery of useful information to users, and a higher level of engagement of user's memory. A 3-D VO, as a result, generates the highest users' satisfaction, which leads to increased propensity to purchase. Further, we discuss the practical and theoretical research implications of these findings to e-catalogs. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society Information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (26 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (34 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta