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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 7 • Date July 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 517 - 518
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  • Emission Regimes of a Green Er:YLiF4 Laser

    Page(s): 519 - 526
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an analysis of the emission regimes of an Er:YLiF4 laser on the transition 4S3/2 rarr 4I15/2, under direct pumping and various upconversion pumping mechanisms. The analysis is based on the study of the steady-state solutions of a rate equation system. The thresholds of the various emission regimes are calculated. The influence of the pump mechanism and the excited-state absorption losses on the emission regime is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Toward Automatic Measurement of the Linewidth-Enhancement Factor Using Optical Feedback Self-Mixing Interferometry With Weak Optical Feedback

    Page(s): 527 - 534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an approach for automatically measuring the linewidth-enhancement factor (LEF) of semiconductor lasers using optical feedback self-mixing interferometry (OFSMI), which works in weak optical feedback regime and where the external target is subject to simple harmonic vibration with unknown vibration frequency and magnitude. According to well-known Lang-Kobayashi theory the waveform of the modulated optical output power from the OFSMI system is influenced by multiple parameters, including the LEF, the optical feedback level factor, and the parameters related to the movement of external target. In order to estimate LEF, other parameters must also be considered and, hence, a multiple parameter estimation strategy is required. We propose a solution for this multiple parameter estimation problem based on the principle of data-to-theoretical model match. In particular, a strategy for minimizing a cost function in order to achieve the best fitting is proposed with which all the unknown parameters can be estimated. The performance of the proposed approach is tested using experimental data in comparison with other two approaches. It is seen that, over different experimental signals, the standard deviation for estimated LEF is less than 4.58% on average, which shows that results have excellent consistency. Moreover, the proposed approach also provides a solution for vibration measurement (that is, vibration frequency and magnitude). View full abstract»

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  • Electrical and Optical Coupling in an Electroabsorption Modulator Integrated With a DFB Laser

    Page(s): 535 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical and optical coupling in an electroabsorption (EA) modulator integrated with a distributed feedback (DFB) laser have been investigated. The integrated device is treated as a three-port optoelectronic device with two electrical ports and one optical output port. The scattering parameters of this three-port device have been measured in the designed experiment. The measured results indicate that there exists the electrical coupling between the DFB laser and EA modulator of the integrated light source whenever the current applied to the laser section is below or above the threshold current, and the optical coupling will have stronger influence on the frequency responses than the electrical coupling when the bias current is above the threshold. A small-signal equivalent circuit model for the integrated device is established considering both the electrical and internal optical coupling. Experiments show that the equivalent circuit model is reasonable and the determined element values are correct. Based on the measurement and modeling, the influences of the electrical and optical coupling on the high-frequency responses are investigated and the effective measure to eliminate the additional modulation in the DFB laser are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Realization of Monolithic Diffractive Broad-Area Polymeric Waveguide Dye Lasers

    Page(s): 545 - 551
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    We discuss the first experimental realization of a polymeric waveguide dye laser with intracavity diffractive elements. Due to a special technology used the diffractive phase structures are directly integrated into the waveguide layer. Thus, there is no need for additional external optics or extensive alignment effort. The elements are used to support a Gaussian-like fundamental mode while at the same time suppresses the undesired higher order transverse laser modes. The technology has the potential to be used also for improving the beam quality of semiconductor broad area lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Optical Amplifier Noise Effect on Electrooptically Generated Hyperchaos

    Page(s): 552 - 559
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    A theoretical analysis regarding the determination of the optical amplifier noise effect on the performance of optical chaos communications using semiconductor lasers with electrooptical feedback is carried out. Analytical expressions for the synchronization error and the signal-to-noise ratio of the extracted message are obtained and verified by extensive numerical simulations. Fiber transmission simulations are also carried out to identify under which circumstances the amplifier noise effect is the dominant impairment. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Delay Lines Based on Soliton Propagation in Photonic Crystal Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides

    Page(s): 560 - 567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a study of optical delay lines based on soliton propagation in coupled resonator optical waveguides is performed. For a given bit rate and required delay, design equations are given that relate the soliton peak power and collision period to the soliton width. To study the influence of higher order linear and nonlinear dispersion, a continuous wave propagation model incorporating these effects is also derived. Using this model, the soliton stability in the presence of higher order dispersion, optical loss and adjacent soliton pulses is numerically verified. It is also shown that soliton-based delay lines can achieve nanosecond delay at a propagation length of a few millimeters due to the high slow down factors that can be obtained. View full abstract»

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  • An Analytic Approach to Random Phase Error and Its Impact on the Performance and Design of Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings

    Page(s): 568 - 571
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Random phase error due to fabrication process causes the filter response of arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) to degrade, especially in terms of crosstalk. In the side-lobe region, which is critical to the channel crosstalk performance, each instantiation of the random phase error can yield a significantly different filter transmission than that of the average for that level of phase error. In this report, the statistical behavior of the AWG filter transmission in the side-lobe region is studied analytically. Both the distribution of random side-lobe level at a given wavelength and an upper bound of the outage probability for side-lobe maxima are given in a simple closed form. Accordingly, a crosstalk margin needs to be allocated to ensure a given fabrication yield and this is shown to depend on the fractional bandwidth of the AWG filter. For filter shapes that are close to Gaussian, this crosstalk margin can be 8 dB or more above the average crosstalk level, for small fractional bandwidth of about 1% and fabrication yields of 80% or higher. These relations should be useful to AWG designers particularly when the underlying fabrication process is susceptible to nonnegligible random phase errors. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Resonant Cavity-Enhanced Detection Applied to Thermal Infrared Light

    Page(s): 572 - 579
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performances of thermal infrared light detector based on a model system of resonant semiconductor microcavities are theoretically investigated. An original transfer matrix formalism of cavity enhanced absorption is presented which makes use of the small thickness of the absorbing layer compared to the light wavelengths. This formalism yields exact expressions which take standing wave effects into account in a built-in way. Approximations lead to tractable expressions which allow deriving asymptotic behaviors and general trends. The tradeoff between large cavity absorption enhancement and reduction of the detector bandwidth is particularly studied, leading to a gain-bandwidth product analysis. Approximated expressions for detectors based on resonant (i.e type I quantum dots) and nonresonant (bulk or type II quantum wells) optical transitions are also derived, which are physically meaningful and may be conveniently used for engineering purposes. It is found that the limitations due to the gain-bandwidth product conservation can be overcome. However, these cavity enhancement effects are only important for very small quantum efficiency for which the finesse of the microcavity is not seriously deteriorated. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation Into the Integration of a Resonant Tunnelling Diode and an Optical Communications Laser: Model and Experiment

    Page(s): 580 - 587
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (695 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A resonant tunnelling diode has been monolithically integrated with an optical communications laser [the resonant tunnelling diode (RTD-LD)] to form a simple optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) that is a novel bistable device suitable for an optical communications system. The RTD-LD was based on a ridge-waveguide laser structure and was fabricated from an InAlGaAs-InP epi-wafer grown by molecular beam epitaxy; it emitted at around 1500 nm. Voltage controlled optical-electrical switching and bistability were observed during the characterisation of the RTD-LD - useful features for a fibre-optic communications laser. Optical and electrical simulations of the RTD-LD were carried out using the circuit simulation tool PSPICE. In addition, a discrete component version of the RTD-LD was constructed which exhibited optical power oscillations, and along with the results of the simulations, gave insight into the operating principles of the monolithically integrated RTD-LD. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Domain Vertical-External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser Simulation

    Page(s): 588 - 596
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    A time-domain simulator for vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers (VECSEL) is described in detail. The core of the model employs a digital filter method to model the optical properties of the active mirror over a wide range of frequencies, temperatures, and carrier densities. The method is also applicable without modifications to the time-domain simulation of semiconductor saturable mirrors (SESAM). As an illustration, ultrashort pulse generation is simulated in two kinds of devices: in a synchronously pumped VECSEL and in a laser passively mode-locked by SESAM. View full abstract»

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  • Integratable High Linearity Compact Waveguide Coupled Tapered InGaAsP Photodetectors

    Page(s): 597 - 606
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (649 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate high linear response tapered photodiodes composed of bulk and multiquantum-well absorption layers based on the integratable asymmetric twin waveguide architecture. The tapered shape reduces space-charge induced nonlinearities, enhancing the saturation current densities at high input optical powers. The 1-dB compression current density for an InGaAsP bulk active layer photodiode (BPD) is in excess of (2.8 plusmn 0.3) kA/cm2, compared to quantum-well photo- diodes (QWPD) in the same materials system that saturate at (1.2 plusmn 0.1) kA/cm2. We find that the limited density of states of QWPDs leads to the early onset of current saturation. The BPD has a polarization sensitivity of SPol = (1.0 plusmn 0.5) dB and responsivity R = (0.3plusmn0.03) A/W at a wavelength of 1.55 mum, whereas the QWPD has SPol = (7plusmn1) dB and R = (0.55plusmn0.05) A/W, while both have a bandwidth of (11 plusmn 1) GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Gain and Spontaneous Emission in GaAsSb–InGaAs Type-II “W” Laser Structures

    Page(s): 607 - 613
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    The modal gain, modal loss and spontaneous emission of a GaAsSb-based type-II quantum-well (QW) laser structure emitting at 1.3 mum have been experimentally determined as a function of current injection and temperature. The system is able to provide a maximum of 900 cm-1 of material gain from the n = 1 transition despite an electron-hole overlap of 32%, however, the gain from the n = 2 transition becomes dominant before this value can be achieved. The presence of the n = 2 transition has a detrimental effect on device performance, limiting the usable gain from the first transition and increasing the total radiative recombination current. Energy level calculations show that reducing the hole QW to 4 nm would increase the separation of the n = 1 and n = 2 transition by a further 45 meV, reducing the limiting effect of the transition. Carrier distribution spectra show the carriers are in thermal equilibrium for the temperatures and injection currents studied. A low radiative efficiency for this structure is measured due to a very large nonradiative current. We believe a combination of different mechanisms contribute to the nonradiative current. View full abstract»

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  • A Tunable-MMI-Coupler-Based Wavelength Adjustable Laser

    Page(s): 614 - 621
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    This paper introduces a novel integrated widely tunable laser, the tunable multimode interference (T-MMI) laser, with as tunable component an MMI coupler with a wavelength adjustable transmission spectrum. Experiments demonstrate up to 150 nm of tuning range for the T-MMI component and operation of a widely tunable T-MMI laser is demonstrated over a wavelength range of 38 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on nano-optoelectronics and applications

    Page(s): 622
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  • Special issue on Nanosensor Technology

    Page(s): 623
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  • Special issue on in vivo sensors for medicine

    Page(s): 624
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Page(s): 625
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University