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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May-june 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 617
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Set Point Identification and Robustness Testing of Electrostatic Separation Processes

    Page(s): 618 - 626
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    Identification of the optimal operating conditions and evaluation of their robustness are critical issues for the industrial application of electrostatic separation techniques. In spite of extensive investigations performed in recent years, no standard procedure is available for guiding the research of the set point and for minimizing the process sensibility to changes in certain critical factors. The aim of this paper is to formulate a set of recommendations regarding the choice of high-voltage, roll-speed, and feed-rate values for an important class of electrostatic separation applications: the selective sorting of conductive and nonconductive constituents of granular industrial wastes. The experiments were carried out on a laboratory separator, built by one of the authors, with various samples of chopped wire wastes furnished by l'Entreprise des Industries des Cacircbles, Biskra, Algeria. Several one-factor-at-a-time experiments, followed by two factorial designs (one composite, the other fractional), were performed based on the following three-step strategy: 1) identifying the domain of variation of the controlled variables; 2) finding the best choice of the set point; and 3) assessing the robustness of the process, i.e., testing whether the performance of the system remains satisfactory even when the factors vary slightly around that point. The results presented in this paper are strictly valid only for a well-defined category of processed materials, but a similar approach could be adopted for a wider range of electrostatic separation applications View full abstract»

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  • Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low-Speed Operation

    Page(s): 627 - 635
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    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low-speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia. To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) is applied. A control law for stabilizing the system and adaptive laws for updating both of the weights in the RBFN and a bounding constant are established so that the whole closed-loop system is stable in the sense of Lyapunov. The effectiveness of the proposed inertia estimation is verified by simulations and experiments View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis of Merged p-i-n–Schottky Diodes With Doping Compensation of the Drift Region

    Page(s): 636 - 647
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    In this paper, standard-cell Schottky rectifiers along with silicon-based merged p-i-n-Schottky (MPS) and p-i-n diodes, which are realized using a super junction technology, have been analyzed and compared by conducting extensive device and mixed-mode simulations through a 2-D finite-element grid. The main issues that concern these devices, such as the forward voltage drop, the leakage characteristic, and the reverse recovery, are treated, and the superior performances exhibited by the MPS rectifier with respect to the p-i-n diodes are experimentally validated. First, the basics on the used technology are reported by focusing on the high voltage capability of the new devices along with the low forward voltage drop during the on -state conduction. The reverse-recovery behavior belonging to the MPS diode has been analyzed by exploring through several simulations the internal plasma dynamics. 2-D simulations of the turn-on behavior relative to the Schottky, p-i-n, and MPS rectifiers have been carried out in order to analyze the effects of the voltage overshoot phenomenon eventually occurring in the three diode structures View full abstract»

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  • Two-Phase Cooling Method Using the R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices

    Page(s): 648 - 656
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using the R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PEs), such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles. The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 850 days were performed on a submerged insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat-flux capabilities of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics and no deterioration of electrical components. Second, experimental tests that included a simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate-controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30-kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with the R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device View full abstract»

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  • Overview of Power Loss Measurement Techniques in Power Electronics Systems

    Page(s): 657 - 664
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    Measuring power loss accurately is of great importance for power electronics systems design and for assessing system performance and reliability. This paper reviews various power loss measurement techniques in power electronics systems. A brief overview of electrical methods for loss measurements is given. Calorimetric methods, which are considered the most accurate of this purpose, are described along with their implementations. The pros and cons of various techniques are discussed and compared for estimating the losses in integrated power electronic modules View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Motor Capacitances for Prediction of the Voltage Across the Bearings in Machines of Inverter-Based Drive Systems

    Page(s): 665 - 672
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    The occurrence of high-frequency discharge bearing currents (also called "electric discharge machining (EDM) currents") that can occur in machines of inverter-based drive systems depends strongly on the value of the capacitive voltage divider "bearing voltage ratio" (BVR) of the machine. This paper presents a straightforward approach to calculate the involved motor capacitances in order to predict the voltage across the bearing and, thereby, the likeliness of such EDM currents that are caused by this voltage to occur. The approach is based on the design parameters of the machine and does not involve additional measurements. It combines ease of application and satisfying accurateness, and allows prediction of the risk of endangerment of an inverter-based drive system due to discharge bearing currents View full abstract»

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  • A Fourier Series Generalized Geometry-Based Analytical Model of Switched Reluctance Machines

    Page(s): 673 - 684
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    A novel invertible generalized flux/current switched reluctance machine (SRM) model based on the Fourier series expansion is presented. This model, which is derived from machine geometry and materials properties, is accurate enough to be used for actual machine representation and can also be simplified for real-time controller applications. Simulation and experimental results illustrate that the proposed modeling approach provides better representation of the SRM than other existing techniques View full abstract»

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  • Cogging Torque Reduction in an Axial Flux PM Machine via Stator Slot Displacement and Skewing

    Page(s): 685 - 693
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    Cogging torque is a source of vibration and noise in permanent-magnet (PM) machines. This torque is proportional to the PM flux and the reluctance variation, and is independent of the load current. In this paper, two methods for cogging torque reduction in an axial PM machine with field weakening capability are presented. The machine's rotor configuration considers two sections: one PM pole that provides the field excitation and one iron section in charge of providing low d-axis reluctance. Significant reduction of the cogging effects is achieved by adjusting stator geometry and rotor pole configuration. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis is used to demonstrate these improvements. Conclusions and design recommendations are presented for a 5-kW eight-pole PM machine prototype under construction View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation and Modeling of Cross Saturation Due to Leakage Flux in Vector-Controlled Induction Machines

    Page(s): 694 - 702
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    A detailed magnetic reluctance-based computational model of an induction machine, into which a traditional rotor-flux-orientated vector control scheme has been grafted, is used to examine the influence of saturation of both main and leakage flux paths upon vector-controlled drive performance. Individual machine teeth, windings, and conductors are incorporated, as is pseudo-3-D modeling of skew. The cross-saturation effect is therefore determined from the basic dimensional and winding design data of the machine. Effective compensation methods can then be derived for practical implementation. Direct rotor flux orientation and magnitude control is used to ensure that inaccuracies in a machine-parameter-based vector control scheme are not reflected in the results for cross saturation. Results for a 15-kW four-pole induction motor with rotor skewed one stator slot pitch show that skew leakage flux is predominantly responsible for cross saturation. The skew leakage flux is shown to heavily saturate one end of the machine and to reduce the air gap flux density at the other. At 200% rated load current, this equates to an 11% reduction in direct axis flux if isd is kept constant. To compensate for this reduction, a 27% increase in isd would be required View full abstract»

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  • Design and Development of Low-Cost and High-Efficiency Variable-Speed Drive System With Switched Reluctance Motor

    Page(s): 703 - 713
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1007 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-cost switched-reluctance-motor (SRM) drive systems are actively sought for high-efficiency home appliances and power tools. Minimizing the number of switching devices has been in power converters that is the main method to reduce drive costs. Single-switch-per-phase converters have been cost effective due to the compactness of the converter package resulting in a possible reduction in their cost. However, some of the single-switch-per-phase converters have the drawbacks that include higher losses and low-system efficiency. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the choice narrows down to the split ac converter through the quantitative analysis in terms of device ratings, cost, switching losses, conduction losses, and converter efficiency. Simulations to verify the characteristics of the converter circuit and control feasibility are presented. The motor drive is realized with a novel two-phase flux-reversal-free-stator SRM and a split ac converter. The efficiency with various loads is numerically estimated and experimentally compared from the viewpoint of subsystem and system in details. The acoustic noise with no load and full load is also compared. The focus of this paper is to compare the considered split ac converter to the asymmetric converter through experiments and demonstrate that the split ac converter is the most advantageous with respect to cost, efficiency, and acoustic noise View full abstract»

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  • Four-Quadrant Pulse Injection and Sliding-Mode-Observer-Based Sensorless Operation of a Switched Reluctance Machine Over Entire Speed Range Including Zero Speed

    Page(s): 714 - 723
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this paper is to present a sensorless position estimation technique for switched reluctance machines operating in dynamic modes over a wide speed range including zero speed. The technique combines two different methods to deliver high-resolution position information over the wide speed range. At zero and low speeds, a voltage pulse injection method is used to estimate the rotor position in all four quadrants. For higher speeds, a sliding-mode-observer-based algorithm is used and combined to work with the low-speed algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this new combined technique that has four-quadrant operation capability View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Behavior of a Three-Phase Induction Motor Fed by a Fault-Tolerant Voltage Source Inverter

    Page(s): 724 - 730
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    This paper presents the results of an investigation regarding the thermal behavior of a three-phase induction motor when supplied by a reconfigured three-phase voltage source inverter with fault-tolerant capabilities. For this purpose, a fault-tolerant operating strategy based on the connection of the faulty inverter leg to the dc link middle point was considered. The experimentally obtained results show that, as far as the motor thermal characteristics are concerned, it is not necessary to reinforce the motor insulation properties since it is already prepared for such an operation View full abstract»

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  • PV Power Injection and Active Power Filtering With Amplitude-Clamping and Amplitude-Scaling Algorithms

    Page(s): 731 - 741
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    This paper presents a half-bridge single-phase two-wire (1phi2W) photovoltaic (PV) inverter system that can perform both active power filtering and real power injection. In the proposed system, it needs only two active switches, reducing cost significantly. In addition, output current of the inverter can be controlled to prevent switches from exceeding their current ratings. Thus, power rating of the inverter can be effectively used and power quality can be improved. For controlling inverter output current, an amplitude-clamping algorithm and an amplitude-scaling algorithm are proposed, which can determine inverter current command without needs of complicated calculation. Simulations and experimental results have verified the feasibility of the proposed PV inverter system and the two current control algorithms View full abstract»

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  • A Boost PFC Converter With Programmable Harmonic Resistance

    Page(s): 742 - 750
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power factor correction (PFC) converters with low harmonic input resistance are desirable loads to support the reduction of the harmonic distortion on the feeding grid. Therefore, a novel control strategy is proposed. Whereas previously proposed controllers tried to obtain a resistive behavior of the converter with a constant input impedance for all frequencies, including the fundamental, the proposed control strategy allows to set a harmonic input resistance which is independent of the input power level of the converter. Consequently, the harmonic input resistance remains low, even when the input power of the converter is decreased, which adds to the stability of the feeding grid. This paper describes the operation of a digitally controlled boost PFC converter with the new control algorithm. Experimental tests on a 1-kW prototype show that a practical realization of the algorithm is possible and that a programmable harmonic input resistance of the converter is obtained. The converter contributes to the damping in the power system, which is an important feature to mitigate harmonic voltage distortion due to resonances. The damping potential of the converter with the proposed control strategy is demonstrated on a scale model of a distribution system with a parallel resonance View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Space Vector PWM Scheme to Operate a Three-Level NPC Inverter at High Modulation Index Including Overmodulation Region, With Neutral Point Balancing

    Page(s): 751 - 760
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    Three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter is a widely used topology of multilevel inverters. However, the neutral point fluctuates for certain switching states. At low modulation index, the fluctuations can be compensated using redundant switching states. But, at higher modulation index and in overmodulation region, the neutral point fluctuation deteriorates the performance of the inverter. This paper proposes a simple space vector pulsewidth modulation scheme for operating a three-level NPC inverter at higher modulation indexes, including overmodulation region, with neutral point balancing. Experimental results are provided View full abstract»

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  • Neutral Point Potential Balancing Algorithm at Low Modulation Index for Three-Level Inverter Medium-Voltage Drives

    Page(s): 761 - 768
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    Three-level inverters produce low harmonic distortion of the ac currents even when operated at moderate switching frequency. This makes them the preferred candidates for high-power medium-voltage applications. To improve the utilization of the semiconductor devices, synchronous optimal pulsewidth modulation is employed. This permits reducing the switching frequency to very low values. Carrier modulation is maintained in the lower range of the modulation index. Operation at very low switching frequency increases the steady-state ripple of the neutral point potential. An intrinsic natural balancing mechanism of the neutral point clamped inverter topology eliminates long-term neutral point potential offsets. Transient conditions, however, may create successive increments of the offset to high values, which requires fast compensation. The novel method of selecting the appropriate redundant inverter sub-bridge meets this requirement without incurring additional penalties. The effectiveness of the approach is documented by experiments obtained from a medium-voltage motor drive fed by a 1-MVA three-level inverter View full abstract»

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  • Supercapacitor Energy Storage for Wind Energy Applications

    Page(s): 769 - 776
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As wind energy reaches higher penetration levels, there is a greater need to manage intermittency associated with the individual wind turbine generators. This paper considers the integration of a short-term energy storage device in a doubly fed induction generator design in order to smooth the fast wind-induced power variations. This storage device can also be used to reinforce the dc bus during transients, thereby enhancing its low-voltage ride through (LVRT) capability. The topology is evaluated in terms of its ability to improve the performance both during normal operation and during transients. Results show that when storage is sized based upon the LVRT requirement, it can effectively damp short-term power oscillations, and it provides superior transient performance when compared with conventional topologies View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Commutation Method of Matrix Converter Fed Induction Motor Drive Using RB-IGBT

    Page(s): 777 - 786
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    This paper gives an overview of a collector-emitter voltage sign-based commutation method. This method is implemented based on the output current sign and commutation voltage polarity signals of matrix converter. All these signals are acquired by a simple unit in the drive and protection boards designed for reverse blocking insulated gate bipolar transistors (RB-IGBTs) of the matrix converter in test. Therefore, no current and/or voltage sensor is required to obtain any other commutation signals. The RB-IGBT samples used are newly developed, and one important feature is that its reverse leakage current is mostly affected by nuge. Under the same temperature condition, when nuce is negative, a positively biased nuge results in a distinct decrease of the reverse leakage current. The proposed commutation method can supply the reverse-blocked RB-IGBTs with positively biased nuge . Hence, the power losses caused by the reverse leakage current can be reduced using the proposed method. Experimental results have proved the feasibility and effectivity of this method View full abstract»

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  • Mitigation of Current Harmonics for Multipulse Diode Front-End Rectifier Systems

    Page(s): 787 - 797
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    Multipulse rectifier system has been shown to be a cost-effective harmonic solution in many industries where IEEE 519 is specified. However, it is susceptible to poor quality of the input source of the power distribution system where the phase unbalance of the source voltage and preexisting low-order harmonic voltages are presented. A small amount of voltage unbalance with preexisting harmonics can create large amount of current harmonics to the input source. Consequently, a stricter preexisting voltage total harmonic distortion condition has to be specified for an 18-pulse rectifier to meet the IEEE 519 current-harmonics requirement. This paper introduces a dc link passive filtering method to solve this problem. It greatly reduces the current harmonics created by the phase unbalance, the fifth-, and the seventh-order voltage harmonics by adding several series LC resonant loops into the dc link. As a result, the proposed 18-pulse rectifier can meet IEEE 519 under several abnormal source voltage conditions of the ac line. Theory analysis, simulation, and experimental result are provided in this paper to verify the effectiveness of this method View full abstract»

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  • An Active Inline Notch Filter for Reducing Acoustic Noise in Drives

    Page(s): 798 - 804
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    Manufacturers of drives have put in much effort in recent years to reduce the acoustic noise of their systems by improving the motors and by paying attention to the pulsewidth-modulation schemes that are used. In this paper, the acoustic noise is reduced by inserting an active filter between the inverter and the induction machine, and in this way, the acoustic behavior of an existing drive can be improved without needing to replace components or having to modify the drive. An active notch filter is proposed that uses a switched capacitor. Test results on a 3-kW drive show that the active notch filter works well and that it is possible to achieve a reduction of 15 dB in the line current and stator vibrations. This is a significant reduction and could substantially reduce the radiated noise at a troublesome acoustic frequency View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Mode Time-Sharing Sinewave-Modulation Soft Switching Boost Full-Bridge One-Stage Power Conditioner Without Electrolytic Capacitor DC Link

    Page(s): 805 - 813
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    This paper is aimed at presenting a novel system topology and control scheme of a selective dual-mode pulse-modulated high-efficiency single-phase sinewave power-conversion circuit for the new energy generation and storage applications. This power-conversion system is composed of a time-sharing-operated sinewave-absolute-modulation boost chopper with a bypass diode in the first power conditioning and processing stage and time-sharing sinewave partially pulse-modulated full-bridge inverter in the second stage. The proposed power conditioner is operated by a selective time-sharing dual-mode pulse pattern signal processing control scheme without electrolytic capacitor dc link. The unique operating principle of the two-power conditioning and processing stages with sectional time-sharing dual-mode partial sinewave-modulation scheme is described and discussed with a design example. In addition, this paper proposes also a sinewave tracking voltage controlled soft switching pulsewidth-modulation boost chopper with a bypass-diode loop, which includes a passive auxiliary edge-resonant snubber. The new conceptual operating principle and the control implementation of this novel power conditioner are presented and evaluated through experimental and simulation results View full abstract»

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  • Operation of High-Power Cycloconverter-Fed Gearless Drives Under Abnormal Conditions

    Page(s): 814 - 820
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    This paper presents the behavior of large power mills (more than 10 MW each) that are fed by cycloconverters. Special attention is dedicated to the protection philosophy to avoid operational interruptions that can produce huge production losses and equipment damage. Several failure possibilities are considered: control failure, complete power outage, if a thyristor fails and cannot block reverse voltage, etc. Simulation studies and field measurements show that large currents and torque can occur under certain circumstances and that motor foundations must be able to support them. As a general conclusion, it can be said that proper protective design effectively avoids equipment damage View full abstract»

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  • Surface Temperature Test Methods Per IEEE 1349

    Page(s): 821 - 828
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    The fine print note (FPN) No. 1 in 2005 National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 501.8 (B) [ANSI/NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, 2005 (NEC)] cautions users to "consider the temperature of internal and external surfaces that may be exposed to the flammable atmosphere" when putting a motor into service in a Class I, Division 2 environment. Thus, it is critical that manufacturers and users of industrial electric motors understand that internal peak temperatures exceed the external peak temperatures. This paper presents three common IEEE 1349 [IEEE 1349-2001, IEEE Guide for the Application of Electric Motors in Class I, Division 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations] test methods used by manufacturers to determine these internal peak temperatures. Potential test method error and the test results from the three test methods are also presented. IEEE 1349 provides only guidance when performing these test methods so this paper intends to provide additional clarification. The test motors presented in this paper are low voltage, ac induction, severe-duty, energy-efficient, totally enclosed fan-cooled motors commonly used in the "Petrochemical Industry." View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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