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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 161
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  • IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Foreword Topical Special Issue on the Electrical Performance of Packages and Interconnects

    Page(s): 162
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  • Design and Characterization of the EBG Waveguide-Based Interconnects

    Page(s): 163 - 170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An alternative signal guiding structure, which can be integrated within the printed circuit substrates, is investigated in this paper. The structure is realized by forming a rectangular waveguide in a 2-D electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) substrate. In this manner, a bandpass interconnect is provided that proves to be a promising technology for the high-speed/high-frequency system design. A systematic approach to the design and optimization of this interconnect is presented here followed by investigation of various bend geometries. The studied structures exhibit very low levels of loss and leakage when inspected at tens of gigahertz frequency range. Moreover, the near-end and the far-end crosstalks are monitored in multiple interconnects proving the high efficiency of this alternative routing structure in dense layouts. Nonetheless, the crosstalk performance is degraded as the coplanar microstrip-to-waveguide transitions are added. These transitions are essentially tapered microstrip lines that are connected to other circuitries. Continuous via fences are inserted in the transition sections of multiple structures demonstrating significant improvement in the crosstalk performance. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Implementation, and Testing of Miniaturized Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures for Broadband Switching Noise Mitigation in High-Speed PCBs

    Page(s): 171 - 179
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    In recent years, advances in CMOS technology, resulted in devices with higher switching speeds, lower power supply voltages, and higher package densities. Lowering the power supply voltages and hence the power consumption of a single transistor, has been possible due to the fact that these new technologies are able to provide smaller and faster transistors with lower threshold levels. The benefits associated with lowering the threshold levels of the transistors used in a given device comes at a high-price, specifically the decrease of immunity of such device to noise and fluctuations of the power supply voltages. This paper covers the concept of embedding electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures in conventional power distribution networks in order to increase the immunity of the circuits that feed from such networks to noise and voltage fluctuations. Underlying theories of embedded EBG (EEBG) structures and design methodologies are presented. Finally, in order to provide immunity to high-bandwidth noise, voltage fluctuations and radiation, new EEBG configurations, topologies and miniaturized structures with ultra wide-bandwidth are introduced and their efficacy is demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Near-Field and Far-Field Analyses of Alternating Impedance Electromagnetic Bandgap (AI-EBG) Structure for Mixed-Signal Applications

    Page(s): 180 - 190
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    This paper presents near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) analysis of alternating impedance electromagnetic bandgap (AI-EBG) structure in packages and boards. Three test vehicles have been designed and fabricated for NF and FF measurements. Simulation results using a full-wave solver (SONNET) have been compared with measurement results. This paper investigates the radiation due to return current on different reference planes. The analysis results from simulations and measurements provide important guidelines for design of the AI-EBG structure based power distribution network for noise isolation and suppression in mixed-signal systems View full abstract»

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  • Fully Integrated AC Coupled Interconnect Using Buried Bumps

    Page(s): 191 - 199
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    Presented is the complete demonstration of an assembled system using AC coupled interconnect (ACCI) and buried solder bumps. In this system, noncontacting input/output (I/O) are created by using half-capacitor plates on both a chip and a substrate, while buried solder bumps are used to provide power/ground distribution and physical alignment of the coupling plates. ACCI using buried bumps is a technology that provides a manufacturable solution for noncontacting I/O signaling by integrating high-density, low inductance power/ground distribution with high-density, high-speed I/O. The demonstration system shows two channels operating simultaneously at 2.5 Gb/s/channel with a bit error rate less than 10-12, across 5.6 cm of transmission line on a multichip module (MCM). Simple transceiver circuits were designed and fabricated in a 0.35 -mum complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and for PRBS-127 data at 2.5 Gb/s transmit and receive circuits consumed 10.3 mW and 15.0 mW, respectively. This work illustrates the increasing importance of chip and package co-design for high-performance systems. View full abstract»

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  • A 3-D Miniaturization Method for Low-Impedance Designs

    Page(s): 200 - 208
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    Microstrip interconnects with a V conductor are designed, fabricated, and measured to provide a compact solution for designs requiring low characteristic impedance lines. S-parameter curves are shown up to 35 GHz for 0.5-cm-long lines. The 308-mum-deep V structure produces a 33.8-Omega line with strong standing waves and reflections under 5 dB. To further reduce the impedance, a partial shield is added that results in 6.7 times reduction of signal line width, near elimination of open-end effect, and excellent correlation with a standard 15-Omega microstrip up to 25 GHz. A filter demonstration shows near ideal behavior in the 3 dB response and low return loss when compared to a similar conventional design. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Code for Passivity Enforcement of Rational Macromodels by Residue Perturbation

    Page(s): 209 - 215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Passivity of rational macromodels is a necessary requirement for guaranteeing a stable time-domain simulation. This paper describes a freely available routine for passivity enforcement of multiport models (y parameters) using residue perturbation. The procedure calculates a correction to the original model by adjusting its residues and constant term as a postprocessing step while minimizing the model perturbation in the least squares (LS) sense. Control parameters are available for limiting the number of free variables and for specifying different LS weighting schemes. Two different constraint types can be specified, which helps to ensure reliable convergence when applied in an iterative scheme. Usage of a sparse solver is shown to greatly reduce the computation time. The software is demonstrated by several numerical examples View full abstract»

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  • Orthonormal Vector Fitting: A Robust Macromodeling Tool for Rational Approximation of Frequency Domain Responses

    Page(s): 216 - 225
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    Vector Fitting is widely accepted as a robust macromodeling tool for approximating frequency domain responses of complex physical structures. In this paper, the Orthonormal Vector Fitting technique is presented, which uses orthonormal rational functions to improve the numerical stability of the method. This reduces the numerical sensitivity of the system equations to the choice of starting poles significantly and limits the overall macromodeling time View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Sampling Technique for Passivity Characterization and Enforcement of Large Interconnect Macromodels

    Page(s): 226 - 237
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    This paper deals with the characterization and enforcement of passivity for linear lumped interconnect macromodels. An adaptive accuracy-controlled frequency sampling process is employed to identify a set of frequency bands where the macromodel is locally passive. These results are employed as a preliminary step, enabling the fast computation of imaginary eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian matrix associated to the macromodel. Then, iterative perturbation is employed to remove these eigenvalues from the imaginary axis and to achieve global passivity. The resulting scheme is highly optimized for macromodels having large dynamic order and with a sparse structure. Significant speedup factors up to two orders of magnitude are achieved with respect to a standard implementation of the same passivity compensation scheme based on a full eigensolver View full abstract»

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  • Parametric Macromodels of Differential Drivers With Pre-Emphasis

    Page(s): 238 - 245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the extraction of behavioral models of differential drivers with pre-emphasis for the assessment of signal integrity and electromagnetic compatibility effects in multigigabit data transmission systems. A suitable model structure is derived and the procedure for its estimation from port transient waveforms is illustrated. The proposed methodology is an extension of the macromodeling based on parametric relations applied to plain differential drivers. The obtained models preserve the accuracy and efficiency strengths of behavioral parametric macromodels for conventional devices. A realistic application example involving a high-speed communication path and a 3.125 Gb/s commercial driver model with pre-emphasis is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Passivity Verification in Delay-Based Macromodels of Multiconductor Electrical Interconnects

    Page(s): 246 - 256
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    This paper presents a generalized theory of passivity verification in delay-based macromodels for multiconductor transmission line networks generated using the method of characteristics (MoCs). We demonstrate that the passivity in an MoC macro-model is equivalent to the nonnegative definiteness in the admittance matrices of two submodels. We then provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for each submodel to have a nonnegative definite admittance matrix. The presented theory develops an algebraic test to verify the passivity in MoC macromodels. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the proposed theory. View full abstract»

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  • Waveform Relaxation Techniques for Simulation of Coupled Interconnects With Frequency-Dependent Parameters

    Page(s): 257 - 269
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (975 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The large number of coupled lines in an interconnect structure is a serious limiting factor in simulating high-speed circuits. Waveform relaxation based on transverse partitioning has been previously presented to address this problem for interconnects with constant per-unit-length parameters. This paper extends the waveform relaxation technique to handle the more difficult and important case of frequency-dependent parameters. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm grows linearly with the number of coupled lines View full abstract»

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  • Causality Enforcement in Transient Co-Simulation of Signal and Power Delivery Networks

    Page(s): 270 - 278
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    This paper discusses a transient simulation method that co-simulates the signal and power delivery networks in a packaged system. The method includes a novel delay extraction technique that enables the enforcement of causality conditions on the resulting transient waveforms. This paper describes the application of the method on a number of test cases to account for electromagnetic parasitics and cross-talk, and shows the scalability of the method for performing large sized transient simulations View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of Losses Caused by Roughness of Metallization in Printed-Circuit Boards

    Page(s): 279 - 287
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    In this paper, the effect of metal roughness on the total loss, the extracted tandelta, and signal integrity of typical interconnections found in printed-circuit boards is extracted from measurements on three different materials. The differing characteristics of the roughened metal cross sections are highlighted, and a simplified, practical, 2-D, causal, broadband modeling methodology is shown View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Accelerated Full-Wave Modeling to Analyze Power Island Coupling in a HyperBGA SCM

    Page(s): 288 - 294
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    Presented here are results and recommendations for reducing coupling between adjacent power islands based on full-wave simulations of a HyperBGA SCM (single-chip module). These simulations highlight the use of IBM's internally developed accelerated full-wave solver based on the precorrected fast Fourier transform approach. Speedups of 100times and memory reductions of 12times are shown for real engineering problems, as compared to direct integral equation solutions View full abstract»

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  • Return Path Assumption Validation for Inductance Modeling in Digital Design

    Page(s): 295 - 300
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    Inductance modeling for on-chip interconnects in a typical digital environment is proposed. Regarding the effective loop inductance computation, the issue of current return path assumptions is first discussed. Then, sensible assumptions about the return path localization are presented and systematically validated. Finally, representative structure models allowing prelayout effective inductance estimations are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Transients by an Extended Time-Domain Adaptive Integral Method

    Page(s): 301 - 312
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    A stable and fast marching-on-in-time based integral-equation solver for analyzing low-frequency electromagnetic transients is presented. Stability and computational efficiency are achieved by using a frequency-normalized and diagonally balanced loop-tree decomposition scheme in concert with a novel fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based acceleration scheme. The proposed algorithm extends the time-domain adaptive integral method (TD-AIM) into the low-frequency regime by accelerating the computations of not only (discrete) "delayed" interactions due to fields observed one or more time steps after being generated but also "instantaneous" interactions due to fields observed less than one time step after being launched. This is realized by augmenting the four-dimensional blocked space-time FFTs in the TD-AIM recipe with three-dimensional space-only FFTs. Application of the extended TD-AIM accelerated integral-equation solver to the analysis of package geometries demonstrates its accuracy, stability, and efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Solving Low-Frequency EM-CKT Problems Using the PEEC Method

    Page(s): 313 - 320
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    The partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) formulation is an integral equation based approach for the solution of combined electromagnetic and circuit (EM-CKT) problems. In this paper, the low-frequency behavior of the PEEC matrix is investigated. Traditional EM solution methods, like the method of moments, suffer from singularity of the system matrix due to the decoupling of the charge and currents at low frequencies. Remedial techniques for this problem, like loop-star decomposition, require detection of loops and therefore present a complicated problem with nonlinear time scaling for practical geometries with holes and handles. Furthermore, for an adaptive mesh of an electrically large structure, the low-frequency problem may still occur at certain finely meshed regions. A widespread application of loop-star basis functions for the entire mesh is counterproductive to the matrix conditioning. Therefore, it is necessary to preidentify regions of low-frequency ill conditioning, which in itself represents a complex problem. In contrast, the charge and current basis functions are separated in the PEEC formulation and the system matrix is formulated accordingly. The incorporation of the resistive loss (R) for conductors and dielectric loss (G) for the surrounding medium leads to better system matrix conditioning throughout the entire frequency spectrum, and it also leads to a clean dc solution. We demonstrate that the system matrix is well behaved from a full-wave solution at high frequencies to a pure resistive circuit solution at dc, thereby enabling dc-to-daylight simulations. Finally, these techniques are applied to remedy the low-frequency conditioning of the electric field integral equation matrix View full abstract»

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  • Transient Simulation of Lossy Interconnects Based on a Dispersive Hybrid Phase-Pole Macromodel

    Page(s): 321 - 334
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    A transient simulator for interconnect structures that are modeled by lossy transmission lines is outlined in this paper. Since frequency-dependent RLGC parameters must be employed to correctly model skin effects and dielectric losses for high-performance interconnects, we first study the behaviors of various lossy interconnects that are characterized by frequency-dependent line parameters (FDLPs). We then developed a frequency-domain dispersive hybrid phase-pole macromodel (DHPPM) for such lines, which consists of a constant RLGC propagation function multiplied by a residue series. The basic idea is to first extract the dominant physical phenomenology by using a propagation function in the frequency domain that is modeled by frequency-independent line parameters (FILPs). A rational function approximation is then used to account for the remaining effects of FDLP lines. By using a partial fraction expansion and analytically evaluating the required inverse Fourier transform integrals, the time-domain DHPPM can be decomposed as a sum of canonical transient responses for lines with FILP for various excitations (e.g., trapezoidal and unit step). These canonical transient responses are then expressed analytically as closed-form expressions involving incomplete Lipshitz-Hankel integrals of the first kind and Bessel functions. The closed-form expressions for these canonical responses are validated by comparing with simulation results from commercial tools like HSPICE. The DHPPM simulator can simulate transient results for various input waveforms on both single and coupled interconnect structures. Comparisons between the DHPPM results and the results produced by commercial simulation tools like HSPICE and a numerical inverse fast Fourier transform show that the DHPPM results are very accurate. View full abstract»

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  • Massively Parallel Conformal FDTD on a BlueGene Supercomputer

    Page(s): 335 - 341
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    This paper presents modeling and simulation utilizing a parallel conformal finite-difference time-domain (Yu and Mittra, 2003) code developed at the Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, on a massively parallel supercomputer. Parallelization, scalability, and application to the modeling of high-end server electrical interconnects are examined. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Current Modelling of the Skin Effect for On-Chip Interconnections

    Page(s): 342 - 349
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the skin effect for 2-D on-chip interconnections is predicted using a recently developed differential surface admittance concept. First, the features of the new approach are briefly recapitulated and details are given for a conductor with rectangular cross-section. Next, the 1-D situation is studied as a limiting case of the 2-D situation. The relationship with a local impedance formulation is investigated and illustrated with a numerical example. Finally, the new method is used to determine inductance and resistance matrices of 2-D on-chip interconnect examples with specifications taken from the international technology roadmap for semiconductors. Extra capacitance data are also provided. View full abstract»

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  • A Special Section on Electronic Part Obsolescence

    Page(s): 350
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  • 32nd International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium

    Page(s): 351
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the design, modeling, and application of interconnection systems and packaging: device packages, wafer-scale and multichip modules, TAB/BGA/SMT, electrical and thermal analysis, opto-electronic packaging, and package reliability.

This Transaction ceased production in 2010. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ganesh Subbarayan
Purdue University, School of Mechanical Engineering