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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 58
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1 - 678
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial Special Section on the 2006 Advanced Methods for Uncertainty Estimation in Measurement Workshop

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 679 - 680
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Evaluation of the Uncertainty of Edge-Detector Algorithms

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 681 - 688
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the analytical expression of the uncertainty on edge localization in image analysis applications. The analysis carried out relates analytically the uncertainty affecting the intensity of the input image to the output uncertainty of the edge detectors based on first- and second-derivative properties. The theoretical results are validated through experimental tests that are performed on real images that are acquired under typical conditions of an industrial environment View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Entropy Multivariate Analysis of Uncertain Dynamical Systems Based on the Wiener–Askey Polynomial Chaos

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 689 - 695
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (509 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many measurement models are formalized in terms of a stochastic ordinary differential equation that relates its solution to some given observables. The expression of the measurement uncertainty for the solution that is evaluated at some time instants requires the determination of its (joint) probability density function. Recently, the polynomial chaos theory (PCT) has been widely recognized as a promising technique in order to address the problem. The uncertainty estimation via PCT requires the use of a Monte Carlo integration sampling strategy. In this paper, a novel approach will be presented in order to achieve PCT uncertainty estimation on the basis of an analytical methodology, requiring only optimization calculus View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Uncertainty Estimation of Autonomous Guided Vehicle Trajectory Taking Into Account Correlated and Uncorrelated Effects

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 696 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the description of a novel uncertainty estimation method employed for the navigation of autonomous guided vehicles. In the proposed algorithm, the uncertainty of the odometric navigation system is estimated as a function of the actual maneuver being carried out, which is identified by navigation data themselves. The result is a recursive method for estimating the evolution of spatial uncertainty, which takes into account unknown systematic effects and uncorrelated effects due to kinematic model uncertainty. The method is explained starting from the measurement models and its parameters as a function of the actual maneuvers. A verification of covariance propagation estimate due to systematic effects was carried out by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method. Experimental verification was carried out using an autonomous vehicle. Compatibility between a reference environment-referred system and the uncertainty estimated by the proposed method was achieved in 95% of the trials View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Processing Measurement Uncertainty Within the Theory of Evidence: Mathematics of Random–Fuzzy Variables

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 704 - 716
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Random-fuzzy variables (RFVs) are mathematical variables defined within the theory of evidence. Their importance in measurement activities is due to the fact that they can be employed for the representation of measurement results, together with the associated uncertainty, whether its nature is random effects, systematic effects, or unknown effects. Of course, their importance and usability also depend on the fact that they can be employed for processing measurement results. This paper proposes suitable mathematics and related calculus for processing RFVs, which consider the different nature and the different behavior of the uncertainty effects. The proposed approach yields to process measurement algorithms directly in terms of RFVs so that the final measurement result (and all associated available information) is provided as an RFV View full abstract»

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  • The Principle of Maximum Entropy Applied in the Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 717 - 722
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The maximum entropy approach is a flexible and powerful tool for assigning a probability distribution to a measurable quantity treated as a random variable subjected to known moment constraints. The aim of this paper is to describe how the principle of maximum entropy may be used to transform information about the value of a quantity into a probability density function (pdf) that reflects exactly that information and nothing else. This principle will be applied to common cases of metrological interest, where different kinds of information are available. The derivation of the pdf is given in each case, and two practical examples with numerical results are reported to demonstrate the efficiency of the maximum entropy method View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Software-Related Average Current Drain Measurements in Embedded Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 723 - 730
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Performing accurate average current drain measurements of digital programmable components (e.g., microcontrollers, digital signal processors, System-on-Chip, or wireless modules) is a critical and error-prone measurement problem for embedded system manufacturers due to the impulsive time-varying behavior of the current waveforms drawn from a battery in real operating conditions. In this paper, the uncertainty contributions affecting the average current measurements when using a simple and inexpensive digital multimeter are analyzed in depth. Also, a criterion to keep the standard measurement uncertainty below a given threshold is provided. The theoretical analysis is validated by means of meaningful experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Expression of Measurement Uncertainty in a Very Limited Knowledge Context: A Possibility Theory-Based Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 731 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    At the application level, it is important to be able to define, around the measurement result, an interval which will contain an important part of the distribution of the measured values, that is, a confidence interval. This practice, which is acknowledged by the ISO Guide, is a major shift from the probabilistic representation as a confidence interval represents a set of possible values for a parameter associated with a confidence level. It can be considered as a probability-possibility transformation by viewing possibility distribution as encoding confidence intervals. In this paper, we extend previous works concerning the possibility expression of measurement uncertainty applied to situations where only very limited knowledge is available: one single measurement and unknown unimodal probability density View full abstract»

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  • Noise Parameter Estimation From Quantized Data

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 736 - 742
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (189 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the parametric estimation of the variance of white Gaussian noise is considered when available data are obtained from a quantized noisy stimulus. The Crameacuter-Rao lower bound is derived, and the statistical efficiency of a maximum-likelihood parametric estimator is discussed, along with the estimation algorithm proposed in IEEE Standard 1241 View full abstract»

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  • Indirect Measurements via a Polynomial Chaos Observer

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 743 - 752
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (750 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an innovative approach to designing algorithms for indirect measurements based on a polynomial chaos observer (PCO). A PCO allows the introduction and management of uncertainty in a process. The structure of this algorithm is based on the standard closed-loop structure of the observer that is originally introduced by Luenberger. This structure is extended here to formally include uncertainty in the measurement and in the model parameters. Possible applications of this structure are discussed View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance Low-Cost Rogowski Transducers and Accompanying Circuitry

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 753 - 759
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (907 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rogowski transducers have become an increasingly popular method of measuring current within prototyping applications and power electronics equipment due to their significant advantages compared to an equivalent current transformer. This paper presents a simple and practical construction technique of high-performance low-cost Rogowski transducers and accompanying circuitry. Experimental tests were carried out to show the validity of the proposed construction technique View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Domain Analysis for Dynamic Nonlinearity Measurement in A/D Converters

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 760 - 769
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the problem of measuring the dynamic systematic error or the dynamic input-output characteristic of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) stimulated by a sinusoidal input. First of all, it is shown that the statistical methods, although widely used, yield misleading results in dynamic conditions, i.e., when the converter characteristic presents hysteresis. Second, this paper presents a modified version of a frequency-domain method (Chebyshev test), previously developed by the authors for testing static devices. Both simulation and experimental results show that the Chebyshev test for dynamic nonlinearities is a very fast way to measure the input-output characteristic of an ADC affected by hysteresis error View full abstract»

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  • Fault-Secure Multidetector Fire Protection System for Trains

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 770 - 777
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design of a low-cost, robust, and fault-secure fire protection system for trains. This system consists of three temperature detectors and three smoke detectors, whose outputs are connected to a controller. The system produces three warning signals: fire, alarm, and cigarette. The system takes into account the presence or absence of wind and is expected to be extremely useful in cargo trains in developing countries. Also, the probability of false alarms is minimized. Finally, fault-tolerance is introduced into the system, and the increase in reliability is calculated View full abstract»

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  • DC-Amplifier-Input-Offset-Voltage Control in a Constant-Temperature Thermoresistive-Sensor-Measurement Instrument

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 778 - 783
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the effect of dc amplifier input offset voltage on the static and dynamic performances of a generic constant-temperature thermoresistive-sensor-feedback circuit (CTC) is reviewed. A negative-feedback automatic control circuit for the input offset voltage is proposed in order to assure a stable operation of the CTC and to obtain optimal response time. Experimental evaluation results of the proposed circuit performance are presented View full abstract»

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  • Low-Invasive Diagnosis of Metallic Prosthesis Osseointegration by Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 784 - 789
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a digital-measurement method for low-invasive clinical diagnosis of metallic prosthesis osseointegration is proposed. Electrical impedance spectroscopy is exploited to characterize the quality of the tissue at the interface between the bone and the prosthesis. The method overcomes current resolution limits of biological electrical-impedance analysis by means of several polarization levels. Electrical modeling through an equivalent circuit is used to define a quantitative index of osseointegration. In vitro experimental results of the proposed method validation show its sensitivity and its effectiveness in low-depth prostheses, such as in dentistry applications View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Thickness of Silver Coatings on Brass by Measuring the Impedance of a Thin Elliptic Coil

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 790 - 799
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To measure the impedance of a thin elliptically shaped coil, in presence of a flat plate with a coat of metal, can be an instrument for determination of the cladding thickness. An electromagnetic field from the coil is then forced to the object, producing eddy currents inside the object. These are influenced by the characteristics of the object and the coil and give rise to an impedance change, which can be detected and correlated to the thickness of the coating. An electromagnetic model accounting for the impedance of the elliptic coil with different values on the numerical eccentricity and the coating thickness is described. The model is based on a dyadic Green function formulation of the problem from which the electric field and hence the impedance is evaluated by utilizing the method of scattering super position. Numerical calculations based on the model and experimental measurements have been taken. An example shows how the model can be used to model a brass surface with a coat of silver to find expected impedance as function of the coating thickness View full abstract»

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  • Internet Traffic Measurement: A Critical Study of Wavelet Analysis

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 800 - 806
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (454 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In communication networks, traffic measurements serve two main purposes: the characterization of traffic-load patterns and the monitoring of performances. This paper is a study of the applicability of traffic-analysis methods as a means of detecting malfunctions and performance changes in packet data networks through measurements of selected parameters. The main contribution is of a methodological nature and is motivated by the fact that wavelet analysis, which has come to be regarded as a standard approach, is by no means a straightforward method. Controversial results can be found that are not always attributable to the complex nature of the measured object. Careful study of the uncertainty of traffic-parameter estimates is also an important issue, which turns out to be somewhat neglected in the literature. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to enhance the model validation process and, on the other hand, to provide for objective assessment of the feasibility of network-monitoring procedures that rely on measurement and model-based diagnostics View full abstract»

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  • Determining Frequency and Impulse Response Using Asymmetrical Pulses

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 807 - 813
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method is presented and analyzed for determining the impulse response and frequency response of a system using an asymmetrical stimulus signal. The considered signal is a pulse with a rapid first transition, followed by a nearly constant region, and then followed by a second transition that is much slower than the first. The advantage of such a signal is that unlike a symmetric pulse, its Fourier transform has no zeros. This allows one to divide by the Fourier transform in the data analysis. It is shown that such a pulse retains the advantages of using an impulse or steplike stimulus. Error estimates similar to those previously published for impulse and steplike stimuli are given for the asymmetric stimulus View full abstract»

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  • Let the Data Speak for Themselves

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 814 - 823
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (679 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An estimation algorithm for stationary random data automatically selects a single time-series (TS) model for a given number of observations. The parameters of that model accurately represent the spectral density and the autocovariance function of the data. The increased computational speed has given the possibility to compute hundreds of TS models and to select only one. The computer program uses a selection criterion to determine the best model type and model order from a large number of candidates. That selected model includes all statistically significant details that are present in the data, and no more. The spectral density of high-order TS models is the same as the raw periodogram, and the autocorrelation function can be the same as the lagged product (LP) estimate. Therefore, the periodogram and the LP autocorrelation function are very high-order TS candidates. However, those high-order models are never selected in practice because they contain many insignificant details. The automatic selection with the algorithm lets the data speak for themselves: a single model is selected without user interaction. The automatic program can be implemented in measurement instruments for maintenance or in radar, by automatically detecting differences in signal properties View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Implementation of IFDIA Scheme in Automotive Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 824 - 830
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes the implementation of an instrument fault detection, isolation, and accommodation (IFDIA) system developed for real-time automotive applications. The IFDIA architecture, which is based on artificial neural networks, was used to locate and accommodate faults that could occur in the main sensors involved in managing engine operation. Numerous online tests carried out in a variety of engine operating and vehicle drive conditions have confirmed the validity of the diagnostic procedure and its onboard applicability View full abstract»

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  • Aperture Jitter of Sampling System in AWGN and Fading Channels

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 831 - 839
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines aperture jitter of the sampling system and its effect on communication systems in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels. Previous studies have claimed that AWGN power is directly proportional to the jitter noise power. We demonstrate that the aperture jitter can influence the input signal of a sampling system but is independent of AWGN. The noise power, due to the aperture jitter in a frequency-nonselective slowly fading channel, is shown to be a function of the input signal, the aperture jitter, and the channel envelope. The frequency-selective slowly fading channel involves another parameter analyzable paths. The effect of the aperture jitter on the bit-error probability (BEP) of a binary-phase-shift-keying digital communication system is also considered. The received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated first, and its probability density function is derived. Then, the average BEP is evaluated as a function of SNR. Simulation results indicate that the aperture-jitter noise severely degrades the average BEP by reducing the received SNR. The results of this paper can be used in designing a wideband or radio-frequency-sampling digital communication system View full abstract»

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  • Testing Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits With Built-In Hardware—A New Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 840 - 855
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper aims to develop an approach to test analog and mixed-signal embedded-core-based system-on-chips (SOCs) with built-in hardware. In particular, oscillation-based built-in self-test (OBIST) methodology for testing analog components in mixed-signal circuits is implemented in this paper. The proposed OBIST structure is utilized for on-chip generation of oscillatory responses corresponding to the analog-circuit components. A major advantage of the OBIST method is that it does not require stimulus generators or complex response analyzers, which makes it suitable for testing analog circuits in mixed-signal SOC environments. Extensive simulation results on sample analog and mixed-signal benchmark circuits and other circuits described by netlist in HSPICE format are provided to demonstrate the feasibility, usefulness, and relevance of the proposed implementations View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the Error in Phasor Estimates From Phasorlets in Fault Voltage and Current Signals

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 856 - 866
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An assessment and reduction of the phasor-error infiltration in estimates from phasorlets are proposed in this paper through a generalized least-square formulation of the problem. It introduces a computationally simple and quick estimator that exploits the structure of the sinusoidal model and provides the finest stable phasor estimate, which is very useful for fault voltage signals. It also proposes an extended signal model, by including a dc component into the signal model, in order to allocate the phasor error, when an aperiodic component is present in the input signal. The numerical simulations illustrate the improvement in speed and accuracy of the estimates, which are obtained in decicycles, as well as its still wavering nature, which is considered as the persisting limitation of this technique View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703