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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 697 - 698
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  • Interactive Humanoids and Androids: Promise and Reality

    Page(s): 699 - 700
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  • Guest Editorial: Scanning the Issue

    Page(s): 701 - 703
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  • The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 704 - 718
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    With the more stringent regulations on emissions and fuel economy, global warming, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on developing novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable hybrid electric powertrain. This paper reviews the state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. The topologies for each category and the enabling technologies are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives

    Page(s): 719 - 728
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    Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component hardware are technically and markedly available. At present, almost all the major automotive manufacturers are developing hybrid electric vehicles, and some of them have marketed their productions, such as Toyota and Honda. This paper reviews the present technologies of HEVs in the range of drivetrain configuration, electric motor drives, and energy storages View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Page(s): 729 - 745
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the need for modeling and simulation of electric and hybrid vehicles. Different modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modeling examples. The modeling and simulation capabilities of existing tools such as Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR), PSIM, and Virtual Test Bed are demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Machines and Drives for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 746 - 765
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews the relative merits of induction, switched reluctance, and permanent-magnet (PM) brushless machines and drives for application in electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, with particular emphasis on PM brushless machines. The basic operational characteristics and design requirements, viz. a high torque/power density, high efficiency over a wide operating range, and a high maximum speed capability, as well as the latest developments, are described. Permanent-magnet brushless dc and ac machines and drives are compared in terms of their constant torque and constant power capabilities, and various PM machine topologies and their performance are reviewed. Finally, methods for enhancing the PM excitation torque and reluctance torque components and, thereby, improving the torque and power capability, are described View full abstract»

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  • Energy Management Power Converters in Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 766 - 777
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using a bidirectional dc-dc converter along with low-voltage energy storage for the high-voltage dc bus and traction motor drives has been a prominent option for hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. This paper will describe the significance of energy management power converters and their circuit topology options for efficiency, size, and cost considerations. Whether isolated or nonisolated, soft switching techniques have been widely used in high-power bidirectional dc-dc converters. Through some design examples, the component selection and circuit design optimization are discussed, and their efficiency evaluation results are also given. Major difficulties of developing a high-power bidirectional dc-dc converter are found in lack of high-power passive components and lack of multiphase dc-dc controllers. More development work needs to be done in these areas View full abstract»

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  • Power Semiconductor Devices for Hybrid, Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 778 - 789
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    Power semiconductor devices are key components in all power electronic systems, particularly in hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles. This paper reviews the system requirement and latest development of power semiconductor devices including IGBTs, freewheeling diodes, and advanced power module technology in relating to electric vehicle applications. State-of-the-art silicon device technologies, their future trends, and theoretical limits are discussed. Emerging wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as SiC devices and their potential applications in electric vehicles are also reviewed View full abstract»

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  • Development and Future Issues of High Voltage Systems for FCV

    Page(s): 790 - 795
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nissan Motor Co., Ltd, has delivered the New X-TRAIL FCV 2005 Year Model to customers in April 2006 in Japan, in which a newly developed in-house fuel cell stack and 70-MPa high-pressure hydrogen storage system are installed. For fuel cell vehicles, not only the fuel cell system and the hydrogen storage system but also the high-voltage system is very important, such as a traction motor to propel the vehicle, motors that drive some devices for the fuel cell system, a second battery that stores braking energy and assists the acceleration, inverters which supply alternating current to the prescribed motors, and converters which change voltage generated by the fuel cell stack to the specific level for each subsystems to operate. X-TRAIL FCV 2005MY has increased the performance of driving range and acceleration compared to 2003MY. We have practiced using new technologies to reduce the size reduction of the high-voltage system to achieve these performance improvements, but it still needs many improvements to make fuel cell vehicles popular to the market View full abstract»

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  • Coordinated Nonlinear Speed Control Approach for SI Engine With Alternator

    Page(s): 796 - 805
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the paper, the speed control problem for spark-ignition (SI) engine with alternator is investigated. The problem is addressed from the engine side and the alternator side, respectively, and two coordinated control schemes are proposed for two different operating modes. From the engine side, the torque produced by the alternator is treated as the external disturbance, and a state feedback controller with the magnetic torque feedforward is designed for regulating the engine speed. And from the alternator side, the engine torque ripple is considered as the external disturbance of the alternator rotational dynamics. A disturbance rejection method is proposed to achieve the L 2-gain performance for the speed servo error. Finally, to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approaches, some simulation results will be shown View full abstract»

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  • Batteries and Ultracapacitors for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 806 - 820
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of batteries and ultracapacitors in electric energy storage units for battery powered (EV) and charge sustaining and plug-in hybrid-electric (HEV and PHEV) vehicles have been studied in detail. The use of IC engines and hydrogen fuel cells as the primary energy converters for the hybrid vehicles was considered. The study focused on the use of lithium-ion batteries and carbon/carbon ultracapacitors as the energy storage technologies most likely to be used in future vehicles. The key findings of the study are as follows. 1) The energy density and power density characteristics of both battery and ultracapacitor technologies are sufficient for the design of attractive EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs. 2) Charge sustaining, engine powered hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) can be designed using either batteries or ultracapacitors with fuel economy improvements of 50% and greater. 3) Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) can be designed with effective all-electric ranges of 30-60 km using lithium-ion batteries that are relatively small. The effective fuel economy of the PHEVs can be very high (greater than 100 mpg) for long daily driving ranges (80-150 km) resulting in a large fraction (greater than 75%) of the energy to power the vehicle being grid electricity. 4) Mild hybrid-electric vehicles (MHEVs) can be designed using ultracapacitors having an energy storage capacity of 75-150 Wh. The fuel economy improvement with the ultracapacitors is 10%-15% higher than with the same weight of batteries due to the higher efficiency of the ultracapacitors and more efficient engine operation. 5) Hybrid-electric vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells can use either batteries or ultracapacitors for energy storage. Simulation results indicate the equivalent fuel economy of the fuel cell powered vehicles is 2-3 times higher than that of a gasoline fueled IC vehicle of the same weight and road load. Compared to an engine-powered HEV, the equivalent fuel economy of the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle wou- - ld be 1.66-2.0 times higher View full abstract»

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  • Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Page(s): 821 - 835
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    With ever-increasing oil prices, there is fast growing interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) globally. Thus, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop emerging energy-efficient devices for various kinds of HEVs, including the micro hybrids, mild hybrids, and full hybrids. In this paper, three key emerging energy-efficient technologies are identified and discussed: 1) the thermoelectric waste-heat recovery and temperature control systems for all hybrids, especially micro hybrids; 2) the integrated-starter-generator for mild hybrids; and 3) the electronic continuously variable transmission propulsion for full hybrids View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Charles F. Scott

    Page(s): 836 - 839
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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 840 - 841
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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Page(s): 842
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE information for authors

    Page(s): 843 - 844
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing

    Page(s): C3
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  • Coming in February the Proceedings of the IEEE

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University