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Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date May 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C2
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  • IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Mixed E B Finite Elements for Solving 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Time-Harmonic Maxwell Curl Equations

    Page(s): 313 - 315
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using a unified discretization approach based on differential forms, we describe mixed finite element methods (FEMs) in simplicial grids to solve time harmonic Maxwell curl equations in one-, two-, and three-dimensions. The proposed mixed FEM utilizes the electric field intensity Eoarr and magnetic flux density Boarras simultaneous state variables. Appropriate elements are used as interpolants for Eoarr and Boarr to satisfy the interface conditions and a discrete version of the de Rham diagram View full abstract»

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  • A Modified High Order FDTD Method Based on Wave Equation

    Page(s): 316 - 318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A modified (2M, 4) scheme of the high-order two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on wave equation is proposed. It has the fourth-order accuracy in the time domain using the symplectic integrator propagator, and the 2M-order accuracy in the space domain using the discrete singular convolution method. The distinctive features between the modified scheme and the traditional (2M, 4) FDTD based on Yee algorithm are listed as follows. First, the modified scheme is based on the wave equation. Second, the computational region is discretized by uniform mesh rather than the Yee mesh. Third, the modified scheme costs less memory than the Yee algorithm because fewer field elements are involved in computation. Numerical examples are provided to validate its accuracy and effectiveness View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Dispersion Analysis With an Improved LOD–FDTD Method

    Page(s): 319 - 321
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, a modified locally one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (LOD-FDTD) method is proposed. The dispersion behavior is investigated and compared with the conventional LOD-FDTD method. It is found that for a Courant-Friedrich-Levy number equal to 5 the modified LOD-FDTD method performs approximately 20% better than the conventional LOD-FDTD method View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Implementation of the Stretched Coordinate Perfectly Matched Layer

    Page(s): 322 - 324
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An unsplit-field and efficient algorithm to implement the stretched coordinate perfectly matched layer (SC-PML) is proposed for truncating the finite-difference time-domain lattices. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that only one auxiliary variable is required in all corners and some edges of the PML regions by means of direct discretizing the second-order differential equation and a memory-minimized algorithm. Two numerical tests have been provided to validate the proposed algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Conical Double-Dielectric Fresnel Zone Lens and Antenna

    Page(s): 325 - 327
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    A conical double-dielectric phase-reversal Fresnel-zone plate (FZP) lens is introduced. We present the lens design equations as functions of cone opening angle. As an example, the phase-reversal lens has been applied to four millimeter-wave antennas with different lens opening semi-angles: 45deg, 60deg, and 75deg (conical lenses) and 90deg (plane lens). The radiation characteristics of these antennas have been calculated and contrasted one-to-another, and to those with the same semi-angles and linear dimensions binary (half-open) FZP lens antennas. The double-dielectric FZP conical arrangement can serve as a conical antenna lens and a radome simultaneously View full abstract»

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  • A Coaxial Bragg Reflector for Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser Oscillators

    Page(s): 328 - 330
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A coaxial Bragg reflector is suggested for the application in the cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), where both the outer wall and inner rod are corrugated with weak axisymmetric-sinusoidal-ripple, and a concept design is presented. It is found that, compared to the cylindrical Bragg reflector, the coaxial Bragg reflector has larger dimensional size, narrower bandwidth, and larger eigenvalue intervals. These peculiarities are favorable to the mode selectivity, the ability of dissipating the ohmic heat on the wall, the oscillating startup of the operating mode, and machining manufacture, and therefore, this new kind of Bragg reflector can be developed into a coaxial resonator for the high-power CARMs View full abstract»

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  • A Novel 3-dB Directional Coupler With Broad Bandwidth and Compact Size Using Composite Right/Left-Handed Coplanar Waveguides

    Page(s): 331 - 333
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wideband composite right/left-handed (CRLH) coplanar waveguide (CPW) coupler with 3-dB coupling value and quadrature phase difference is presented. Compared with the conventional edge-coupled CPW coupler, this symmetrical structure, consisting of a gap capacitor, a broadside-coupled capacitor, and a meandering short-circuited stub inductor, achieves wider operating bandwidth and larger coupling level. The 3-dB CRLH CPW coupler with 0.7mm spacing between coupled lines exhibits an amplitude balance of 2dB and a phase balance of 900 plusmn 50 from 3.2 to 7.6GHz. The coupled-line length and the port impedance of the proposed structure are approximately lambda/4 and 50Omega, respectively, which makes it more compact than the cascaded CRLH microstrip coupled-line coupler. To characterize this structure, the equivalent circuit model including the unique coupling mechanism within CRLH CPWs is established and verified by measurement. The signal with less dispersion on output ports is demonstrated based on the standard deviation of group delay time View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Cul-De-Sac Filter Networks Utilizing Hybrid Couplers

    Page(s): 334 - 336
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A synthesis procedure is described for the design of Cul-De-Sac networks realizing either bandpass or bandstop filter characteristics. The prototypes comprise a pair of one-port ladder sub-networks each connected at one of the coupled ports of a 3-dB, 90deg or 180deg hybrid coupler. Numerical examples and simulated filter layouts are presented to illustrate the design methodology View full abstract»

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  • General Synthesis of N -Band Resonator Based on N -Order Dual Behavior Resonator

    Page(s): 337 - 339
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (147 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter deals with a general method and synthesis devoted to the achievement of N-band resonators. The general topology is based on the dual behavior resonator. Indeed, this kind of topology allows the independent control of different transmission zeros and resonances. Thus, the topology proposed in this study consists of a parallel association of N+1 different bandstop structures to get N bandpasses separated by a transmission zero. After introduction of the general synthesis, the principle will be validated by the achievement of a four-band resonator in microstrip technology View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Cascade Quadruplet Bandpass Filter With Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Technology

    Page(s): 340 - 342
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The broadband bandpass filter (BPF) designed with low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology has been proposed in this letter. By adopting a quadruple resonator, the broadband BPF with compact size can be fabricated. A quadruple resonator with metal-insulator-metal capacitors is employed to make inductive and capacitive couplings. The coupling scheme can create two transmission zeros at both sides of passband skirts by appropriately selecting the coupling coefficient. The center frequency and bandwidth ratio of this filter are 3.875 GHz and 50%, respectively. This filter can increase the sensitivity and linearity in the wireless communication system as well View full abstract»

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  • Miniature CPW Parallel-Coupled Bandpass Filter Based on Inductive Loaded Coupled-Lines and Lumped-Element J-Inverters

    Page(s): 343 - 345
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (214 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study presents a compact coplanar-waveguide (CPW) parallel-coupled bandpass filter (BPF) with good selectivity and stopband rejection. The inductive terminations are introduced to the conventional anti-parallel coupled-lines, and lumped-element J-inverters are employed, to achieve both size reduction and spurious suppression. Additionally, the inductive cross-coupling effect is introduced to obtain two transmission zeros to enhance the selectivity. Suitable equivalent-circuit model is also established as effective design tool. Specifically, this work demonstrates a compact cross-coupled fourth-order BPF in grounded-CPW configuration. Compared to the conventional filters, the proposed filters exhibit over 65% size reduction, improved selectivity, and wider stopbands up to four times the center frequency View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Bandpass Filter at 77 GHz in SiGe Technology

    Page(s): 346 - 348
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The implementation and characterization of an integrated passive bandpass filter at 77GHz is presented. A lumped elements filter occupying very small die area (110times60mum2, without pads) is demonstrated. It is realized with spiral inductors and metal-insulator-metal capacitors. The filter is fabricated in an advanced SiGe:C technology. It has a center frequency of 77.3GHz and a bandwidth of 12GHz. The insertion loss is 6.4dB. This is the first time that integrated inductors are used for filters at millimeter wave frequencies around 80GHz View full abstract»

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  • An Exploration of Substrate Coupling at K-Band Between a SiGe HBT Power Amplifier and a SiGe HBT Voltage-Controlled-Oscillator

    Page(s): 349 - 351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a case study of circuit-to-circuit substrate coupling between a 24-GHz power amplifier (PA) and a 23-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) implemented in a commercially-available SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor BiCMOS technology. The concurrent operation of these two circuits on the same silicon die results in -33dB of coupling between the PA's output and the VCO's output. Different testing configurations are considered to verify the dominant path of the coupling. These results highlight the potential challenges for silicon-based monolithic systems targeting microwave operational frequencies View full abstract»

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  • A Novel SiGe PIN Diode SPST Switch for Broadband T/R Module

    Page(s): 352 - 354
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel octagonal SiGe p-type intrinsic n-type (PIN) diode single pole single throw (SPST) switch is first implemented in a standard 0.18-mum SiGe BiCMOS technology. Distinctive radio frequency performance of monolithic silicon PIN diode switch is achieved for broadband applications with improvement of its geometry. Over the 2-16GHz frequency band, the PIN diode SPST switch exhibits an insertion loss of less than 1dB and isolation between 42dB to 19dB. An accurate small signal model of series PIN diode is also presented View full abstract»

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  • 1 /f Noise of Sb-Heterostructure Diodes for Pre-Amplified Detection

    Page(s): 355 - 357
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    The 1/f noise of a series of Sb-heterostructure diodes with varying area has been measured. Standard power law formulas for the frequency and voltage dependence were found adequate to summarize the data. An inverse dependence of voltage noise spectral density on the area was determined, consistent with the simple resistor model. Simulations using the noise formula predict that pre-amplification gain in the 30 to 35 db range can produce a sub-1degK noise equivalent temperature difference in realistic imaging cameras View full abstract»

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  • Extraction of Substrate Resistance in Bulk FinFETs Through RF Modeling

    Page(s): 358 - 360
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method to extract substrate resistance (Rsub) for small-sized nano-scale metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) including bulk FinFETs is proposed and compared with conventional method. The Rsub's extracted from small-size MOSFETs by using the proposed method are shown to have frequency independent characteristics, unlike those from the conventional method. Proposed equivalent circuit explains well the Rsub behavior with body width. The proposed model showed very good agreement (error in Y22~3%) with three-dimensional device simulation View full abstract»

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  • Determination and Validation of New Nonlinear FinFET Model Based on Lookup Tables

    Page(s): 361 - 363
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Fin field effect transistor (FinFET) is a multiple gate structure, which is recently emerging as a leading structure to continue the scaling of CMOS technology into the nanometer regime. This promising multiple gate structure has not only the advantage of reducing short channel effects but also of being compatible with the conventional planar CMOS technology. To our knowledge, this is the first letter addressing the nonlinear FinFET model validated by large signal network analyzer measurements. Here, we present a nonlinear FinFET model which is based on lookup tables. The accuracy of the developed model is completely and successfully verified through the comparison with nonlinear FinFET measurements View full abstract»

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  • On the RF Extrinsic Resistance Extraction for Partially-Depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Page(s): 364 - 366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have investigated the radio frequency (RF) extrinsic resistance extraction for partially-depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Although the thick buried oxide in SOI devices can block the substrate coupling, the SOI neutral-body coupling effect is significant for RF applications. An equivalent circuit considering this effect has been proposed. Based on this equivalent circuit, a new model capturing the frequency dependence of extrinsic resistances has been derived. After considering the impact of quasi-neutral body, we have developed a physically accurate RF extrinsic resistance extraction methodology for PD SOI MOSFETs View full abstract»

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  • A Low Power Folded Mixer for UWB System Applications in 0.18- \mu m CMOS Technology

    Page(s): 367 - 369
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a wideband mixer using a commercial 0.18-mum CMOS technology process for ultra-wideband (UWB) system applications. To achieve wideband frequency response and low dc power consumption for UWB system applications, the folded approach is utilized to reduce supply voltage as well as dc power consumption, and wideband input matching network is used to achieve wideband frequency response. The measured results show that the proposed mixer demonstrates a wideband frequency response from 0.2 to 16GHz with a conversion gain of better than 5.3dB. The dc power consumption is 15mW under a supply voltage of 1.8V, with a compact size of 0.68mmtimes0.65mm View full abstract»

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  • 10-GHz Highly Symmetrical Sub-Harmonic Gilbert Mixer Using GaInP/GaAs HBT Technology

    Page(s): 370 - 372
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 10-GHz sub-harmonic Gilbert mixer is demonstrated using GaInP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor technology. The local oscillator (LO) signal time-delay path in the sub-harmonic LO stage is compensated using the fully symmetrical stacked-LO doubler; therefore, the balance of the sub-harmonic LO stage, the radio frequency to intermediate frequency isolation, and IIP2 are improved. The demonstrated 10-GHz sub-harmonic mixer achieves 10 dB conversion gain, IP1dB of -12 dBm, IIP3 of 2 dBm and IIP2 of 33 dBm View full abstract»

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  • A Low Voltage Divide-by-4 Injection Locked Frequency Divider With Quadrature Outputs

    Page(s): 373 - 375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a low voltage quadrature divide-by-4 (divide4) injection-locked frequency divider (QILFD). The QILFD consists of a 1.8-GHz quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) and two NMOS switches, which are inserted into the quadrature outputs of the QVCO for signal injection. The low-voltage CMOS divide4 QILFD has been implemented with the TSMC 0.18-mum 1P6 M CMOS technology and the core power consumption is 3.12mW at the supply voltage of 1.2V. The free-running frequency of the QILFD is tunable from 1.73 to 1.99GHz, the measured phase noise of QILFD is -118dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset from the free running frequency of 1.82GHz. At the input power of 0dBm, the total locking range is from 6.86 to 8.02GHz as the tuning voltage is varied from 0 to 1.2V. The phase noise of the locked output spectrum is lower than that of free running ring oscillator by 11dBc/Hz. The phase deviation of quadrature output is about 0.8deg View full abstract»

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  • A Low Voltage and Power LC VCO Implemented With Dynamic Threshold Voltage MOSFETS

    Page(s): 376 - 378
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 1.1-GHz voltage control oscillator (VCO) using a standard 0.18-mum CMOS 1P6M process is fabricated. The VCO was designed with dynamic threshold voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and extremely-low-voltage and low power operation is achieved using on-chip transformers in positive feedback loops to swing the output signals above the supply and below the ground potential. This dual-swing capability maximizes the carrier power and achieves low-voltage performance. This VCO prototype is designed for a 0.34-V supply voltage while the output phase noise is -121.2dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency at the carrier frequency of 1.14GHz, the figure of merit is -192.0dB. The total power consumption is 103.7muW with the 0.34-V supply voltage. Tuning range is from 1.06 to 1.14GHz about 80MHz while the control voltage was tuned from 0 to 1.8V. The die area is 0.625times0.79mm2 View full abstract»

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  • Extraction Technique of Differential Second Harmonic Output in CMOS LC VCO

    Page(s): 379 - 381
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique to extract differential second harmonic output signals in a CMOS LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is introduced. In a cross-coupled n-type field effect transistor (NFET) and p-channel field effect transistor (PFET) VCO topology, the upper and lower common source nodes of the FET pairs can provide well-balanced differential second harmonic output by resonating the impedances at the common source nodes and operating the VCO in the voltage-limited regime. The idea is verified experimentally by implementing a 5.6-GHz CMOS VCO having a tunable impedance element at the common source node. The error signal power between the differential signals is measured to be -70dBm when properly tuned, which indicates almost perfect differentiality of the second harmonic output signals View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters (MWCL) publishes three page papers that focus on microwave theory, techniques and applications as they relate to components, devices, circuits, biological effects, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals.

Full Aims & Scope